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number of cases are those of persons who have had the cow-pox in fo early a part of their lives, that, from their age, there is great probability of their having also had the small-pox. 'There are few cases where the individuals were young, and the interval, between the disease and the attempt to produce the small-pox by inoculation, was short. ' Besides, it is admitted, that the cow-pox may often recur; and it is improbable that it should prevent the fusceptibility of another poison, and not of its own.
The work is splendidly printed, and illustrated by four coloured plates, representing the appearances of the pustules. A Treatise on Chirurgical Diseases, and on the Operations required
in their Treatment, from the French of Messrs. Chopart and Desault, late Profesors of Surgery at the Practical Academy, and principal Surgeons to the Hôrel-Dieu, Paris. By W. Turnbull,
A. M. F.M.S. &c. With an Introduction, Index, and Appendix, containing Notes and Obfervations by the fame. 2 Vols, 890. 95. Boards. Richardson. 1797
In an appendix to a former volume of our Review *, we examined the present work in its original language; we must now notice it in the new dress which Mr. Turnbull has given to it. To the doctrines and opinions of the authors, he has generally done juf
but he has not always been so perspicuous in his translation as he might have been. It was not indeed necessary for him to give much polish to the descriptions and illustrations of the principles and processes of surgery ; but he ought to have more cautiously avoided the idioms of the original, to have rendered his details more clear, and to have prevented that disgust which the reader of taste must occasionally feel.
We extract a short passage as a specimen of the transration.
• The wounded parts being fixed in their situation, the open þandelet will be placed in such a manner as the aperture may an. swer to the wound, so that its inferior extremity may be broader than the inferior articulation of the injured part. It will be retained in its situation by three circular turns : a part of this bandelet will be inverted, which should be fixed by two other circles ; then the remainder must be also supported in the same manner ; thence it will be proper to continue by inverted turns until near the wound. The remnant of the rolled band must be held whilst the plain bandelet should be fixed to the other part of the limb; inasmuch as the middle of this bandage answers likewise to the wound. It should be fixed as the one divided by circles, made with another rolled band, which will commence at the superior part of the member, continuing, likewise, by inverted turns, to the wound. The plain bandelet should afterwards be passed through the button-hole of the inferior bandelet, and each of them must be drawn in a contrary direction, to bring together and support the divided parts
* See Vul. xvill. New Arr. P: 539.
in their situation; the end of the bandelet, cut open, will be placed towards the superior part of the member; it must be then fixed in ascending, by the circular and inverted turns of the first bandage. The inferior side should also be condụcted to keep in its situation the remainder of the plain bandelet with the superior bandage. It is useless to apply compresses, because they do not join the parts together with more advantage. But it would be necessary to apply a bandage over the remaining extent of the mem. ber, to prevent it from swelling. It is necessary to be attentive to fix the bandage gently, but fufficiently to retain the parts; and to secure it equally, that the blood may not collect in those parts which Mould be lefs compressed, and not produce a local obstruc. tion, that might protract the cure.'
Some notes have been given in the present volume; but the greater part of Mr. Turnbull's observations will appear hereafter, in a way which we do not approve, as it is extremely unpleasant to be frequently obliged to turn to the end of a work, or of a volume, for the inspection of notes.
A System of Natural History, adapted for the Inftruction of Youth,
in the form of a Dialogue. Originally written in German by Prof. Raff of Goettingen; now first translated into English. 2 Vols. 12mo. 8s. Boards. Johnson,
The introduction of the rudiments of natural history into schools we consider as an important improvement in the modern system of education. For that purpose the present work is well calculated ; and, from its comparative cheapness of price and convenience of size, it will prove acceptable to many readers of a riper age, who have an inclination to the study, but whose time and circumstances prevent them from consulting larger and more expensive publications. The form into which this system is digested is pertinent and familiar, combining the correctness of science with agreeable narration. As a specimen of the work, we extract the following account:
It can scarcely be credited, that an animal, a beast, and so weak too, could construct works fo regular, so strong, fo extensive and considerable, as are those of the heavers. To cut down trees, almost as thick as a man, on the banks of rivers, and to make them fall across the water : 'to drag them to the water, if unfortunately they should fall on the other side ; then to get upon them to con. Cuct them, as they float, to the place that has been fixed on for the establishment of the colony: to construct with these materials, large banks or dams, and to build cabins resembling the works of man; this is but an abridged detail of the talents and induftry of
y clay, moss, stones; of the first they make a cement,
the beaver in fociety; and all this, with no other instruments than his tail and his teeth.
