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manner in which the dinner was served ; and would certainly have precluded my noticing the distressing inconvenience these valuable people fabour under, in the want of almost all the common and molt neceffary utenfils of life, had I not been taught to expect that this colony was in a very different stage of improvement, and that its inhabitants were infinitely more comfortably circumftanced.
• After dinner we were engaged in an entertaining conversation, in which, by the allistance of Mr. Dobson our interpreter, we were each able to bear a part. Amongst other things I understood, that this mission was eltablished in the year 1775, and the Presidio of St. Francisco in 1778, and that they were the northernmost settlements, of any description, formed by the court of Spain on the continental hore of North-West America, or the ilands adjacent, exclusive of Nootka, which I did not consider as coining under that description any more than the temporary eftablishment which, in the preceding spring had been formed by Sen* Quadra near cape Flattery, at the entrance of the straits of Juara De Fuca; and which has been already stated to be intirely evacuated. The excursions of the Spaniards seemed to be confined to the neighbourhood of their immediate place of residence, and the direct line of country beween one station and another ; as they have no vessels for embarkation excepting the native canoe, and an old rotten wooden one, which was lying near our landing place. Had they proper boats on this spacious sheet of water, their journies would not only be much facilitated, but it would afford a very agreeable variety in their manner of life, and help to pass away many of the solitary and wearisome hours which they must una. voidably experience. I understood that the opposite fide of the port had been visited by some soldiers on horse-back, who obtained but little information ; some converted Indians were found living amongst the natives of the northern and western parts of the port, who were esteemed by the Spaniards to be a docile, and in general a well-disposed people ; though little communication took place between them and the inhabitants of this side. The missionaries found no difficulty in subjecting these people to their authority. It is mild and charitable, teaches them the cultivation of the foil, and introduces amongst them such of the useful arts as are most essential to the comforts of human nature and social life. It is much to be wished, that these benevolent exertions may succeed, though there is every appearance that their progress will be very ilow; yet they will probably lay a foundation, on which the posterity of the present race may secure to themselves the enjoyment of civil society' Vol. ii. P. 14.
Another mission is that of St. Clare, about forty miles diftant, through a country highly beautiful. The ecclefiastics of this establishment live in the same Nyle as those of the
former miflion, but cultivate grain in greater quantities; which the fertile soil affords, with little assistance from the labour or skill of the husbandman. Trees grow here in profufion to
a considerable size. The natives were found to be in a very barbarous state ; but the Spaniards were endeavouring to civilife them; and we hope, for the honour of human nature, that such efforts will be successful.
At Monte Rey, our navigators were received with extraordinary benevolence and hospitality. The latitude of this settlement is about 36° 36' 20", and the longitude 238° 25' 45. It differs little from that of St. Franciico, except that it is better defended and more actively cultivated.
(To be continued.)
Transactions of the Linnean Society. Vol. III. 410. 11. 55. Boards. White.
1797 THIS volume, like the two former, contains some interesting articles, and others of a more trifling kind; but all are of fome consequence, as the slightest shades contribute to the beauty of a picture, and the ininutest links of the scientific chain unite the moit impobant subjects. The first article comprehends "Observations respecting fome rare British Infects.
Ву the late Mr. William Lewin, F.L.S.'
These insects are two species of sphinx, viz. the f. apiformis and f. crabroniformis (the lunar hornet), the phalæna trifolii, and the ichneumon chryfopus.
II. · A curious Fact in the Natural History of the conmon Mole, Talpa Europæa, Linn. By Arthur Bruce, Esq. Secretary to the Natural History Society of Edinburgh.'
As this paper is curious and not long, we shall transcribe the whole,
That the mole does, in common with other quadrupeds and mat, poffefs that spirit of curiosity which prompts to emigration and even to transmarine expeditions, I found out last summer from the best authenticated facts.
«Io visiting the Loch of Clunie, which I often did, I observed in it a linall island at the distance of 180 yards from the nearest land, measured to be so upon the ice. Upon the island, lord Aily, the proprietor, has a cattle and small shrubbery: I'observed frequently the appearance of fresh mole-casts, or hills. I for some time took it to be the water-mouse, and one day asked
the gardener if it was fo? No, he said, it was the mole; and that
he had caught one or two lately. But that five or fix years ago he had caught two in traps; and for two years after this he had observed none. But about four years ago, coming alhore in a fummer's evening in the dusk, the 4th or gth of June, 10 o'clock P. M. he and another respectable person, lord Airly's butler, faw, at a small distance „pon the smooth water some animal paddling to, and not far distant from the island. They soon, too soon! closed with this feeble passenger, and found it to be our common mole, led by a most astonishing instinct from the nearest point of land (the castle hill) to take possession of this desert iland. It was at this time for about the space of two years quite free from any, subterraneous inhabitant; but the mole has for more than a year past made its appearance agairi, and its operations I was witness to,
• In the history of this animal I do not at present recollect any fact so striking; especially when we consider the great depth of the water, both in summer and winter---from fix to ten, fifteen, and fome places as deep as thirty or forty feet, all round the island.
III. · A History of three Species of. Caffida. By the Rev. William Kirby, of Barhain, A. L. S.' This article furnishes no infořination but to the most
eager, and leaft delicate, entomologist.
IV. Obfervations relating to the Migrațion of Birds. By Édinund Lambert, Esq. of Boyton near Heytesbury, Wilts. In a Letter to William Markwick, Esq. F. L. S.'
The few facts contained in this paper ate curious : some we shall select.
