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cannibals. The inhabitants were few, and not stationary, as decayed habitations were not uncommon.
• From these circumstances alone, it may be somewhat premature to conclude that this delightful country has always been thus thinly inhabited ; on the contrary, there are reasons to believe it has been infinitely more populous. Each of the deserted villages was nearly, if not quite, equal to contain all the scattered inbabitants we saw, according to the customs of the Nootka people; to whom these have great affinity in their perfons, fashions, wants, comforts, construction of these their fixed habitations, and in their general character. It is also poffible, that most of the clear spaces' may have been indebted, for the removal of their timber and underwood, to manual labour. Their general appearance furnifhed this opinion, and their fituation on the moft pleasant and commanding eminences, protected by the foreft on every fide, except that which would have precluded a view of the fea, seemed to en. courage the idea. Not many years since, each of these vacant places might have been allotted to the habitations of different focieties, and the variation observed in their extent might have been conformable to the size of each village ; on the fcite of whiching fince their abdication, or extermination, nothing but the smaller Hrubs and plants had yet been able to rear their heads,
« In our different excursions, particularly those in the neighbourhood of port Discovery, the sçull, limbs, ribs, and back bones, or some other vestiges of the human body, were found in many places promiscuously scattered about the beach, in great numbers. Similar relics were also frequently met with during our survey in the boats; and I was informed by the officers, that in their several perambulations, the like appearances had presented themselves fo repeatedly, and in fuch abundance, as to produce an idea that the environs of port Discovery were a general cemetery for the whole of the surrounding country, Notwithstanding these circumstances do not amount to a direct proof of the extenfive population they indicate, yet, when combined with other appearances, they warranted an opinion, that at no very remote period this country had been far more populous than at presente Some of the human bodies were found dispofed of in a very fingular manner. Canoes were suspended between two or more trees about twelve feet from the ground, in which were the skeletons of two or three persons; others of a larger size were hauled up into the outskirts of the woods, which contained from four to feven skeletons covered over with a broad plank. In fonie of these. broken bows and arrows were found, which at first gave rise to a conjecture, that these might have been warriors, who after being . mortally wounded had, whilst their strength remained, hauled up their canoe for the purpose of expiring quietly in them. But on a further examinacion this became improbable, as it would handly
have been possible to have preserved the regularity of position in the agonies of death, or to have defended their sepulchres with the broad plank with which each was covered.'
Vol. i, P. 254. The eastern fide was equally pleasant, and, in appearance, equally fertile. Dogs were numerous ; and they seemed to be of the Pomeranian kind, with hair unusually fine and matted. Of the hair of these dogs, seemingly inixed with the wool of some other animal, the inhabitants manufactured their clothes. Ornamental articles and copper were the objects which they chiefly wished to procure from the strang
Proceeding to the northward, the captain examined every inlet on the western coast. About 49° 20', an opening occurred; but it ended in thoals. Another apparent passage, equally fallacious, occurred in 49° 35'.
With regard to the longitude, that of Port Discovery is 237° 20', east of Greenwich ; that of the opening, in 490 20', is nearly 237o; that of the second is 236].
Our voyagers were now behind a cluster of islands, passing through a channel which terminated in Queen Charlotte's Sound, in lat. 51°. The coast, on the east, might be fairly considered as the continent; and, after the very careful examination of the shore, and of all the inlets in the strait of De Fuca, it may be concluded with certainty that no passage exists below that point of northern latitude.
Visiting the inhabitants of Nooika, the captain found them, in their commercial dealings, open and candid, but well acquainted with the value of their commodities, which the avarice of successive traders had greatly advanced. Their reception of him was hospitable, and their behaviour kind and friendly.
After passing Queen Charlotte's Sound, he surveyed the coast to the cast of Calvert's Iftand with great attention, but without success in the principal object. When he had advanced to Point Menzies, in lat. 52° 18', various reasons, which we need not mention, induced him to return 10 Nootka. At this settlement, the conduct of the Spanish commander was, at first, candid and friendly ; but, at last, suspicious and undecided. He seemed unwilling to cede any ground, but a few yards on which Mr. Meares' hut stood; and proposed that Nootka, and the land north of De Fuca's Strait, should be considered as neutral. His narrative of the capture of Noorka differed inaterially from that of Mr. Meares; and the damages, in lois estimation, were trifling. Captain Vancouver, with great propriety, accepted the resig, nation provitionally, leaving the final settlement to the miniAters of Great Britain and Spain. The Spanish commander
amply supplied the wants of our voyagers, left them his whole stock, and communicated the discoveries which his countrymen had made.
Of the continent to the east of Nootka, captain Vancouver took formal poffeffion in the name of his majesty, and called it New Georgia. To the found a fimilar appellation was given. The island of Nootka had the conjoined names of the two commanders, Quadra and Vancouver.
In lat. 46° 10' is a river, called (from the ship which first discovered it) Columbia. This river captain Vancouve. could not enter ; and the information respecting it was derived from the Chatham. The Discovery had experienced bad weather; and the scurvy began to appear among the crew: the captain therefore repaired to the Spanish port of St. Francisco, which he reached in November 1792.
The course of the river Columbia is successively east, south, and east. In its whole extent, the irregular foundings and shallows would prevent it from affording a practicable passage, if its being in any respect such were probable. The foundings however diminished; the shores were gradually nearer ; and a constant current downward, at every period of the tide, showed that a body of water was pouring down from higher lands.