As soon as the materials are collected on the spot, they begin their operations without loss of tine. Some cut off the branches from the tree that is fallen, and divide it into stakes equal length; then others dive to the bottom of the wa'er to viz noles, into which the stakes are introduced ; and after having made them. pretry firm, foine Support thein straight or ir clined, according to the situation, whilf others interlace them with branches of trees,
which serves for plastering their wattle-work with, whilst they fill it
up with stones and earth, and calk it exactly with moss,
' In this way, do these ingenious architects construct a dam or bank, sometimes a hundred feet long by twelve thick at the base, perpendicular on the side next the water, and sloping on the oppofite fide, the be: er to support the weight. As this great work is performed at the common expence, they, afterwards separate into [mail companies, of ten, twelve, and even twenty, to build cabins, in proportion to their numbers. These cabins are erected even on the bank, of an oval figure, sometimes one, often two stories high; and when each cabin is finished, every pair of beavers, a male and female, provide for themselves a separate cell or apartment, in which they construct a soft bed of hay or moss, for receiving their young. When all their labours are finished, the commonwealth lives in tranquillity, and each individual enjoys the pleasures of a domestick life and repofe, during the whole of the autumn and winter : provided they have been careful to lay in plenty of provifions, that is, tender wood, bark, leaves, which they put into water to keep them freth.
• As soon as spring has renewed the verdure, the whole family, young and old, leave the water, and take to the woods, to enjoy themselves, and to feast on the tender young leaves, on the fresh juicy bark, and on the delicate buds just put forth. The beavers continue in the woods till autumn; on the first approach of winter, they return to their habitations, repair and re-establish their works, if they find them damaged, or construct new ones, if they find them destroyed altogether.' Vol. ii. P. 321.
This tranflation from the German of Raff appears to be faithful; but the style is less accurate than it ought to have been. The Natural History of British Birds ; or a Sele&tion of the most
rarè, beautiful, and interesting Birds which inhabit this Country : the Descriptions from the Syftema Nature of Linnæus; with gem deral Observations, either original, or collected from the latest and most efteemed English Ornithologifts ; und embellished with Figures, drawn, erit, riced, and coloured from the original Specimens, by E. Donovan. 8vo. Vol. III. 11. 1os. Boards. Rivingtons.. Having noticed the first part of this work in one of our late vo
lumes*, we find no reason, in our survey of the continuation, to alu ter our opinion of the execution of the plan. The colouring, as we before observed, is not always accorate ; yet, perhaps, we ought not to blame the artist, as, in the varieties, the colours often greatle differ. The figures are fometimes coloured with delicacy, and sometimes with little discrimination ; but, in general, this part deferves our commendation. The introduction of water-colours, in the decoration of objects of natural history, renders us faftidious ia appreciating the merits of those who follow the old methods.
In this volume are twenty-four plates, not regularly arranged. This wànt of regularity occasions one inconvenience, that the same or fimilar observations are repeated. Thus the fubitance of the dispute, whether the Goosander and Dun Diver are male and 'female of the same or a distinct species, is repeated after the 56th plate, though it occurred in the observations upon the 49th ;-the latter referring to the Goosander, and the former to the Dun Diver. On the other hand, 'we may praise the author for having annexed with fuch accuracy fo great a variety of synonyms.