The woodcock I once faw the first of October, N: S. in this inland country ; and a couple was shot this present season that very fame day on some heath about three miles from my house. But a person living at Uphill, the nearest point of land to the Steep Holms in the Bristol channels and who rented that little island for the use of fishing, assured me he never knew the month of Sep. tember pass without seeing woodcocks on that island. I have had two nests in my wood ; the last was in the year 1789. It had four eggs. The old bird was loth to get out of the nest; as she had fat, as near as I could guess, about a fortnight. I took one of the eggs and blew it; and have it by me now. But I do not be. lieve the young ones are ever bred up in this country to be fliot at; as you have beard : for Mr. Seymer had one lived all the fummer in a coppice near his house; and though it was a place well calculated to maimain a bird that lived on fuction, yet the bird loft almost all his feathers, and could not fly for fome time, fo that it was often caught: but in the autumn it recovered its feathers and ftrengthi, and flew away. This I had from Mr. Seymer himself, and other gentlemen whom he used to fhew the bird to. C&It. Rev. VOL. XXIV. Norto 1798.
Suipe. 6. The fuipes breed in great numbers on the bogs in the Nepali Forest, Hants; and always come to us in September, and sometimes in Auguft. Some years ago two neighbours sent me five couple the fecond week in Auguft, telling me at the same time they never saw them more plentiful in winter. I went out the 15th myfelf, and killed three couple in a little tiine; and the weather being extremely hot, I was obliged to come home before I intend. ed it. They were in as good condition as in winter.'
P. 13. We have seen the woodcock, in the fouth of England, before the end of September. The bird, in the circumstance mentioned, probably lost its feathers in consequence of the drying of the ponds, or at least the diminution of their depth ; and, perhaps, from the metamorphosis of the infeas on which it fed.
The antipathy of the rook to the raven, mentioned in this paper, is not generally known. The latter will not suffer any bird to come within a quarter of a mile of its neit, and car-. ries the young rooks away as food for its own nchlings.
V. Account of the Canis Graius Hibernicus, or Irilli Wolf Dog, described in Pennant's History of Quadrupeds, 30 Elit. Vol. 1. p. 241. By A. B. Lambert, Esq. F. R. and F.L.S.
The breed of the Irish wolf-dog has greatly degenerated, and will foon be loft. At present it fcarcely exceeds twentyeight inches in height. In appearance it rescmbles an English maitiff.
In a letter from the earl of Altamont, published at the end of the volume, among the extracts from the minutebook, we find that there were originally two kinds, the greyhound and the mastiff wolf-dog. The figure, before us, is of the latter variety : both kinds are harmless and indolent. It was formerly the custom to hunt wolves with them; and a man, called Bryan Scahil, who was living, and in his 1 19th year, when the earl wrote the letter, remembered huntings of this kind in Ireland as a common sport. A vast number of dogs were collected, and, among thein, were some wolf-dogs, which were kept almost exclutively by gentlemen. Other dogs were probably necessary, as the scent of the wolf-dog is very weak.
VI. - The Botanical Hillory of Mentha Exigura. By James Edward Smith, M. D. F.R.S. P.L.S.
This is a curious history of the minuter kind. The mena tha exigua was introduced into the Englith Flora by the lasty. inattention of Linnæus, and continued in it from too grear deference to the dicta of the Swedish naturalist. The plant sent to hiin by Miller was not the m, exigua, but was biore,
probably the m. gentilis. A supposed m. exigua growing, in appearance spontaneously, in a garden at Ipswich, proves to be an American plant, brought accidentally in the mould surrounding the roots of other plants.
VII. Observations on the Economy of the Ichneumon Manifestator Linn. By Thomas Marshamn, Esq. Sec. L. S.'
These observations are introduced by some remarks on the general care of animals, in watching over the early period of the lives of their young ones, and the anxiety of infects, which cannot attend that period, to place the ova where the larve may find nourishment and support. This leads Mr. Marsham to speak of the parasitical infects, and particularly the ich
Thefe minute animals lay their eggs on the larvæ, and sometimes on the eggs of other insects, destroying, in the former instance, their foster-parent, by a lingering atrophy, and preventing its existence in the latter. Some curious observations on the i. manifestator, which seeks the nests of the apis maxillofa, and depofits its ova on her's, follow.
VIII. • Description of a new Species of Opercularia. By Mr. Thomas Young, F. R. and L. S.'
The genus opercularia is in the class of aggregatæ ; and its place, in Linnæus, is between the `allionia and the knautia ; in Ginelin's edition, between the crinita and evea. This fpecies is the 60. paleata receptaculo globoso paleaceo. It grew, spontaneously, in the garden of Mr. Curtis, in 1793, in some mouli brought froin New-Holland.
IX. · Descriptions of Eight new Fithes from Sumatra. By Mr. Mungo Park, A.L.S.
These are the chætodon canaliculatus and trifasciatus ; the perca lunulata, aurata, and Sumatrenfis; the scomber filamentofus; the balistes niger and undulatus.
X. - Lindfæa, a new Genus of Ferns. By Jonas Dryander, M. A. Libr. R. S. and F. L. S.'
This genus resembles both the adiantum and pteris, but differs fufficiently to establish its species under a different name. Nine species are described, and illustrated by plates. They are chiefly new; but some of them have already been defcribed, under the genus of adiantum, by Aublet and Swartz.
XI. On a Species of Teslina, not described by Linnæus. By William George Maton, A. B. F. L. S.'
This tellina is found on the chalky parts of the bed of the river Avon, and is styled t. rivalis. It has hitherto been confounded with the t, cornea.
XII. Observations upon the Generic Character of Ulva, with Descriptions of some new Species. By Thomas Jenkinson Woodward, Esq. F.L.S. The genus ulva, it is remarked, consists at prefent of lpe.