• This bay, besides affording good and secure anchorage, is convenient for procuring wood and water ; and, by keeping upon good terms with the natives, who seemed much inclined to be friendly, a supply of fish, and other refreshments, may easily be obtained. The heavy and confused swell that in bad weather conftantly rolls in from the sea over its shallow entrance, and breaks in ž fathoms water, renders the space between Baker's bay and Chenoke point a very indifferent roadstead. Cape Disappointment is formed by high steep precipices, covered with coarse grass, the fides and tops of the hills with pine trees. Point Adams being the south-east point of entrance is low and sandy, from whence the country rises with a gradual ascent, and produces pine and other trees. Any further nautical information that may be required will be better obtained by reference to the sketch.
• With respect to its natural productions, and other interesting matter ; the weather experienced on board the vessel having uniformly been similar to that afterwards encountered at sea, precluded any competent knowledge being acquired. The trees principally composing the forest, were pines of different kinds, growing to ą large size, but were unequal to those of Nootka. Near the waterfide were found maple, alder, and alh, and at some distance up the river, beside these, the oak, poplar, and oriental strawberry tree were produced, with many other foreft trees, unknown to the gentlemen, who made a short excursion into the country, and who
were only able to judge of the indigenous quádrupedes or animals, by the skins the natives wore or brought to barter ; these were similar to those found on other parts of the coast. The birds that were procured, were large brown cranes, white swans, white and brown geese, ducks, partridges, and fnipes; a variety of others were seen, that could not be taken. All that were brought on board, excepting the brown cranes, proved excellent at table. « The river seemed to abound with filh, from the supply the natives provided, consisting of two forts of falmon, both very good; sturgeon of a large size and very fine flavour, with silver bream, herrings, Aat fith, and foirdinias; of these four last forts some were caught in the seine. The skirts of the woods afforded a: moft excellent green vegetable, resembling in appearance and tafte the turnip-top when young. A bulbous root, about the size, and not unlike the crocus, that ate much like mealy potatoe, wild mint, ground ivy, and wild lavender ; all these the natives make great use of, together with berries of various kinds, particularly the cranberry, of a most excellent flavor, and the first we had seen on this coaft.
• The natives differed in nothing very materially from those we had visited during the summer, but in the decoration of their perfons; in this respect, they furpafled all the other tribes with paints of different colours, feathers, and other ornaments. Their houses seemed to be more comfortable than thofe at Nootka, the roof having a greater inclination, and the planking being thatched over with the bark of trees. The entrance is through a hole, in a broad plank, covered in such a manner as to resemble the face of a man, the mouth serving the purpose of a door-way. The fireplace is funk into the earth, and confined from spreading above by a wooden fraine. The inhabitants are universally addicted to smoking. Their pipe is fimilar to curs in shape; the bowl is made of very hard wood, and is externally ornamented with carvings; the tube, about two feet long, is made of a small branch of the elder. In this they smoke an herb, which the country produces, of a very mild nature, and by no means unpleafant; they however took great pleasure in smoking our tobacco; hence it is natural to conclude, it might become a valuable article of traffic amongst them. In most other respects they resemble their neighbours, as to their manners and mode of living, being equally filthy and uncleanly.
* The soil of the low ground was mostly a stiff, rich clay, ca. pable to all appearance of being made very productive; that on the high land amongst the pine trees, a black mould, seemingly composed of decayed vegetables. Vol. ii. P. 176.
The Dædalus, ftore-ship, fent out with a supply to captain Vancouver, discovered some ifles between the Marquesas and Sandwich Islands, fcattered from seven to nine degrees of la
titude, and from 1390 to 140° of longitude, west from Greena wich. : The inhabitants' appeared to be civil; but they were thievish, and feemingly perfidious. In these feas, lieutenant Hergest was once in considerable danger, from wlrich he efcaped with great ability; but he did not live to rejoin captain': Vancouver. Going on shore unarmed, with few attendants at Woahoo (one of the Sandwich Islands), he was surrounded, stripped, and murdered, falling a victim, like M. de l’Angle in the voyage of La Péroufe, to too great confidence and security.
At Port Francisco, in about 37° 50' N. Jatitude, our navigators received every assistance which the establishment could afford. The good 'fathers of the mission are rich in flocks and herds, but poor in grain, and in luxuries. This most northern settlement of Spain on the shores of the Pacific, is weakly defended; and the friars depend more on their perfo="; nal influence and their holy functions, than on their power. The female Indians are employed in manufacturing wool, and are confined to the district of the mission, as hostages for the fidelity of their relatives. The men of this neighbourhood are indolent, nafty, and careless in the highest de-. gree.
The port of St. Francifco is, in captain Vancouver's opis: nion, one of the finest in the world; the foundings are good, and the harbour is well sheltered. It seems to want wood and water ; but these wants, by farther examination, may, he thinks, be supplied.
• Close by stood, the church, which for its magnitude, architecture, and internal decorations, did great credit to the constructors of it; and presented a striking contrast between the exertions of genius, and such as bare neceflity is capable of fuggefting. The raising and decorating this edifice appeared to have greatly attracted the attention of the fathers; and the comforts they might have provided in their own humble habitations, seemed to have been totally facrificed to the accomplishment of this favorite object. Even their garden, an object of such material importance, had not yet acquired any great degree of cultivation, though its soil was a rich black mould, and promised an ample return for any labour that might be bestowed upon it. The whole contained about four acres, was tolerably well fenced in, and produced some fig, peach, apple, and other fruit-trees, but afforded, a very scanty supply of useful vegetables ; the principal part lying waste and over-run with weeds.
« On our return to the convent, we found a most excellent and abundant repaft provided of beef, mutton, fish, fowls, and such vegetables as their garden afforded. The attentive and hospitable behaviour of our new friends amply compensated for the homely