We have fought with fome care for a specimen of scientific discrimination of character or of philofophical remark. Such traits, however, are not common. The most interesting observations in this volume relate to the Caprimulgus Europæus, the European Goat-Sucker.
It is difficult to describe the diversified plumage of this beau. tiful bird. The colours are, throughout, of the plainest kinds; but they are so exquisitely softened, neatly speckled, and elegantly interspersed and varied with streaks and waves of black, that na description can convey a juft idea of its beautiful appearance.
• It has many characters of the Swallow tribe. Klein has placed it in that genus, and distinguishes it by its undivided tail from the other species; and Pennant says, it may with justice be called the Nocturnal Swallow, as it differs from the Swallows chiefly in the time of its flight, the latter being on the wing in the day, and the Goat-Sucker only in the evening. It agrees in several respects also with the Owl tribe. Its manners are much the same in most countries in Europe: it retires into some dark recess in forests, woods, or among rocks, and never ventures out in the day time but in very gloomy weather, or when disturbed. As it can see best in the twilight, it comes out in the dusk of the evening and morning, and collects its food: this it does chiefly on the wing, when it finds abundance of moths and other insects stirring. In the month of July, it is said to live entirely on the dorr beetle, or cock-chaffer ; and froin this circumstance Charlton has called it the Dorr-Hawk.
• The notes of this bird are of two kinds : “ the loudest,” says Pennant, “ so much resembles that of a large spinning wheel, that the Welch call thiş bird aderyny droell, or the Wheel Bird, And
Sec Vol XXt. New Arr. p. 447.
he farther adds, “ it begins its fong most punctually on the clofe of day, fitting usually on a bare bough, with its head lower than the tail, the lower jaw quivering with the efforts. The noise is so very violent, as to give a sensible vibration to any little building it chances to alight on, and emit this species of note. The other is a Larp squeak, which it repeats often : this seems to be a note of love, as it is observed to reiterate it when in pursuit of the female among the trees.”
The male is distinguished from the female by a large oval white spot, situated on the inner web of the first three quill feathers, and another at the ends of the two exterior feathers of the tail.
• The bill is alike in both male and female : it is fort, but the gape is remarkable wide. It is, probably, from the structure of the mouth that the ancients fupposed this bird fucked the teats of goats. In the days of Aristotle, this ridiculous notion was generally prevalent: but among modern naturalists, none except Scopoli seems inclined to credit such an opinion.
• The female makes no nest, but lays her eggs on the bare ground. They are usually two in number, of a whitish hue, and marbled with brown.,
• This is a very confined genus. Latham enumerates, including his fupplementary volume, but seventeen species, and of these we find only our present subject, mentioned as a native of Europe. It appears to be an inhabitant of every country on the continent, but is very sparingly diffused in some parts, and no where common: it is also said to inhabit Africa and Asia. Sonnerat met with one on the coast of Coromandel. With us it is a bird of paffage, and arrives about the latter end of May. It entirely disappears in the northern parts of the kingdom in August, but does not quit the southern parts till September.
« The size of this species is ten inches and a half, breadth twentytwo inches and a half, weight two ounces and three quarters.'
This work, we suppose, will be continued; but we find no information of its probable extent.
RELIGION. A Sermon ; preached at Worship-Street, Shoreditch, April 30, 1797,
on the Decease of the Pious, Learned, and Reverend Charles Bulkley; who died the 15th of April, 1797, in the 78th year of his Age. With a Sketch of his Life, Character, and Writings.. By John Evans, A. M. Published by particular Requeft. 8vo. is. Johnfon. 1798.
There is a similarity in the characteristics of what are called Funeral Sermons; and it would require great ability to give us much opportunity of discriminating between one and another. The subject, death, can be treated only in a manner that has been a thoufand times repeated; and yet the repetition is not unpleasing, when the feelings are awakened by the receat*departure of some