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never have migrated from India to Iran, because they are expressly forbidden by their oldeit existing laws to leave the region which they inbabit at this day ; the Arabs have not even a tradition of an emigration into Persia before Mohammed, nor had they indeed any inducement to quit their beautiful and extensive domains ; and as to the Tartars, we have no trace in history of their departure from their plains and foreits till the invasion of the Medes, who, according to etymologists, were the fons of Madai ; and even they were conducted by princes of an Assyrian family. The three races therefore, whom we have already mentioned (and more than three we have not yet found), migrated from Iràn, as from their common country. And thus the Saxon chronicle, I presume from good authority, brings the first inhabitants of Britain from Armenia; while a late very learned writer concludes; after all his laborious researches, that the Goths or Scythians came from Perfia; and another contends with great force, that boin the Irish and old Britons proceeded severally from the borders of the Caspian; a coincidence of conclusions from different media, by persons wholiy unconnected, which could scarce have happened, if they were not grounded on folid principles. We may therefore hold this propofition firmly established, that Iràn, or Persia in its largest fense, was the true center of population, of knowledge, of languages, and of arts; which, inftead of travelling westward only, as it has been fancifully supposed, or eastward, as might with equal reason have been afferted, were expanded in all directions to all the regions of the world in which the Hindu race had fettled under various denominations. But, whether Asia has not pro. duced other races of men distinct fro the Hindus, the Arabs, or the Tartars, or whether any apparent diversity may not have sprung from an intermixture of those three in different proportions, must be the subject of a future enquiry.'
The seventh discourse treats of the Chinese. The author's object is to inquire whence the nation, that peopled China before the Tartarian conqueft, was derived The various fyllems of different writers on this subject are examined; but the only opinion which fir William thinks defensible, is . that which derives the Chinese from the Hindoos. In the institutes of Menu, it is observed, that fome military tribes, having gradually abandoned the ordinances of the Veda, lived in a state of degradation. Among these are the Chinas. Whether these were the Chinese, is doubtful; but no real argument opposes the Indian authority; and, as, in early ages, the population of China is said to have been confined to the north-west, it is corroborated by or George Staunton's remark, that the fouthern country was once.com vered by the sea. From the same authority, we learn a fact, supporting in some degree che idea of a foreign population;
for the aborigines of Cochin-China are described as of coarse features, rude manners, and black complexions. There is reason to think that the whole of this part of the continent was once peopled with the Troglodytæ of the ancients ; a race which, in the Arabian fi&ions, gave birth to the ferocious black giants. The Budha of the Hindoos is the Fo of China ; but, before his appearance, the religion appears to have been that of the Bramins; and fir George describes many remaining idols, which, on comparison with those of Hindoftan, and from their fimilitude to the deities of Greece, as pointed out by fir William Jones in the first volume of the Researches, fcem to support this opinion. Three great
families of nations are therefore found in the eastern regions; the Persians (the parents of the Hindoos and Chinese), the Tartars, and the Arabs : but, before fir William draws his conclusions, he examines the more uncultivated people on the confines of these vast countries.
The prelident begins from the western coast of Alia, viz. Idume, Erythra, or Phænice. The inhabitants of this part, distinguished in sacred writ by the name of Edomites, were an Indian race, migrating to Egypt, perhaps conquering that country, and fending forth, in their proiperity or on their dispersion, various colonies, to which Greece probably owed her inhabitants. Sir Williain admits that Evander and his Arcadians were of this race ; but, if we had sufficient leisure or room, we could extend the argument, so as to include the other colonias supposed to have been Egyptians. From the knowledge which these Edomites had, in an early period, of letters, astronomy, &c. they are supposed by our author to have been of an eastern stock, since the eait was at that time the great source of science. He might have referred theni, inore ftri&tly and accurately, to the Chaldean race, forming with the Hindoos, the earliest divarication from the original trunk in Persia. On the other side of the Red Sea, we find the Æthiopic or the Abyssinian race, proceeding from the same source; and the Curds, who inhabit the branches of Taurus, or the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, still speak the Chaldaic language.
The principal inhabitants of the mountains, which separate Perfia from India, were destroyed or expelled by the Afghans, whom we find to have been Jews. Near the mouth of the Indus is the Sangada of Ncarchus, the country of the Sanganians, Zinganians, or Zinganos, who have rambled over Europe, distinguished by the name of Gipties. Their origin is certainly Indian ; for the most common appellations which CRIT. Rev. Vol. XXIV. Nov. 1798.
they use for necessary articles, are pure Sanfcrit. The Boras, who inhabit the towns of Gujurat, are Jews in features, gerius, and manners, having probably einigrated with the Afghans. The Moplas, of the western parts of the Indian empire, appear by their books to be Arabians. The wild races of the inountains are Indians, mingled with Tartars.
The ifands of the Indian Ocean, particularly Ceylon and Sumatra, received their inhabitants from Hindoftan; and the fame race feems to have extended itself, very widely, to the eart and to the south.
To the north ward of India, the inhabitants of Thibet are of the Hindoo race; and some neighbouring tribes, which in manners are seemingly Tartars, may rather, having a wriuen language, be referred to Hindoftan.
