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rits, whale-bone, train oil-woods of various kinds for construction, furniture, and ornament.--Coquilho,' glew, gum-fans made of feathers and of leaves; falt-petre, sponges ; - the teeth of elephants and sea-horses; parrots and other birds; ostrich feathers, apes, faguiz; the hides of oxen, and the skins of different quam drupeds, as hares, rabbits, otters, tygers, ounces, gennets, goats, chamois, &c. &c. P. 63.

The thirteenth chapter comprehends a list of the chief premiums offered and adjudged by the Royal Academy of Lifbon since the year 1783,' for various purposes of utility. In the two succeeding chapters, Dr. Dominic Vandelli, a writer of reputation, contends for the preference of agriculture to manufactures in the present state of Portugal, and offers a variety of useful remarks on fuch productions of the colonies belonging to that realm, as are not generally known, or not converted to use.

A very imperfect account is given of the constitution and government. The statutes framed at Lamego in the year 1145, are mentioned as the Magna Charta of Portugal. The laws for the punishment of murder, theft, and adultery, are these :

' Among the penal laws it is ordained, that murder shall be punished with death. If a delinquent be convicted of theft, he shall be exposed in the market-place, with his back naked, for the two first offences; for the third, he shall be branded on the forehead with a hot iron; and if he transgress a fourth time, he shall be sentenced to die; this, however, cannot be put in execution without the express order of the king.

• The law respecting adultery has its fingularity. If the parties be convicted of the offence, both the man and woman mall be committed to the flames. But if the husband pardon the adultrefs, which he fhall be at liberty to do, then the adulterer, shall be pardoned also. He who violates a lady of nobility shall forfeit his life, and all his property shall devolve on her. But if the be not of a noble family, then the violater fhall take her to wife, whether he be a nobleman or a plebeian.

• John III. in the year 1526, ordained, that delinquents found guilty of theft should not, as heretofore, be branded on the forehead. “ It is unjust,” said the king, “that persons punished, as well with a view to reform them, as for transgressing the established laws, should, after commuting their crime and reforming their conduct, carry the mark of infamy to the grave like incorrigible knaves. Besides, persons so stigmatized are shunned by the virtuous and abandoned to the company of the wicked, whereby they become more hardened in iniquity, and consequently more dangerous than before."

P. 111,

dying, and a variety of those which are medicinally valuables are found in the different provinces.

Under some of the earlier kings of Portugal, agriculture flourished; but it declined after the establishment of colonies in Asia and America. It has lately, revived, however, in some degree, though, even at present, two-thirds of the kingdom are left untilled,

With regard to the cattle, we are informed that the oxen are better and more nuinerous than is generally supposed;' but that the cows breed flowly for want of pasture; that the theep are not very numerous, and that the breed is not so good as it formerly was. The horses are few in number, and not very good; but the mules are very hardy, strong, and furefooted.'

In the chapter which treats of population and industry,' very different statements are given of the number of inhabitants : but it is probable, that two millions and a half form the whole amount. The province of Minho alone contains more. than a third part of that number. The active part of the population of the kingdom consists only of about 600,000 men, the produce of whose industry is rated by Henriques de Sele veira at 100 reis (about 6 d.) per diem, to each. The manufactories are fupposed to be about 230 ; and improvements have lately been made in many of these establishments.

The Portuguese commerce is said to be in a very flourishing state, compared with what it was at the beginning of this century.'

“The exports of Portugal are wine, oil, fpirits, falt, fugar, cotton, cork, drugs, tobacco, sweetmeats, and fruits, such as oranges, lemons, figs, almonds, nuts, for which, and all other commodities of the growth of the kingdom and of its colonies, England is certainly by far the best foreign market. The exportation of these articles, particularly the staple, wine, has fo increased of late years, whilst, on the contrary, the consumption of the staple of England has decreased in Portugal, that it is a question, whether the trade between both nations at present be not at par,

Among the articles exported from Portugal to Brazil are the following ; woollens, linens, stuffs, gold and silver lace, dried fish of the produce of the kingdom, hams, sausages, haggesses, pilchards, cheese, butter, biscuits, cakes, wine, oil, vinegar, vermi-celli, macaroni, bay leaves, walnuts, peeled chesnuts, dried plumbs, olives, onions, garlick, rosemary, and glassware of every kind manufactured at Marinha,

• The imparts from Brazil to Portugal are very numerous ; gold, filver, pearls, and precious stones of various kinds rice, wheat, maize-flour, starch, and hair-powder made of Mandioca ; fugar, malaties, sweetmeats, honey, wax, filk, cocoa, coffee, nuts, fpi

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rits, whale-bone, train oil, woods of various kinds for construction, furniture, and ornament.-Coquilho, glew, gum-fans made of feathers and of leaves; salt-petre, sponges ; - the teeth of elephants and sea-horses; parrots and other birds; ostrich feathers, apes, saguiz; the hides of oxen, and the skins of different quan drupeds, as hares, rabbits, otters, tygers, ounces, gennets, goats, chamois, &c. &c. P. 63.

The thirteenth chapter comprehends a list of the chief premiums offered and adjudged by the Royal Academy of Lifbon since the year 1783,' for various purposes of utility. In the two succeeding chapters, Dr. Dominic Vandelli, a writer of reputation, contends for the preference of agriculture to manufactures in the present state of Portugal, and offers a variety of useful remarks on fuch productions of the colonies belonging to that realm, as are not generally known, or not converted to use.

A very imperfect account is given of the constitution and government." The statutes frained at Lamego in the year 1145, are mentioned as the Magna Charta of Portugal. The laws for the punishment of murder, theft, and adultery, are these :

' Among the penal laws it is ordained, that murder shall be punished with death. If a delinquent be convicted of theft, he shall be exposed in the market-place, with his back naked, for the two first offences ; for the third, he shall be branded on the forehead with a hot iron; and if he transgress a fourth time, he shall be fentenced to die; this, however, cannot be put in execution without the express order of the king.

· The law respecting adultery has its fingularity. If the parties be convieted of the offence, both the man and woman shall be committed to the flames. But if the husband pardon the aduitreis, which he shall be at liberty to do, then the adulterer, shall be pardoned also. He who violates a lady of nobility shall forfeit his life, and all his property shall devolve on her. But if he be not of a noble family, then the violater shall take her to wife, whether he be a nobleman or a plebeian.

• John III. in the year 1526, ordained, that delinquents found guilty of theft should not, as heretofore, be branded on the forehead. " It is unjust,” said the king, “that persons punished, as well with a view to reform them, as for transgressing the established laws, should, after commuting their crime and reforming their conduct, carry the mark of infamy to the grave like incorrigible knaves. Besides, persons so ftigmatized are shunned by the virtuous and abandoned to the company of the wicked, whereby they become more hardened in iniquity, and consequently more dangerous than before."

P. IIl.

Accounts of titular honours follow. The revenue of tlie crown forms the next subject: it is estimated by some at three millions sterling, by others at four. The military establihment confists of about 24,000 men, 'the militia not being included in this number. The marine force is represented as not exceeding thirteen ships of the line and fifteen frigates.

From å sketch of the Portuguese conquests, Mr. Murphy proceeds, in a course not very regular, to the coins, the antiquities and curiosities of the realm, and the ceremonies used at the death of the sovereigns.

In the twenty-fourth chapter, he treats of manners, customs, dress, and diversions. He observes, that,

• In describing the manners and customs of the Portuguese, most travellers make a distinction between the northern and southern provinces. The former are reputed industrious, candid, and adventurous; the latter are more civil, but less sincere ; more diffimulating, and averse from labour.' All ranks are nice observers of ceremonies: in dealing with a merchant or tradesman, some years ago, it would have been less dangerous to fail in payment of a debt than a point of etiquette. This oftentation, however, is much worn off at present, by their communication with the northern nations, whom, in opposition to every difference in religious sentiments, they esteem and imitate.

• The manners and customs of the Jews and Moors, which had taken deep root in the country, are not yet eradicated ; many ves. tiges are still discernible, particularly among the inhabitants of the interior provinces, who have little or no intercourse with strangers. The descendants of the latter are very numerous; they are diftinguished by the round face, regular features, swarthy complexion, black hair, and sparkling eyes. From these people are derived the bull-feasts, and the custom of fitting cross-legged on cushions. The jealousy of the Portuguese too may be traced to the fame source. The pensive folitary manners of the Jews, their love of onions, garlic, and plaintive music, still obtain in a few villageso? P. 136.

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Among the middling and subordinate ranks, the females especially, there is very little intercourse, except fortuitous meetings in the churches and streets. Every class of tradefinen has a diItinct oratory, supported by the voluntary contributions of their society ; here they assemble every evening, before fupper, to chaunt vespers. They rarely visit each other's houses but on particular occafions, as weddings and christenings; and then they entertain very sumptuously, or rather satiate with profufion.' P. 138. Of the Portuguese women it is remarked, that they

are rather below than above the middle stature, but graceful

P. 139.

not very

and beautiful. No females are lefs studious of enhancing their attractions by artificial means, or counterfeiting, by paltry arts, the charms that nature has withheld. To the most regular features, they add a sprightly disposition and captivating carriage. The round face, and full fed form, are more esteemed in this country, than the long tapering visage and thin delicate frame.' It appears, that the accomplishments of these females are

considerable. • One of their principal employments is fpinning flax, for which they still use the spindle and diftaff. The women of the province of Minho are so celebrated for this branch of industry, that formerly it was customary to conduct the bride to the house of her spouse, preceded by a youth carrying a spinning apparatus. In the houses of the most respectable merchants, traders, and fariners, the female part of the family disdain not to occupy their time in this manner. Accomplishments, such as people of very humble circumstances in England commonly bestow on their daughters, as dancing, mufic, drawing, and languages, are unknown here; even among ladies of the first rank.'

P. 141. In a review of the “ genius and learning' of the Portuguese, mention is made of several writers whose names are scarcely known beyond the limits of their native country; and among them we find a female poet and philofopher (Ferreira da Lacerda), whose works (lays our author) « are held in high efteem.'

• Except in the reign of John V. they (the Portuguese] do not appear to have been very ambitious of obtaining a distinguished rank in the republic of letters. The wars and enterprises in which they were constantly engaged till the end of king Sebastian's reign, seem to have diverted their attention from literary pursuits; and yet it is remarkable, that the best poets, historians, and geographers they have to boast of, have flourished in the most active periods of their monarchy' P. 157.

The reign of John V, who did not ascend the throne before the year 1706, is here mentioned in such a manner, with relation to the subject of literature, as if it had immediately followed that of Sebastian, who lost his life in 1578.

• The species of writing in which, perhaps, they succeed best is românce: their fondness for the marvellous, their quick and fer-, tile talents, and averfion from profound and laborious studies, are peculiarly favourable to subjects of this kind.

Among the fine arts, music, I believe, is the only one in which the Portuguese have excelled. The compositions of John IV. of Cordoso, and Soares, are well known in different parts of Europe,

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