In the last effay on this subject, the writer says,
• Let us begin with a short review of the propositions, to which we kave gradually been led, and separate such as are morally certairs, from such as are only probable: that the first race of Per., fians and Indians, to whom we may add the Romans and Greeks, the Goths, and the old Egyptians or Ethiops, originally spoke the Came language and proferred the fame popular faith, is capable, in my humble opinion, of inconteftible proof; that the Jews and Araizs, the Aflyrians, or fecond Persian race, the people who spoke Syriack, and a numerous tribe of Abyliinians, used one primitive dialect, wholly dilinct from the idiom just mentioned, is, I believe, undisputed, and, I am sure, indisputable ; but that the settlers in China and Japan had a common origin with the Hindus, is no trore than highly probable ; and, that all the Tartars, as they are inaccurately called, were primarily of a third separate branch, totally differing from the two others in language, manners, and featares, way indeed be plausibly conjectured, but cannot from the reasons alledged in a former effay, be perspicuously town, and for the present, therefore, inust be merely aftuned. Could these facts be verified by the beit attainable evidence, it would not, I pyrefume, be doubted, that the whole earth was peopled by a variety of floots from the Indian, Arabian, and Tartarian branches, or by such intermixtures of them, as, in a course of ages, migi. naturally have happened.'
The conclufion, which we consider as founded on evidence the most fatisfactory, and reasoning the most accurate, that the present state of historical knowiedge will admit, we will give in our author's words.
* From the testimonies adduced in the last fix annual discourses, and from the additional proofs laid before you, or rather opened,
on the present occafion, it seems to follow, that the only human family after the flood established themselves in the northern parts of Iràn; that, as they multiplied, they were divided into three distinct branches, each retaining little at first, and losing the whole by degrees, of their common primary language, but agreeing severally on new expressions, for new ideas : that the branch of Y'afer was enlarged in many scattered shoots over the north of Europe and Aha, diffusing themselves as far as the western and eastern seas, and at length, in the infancy of navigation, beyond them both; that they cultivated no liberal arts, and had no use of letters, but formed a variety of diale&ts, as their tribes were variously ramified; that, secondly, the children of Ham, who founded, in Iran itself, the monarchy of the first Chaldeans, invented letters, observed and named the luminaries of the firmament, calculated the known Indian period of four hundred and thirty-two thousand years, or an hundred and twenty repetitions of the faros, and contrived the old fyftem of mythology, partly allegorical, and partly grounded on idolatrous veneration, for their fages and lawgivers; that they were dispersed, at various intervals, and in various colonies, over land and ocean ; that the tribes of Misr, Cunh, and Rama, settled in Africk and India; while fome of them, having improved the art of failing, passed from Egypt, Phenice, and Phrygia, into Italy and Greece, which they found thinly peopled by former emigrants, of whom they supplanted some tribes, and united themselves with others; whilst a swarm, from the same hive, moved, by a northerly course, into Scandinavia, and another, by the head of the Oxus, and through the passes of Imaus into Caingar and Eighúr, Khatá, and Khoten, as far as the territories of Chin and Tancút, where letters have been used and arts immemorially cultivated ; nor is it unreasonable to believe, that some of them found their way from the eastern isles into Mexico aud Peru, where traces were disa covered of rude literature and mythology analogous to those of Egypt and India ; that, thirdly, the old Chaldean empire being overthrown by the Assyrians under Cayúmers, other migrations took place, especially into India, while the rest of Sham's progeny, some of whom had before settled on the Red Sea, peopled the whole Arabian peninsula, presling close on the nations of Syria and Phenice ; that, lastly, from all the three families, were detached many bold adventurers, of an ardent spirit, and roving difposition, who disdained subordination and wandered in separate clans, till they settled in diftant illes, or in deserts and mountainous regions; that, on the whole, fome colonies might have migrated before the death of their venerable progenitor, but that states and empires could scarce have assumed a regular form, till fifteen or fixteen hundred years before the Christian epoch, and that for the first thoa sand years of that period, we have no hiftory, unnixed
with fable, except that of the turbulent and variable, but eminently distinguillied nation descended from Abraham.'
We shall disiniss this work for the present by observing, that thefe differtations are admirable for closeness of reasoning and extent of information, and would alone have established the reputation of fir William Jones.
(To be continued.)
A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and round
the World; by Captain Vancouver. (Continued from p. 12.)
IN our furrey of this interesting voyage, our last remarks and quotations related to the Sociéry Islands. "Pursuing this part of the subject, we may observe, that the character of Pomurrey, the former Otoo, is greatly changed. Since he has resigned the maro, he has becoine generous and benevolent, inftead of being cold and unfriendly; and he is no longer trifling and infipid; for his various acquisitions render him highly intelligent. A remarkable trait of disinterestedness was thus exhibited by him. Suspecting that captain Vancouver intended to add to his prefents, he stopped his hand, reminding him that he was going to visit many other countries, where such articles would be equally valuable, and that he ought on that account to be ceconomical. Of the present chief, the following character is given.
The youth of Otoo authorises us to say little more, than he bore every appearance of becoming a very promising man. Some circumstances attendant on this young monarch were fo very peculiar and extraordinary, as to make a few observations indispenfable. Amongst the first was the curious restriction which prohia bited his entering any of our habitations. His father, when too, and king of the island, was under no fuch interdiction; but, as frequently as his inclination pronipted, visited our ships and tents without attaching the inconvenience which would now have fallen upon the people had the young king done the faine. Nor was the grandfather Taow then treated witli that degree of obedience and respect, which is at present paid to him on all occasions. The origin of the above mysterious restraint, or the reasoning on which it has been founded, I could not satisfactorily learn. The result, however, of my inquiries on this head induces ine to believe, that a ceremony very firailar to the Natche of the Friendly Inands de. fcribed by captain Cook, on luulahou's fon being peraitied to