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tution than that of the minister himself. The particulars of this I need not give at present, as they muit appear hereafter, in the account of my administration which I laid before the assembly, upon my dismiffion.
As M. de Gerville was more enthusiastically fond of the con. ftitution than any one of the council, he was confounded and rather abashed to find that the king was inclined to adhere to it more fcrupulously than himself.' Vol. ii. P. 16.
Soon after the event here related, our author resigned his poft. The king then delired him to maintain a correspondence by letters,
On quitting the ministry, I expreffed my regret that I could not pay my duty to his majesty with the fame alliduity I wished, without creating suspicions that might be dangerous to him; I therefore proposed only to attend his levee every Sunday; and this I thought would be expedient, because, if I never appeared there at all, it would be immediately believed that he saw me in secret.
• The king approved of this, and at the same time gave me the superintendance of an operation which was first contrived and fet a-going by Alexander Lameth, afterwards directed by M. de Leffart, and in the present circumstances seemed more necessary than ever. The object of this was to obtain a minute knowledge of the public disposition, by the means of certain persons called observers, who were chosen and employed for that purpose.
At this time they were in number thirty-five. Sonie attended the tribunes of the assembly, others the Jacobin club and that of the Cordeliers, whilst others were ordered to mix in the various groups who attended in the palais royal, the Thuilleries, the principal coffee-houses, and the cabarets. Their business was to support, by their applause, all constitutional and royalist mo. tions, and to hiss, and even insult, whoever proposed a measure contrary to the interest of the king and the constitution. Their custom was, to give in a daily report of whatever they saw or. heard. It was the province of the most intelligent, who were highest paid, to combat every feditious motion in the various so. cieties. Giles, a subaltern officer in the garde nationale, entirely devoted to the king, took in the above reports, and delivered them to M. de Leffart, from whom he received directions refpecting the operations of the following day. These men were also employed to stick up, during the night, placarts of a constitutional or royalist nature, according to the circumstances.
• The king, by this means, knew all that passed in Paris, and, might have derived advantages from it at least equal to the expence of the whole operation, which amounted to 8000 livres a month, had it not been for his averfion to those vigorous measures which the present emergence required : but that aversion was so great, that the information he received only served to a. larm and torment him.'
The consequence of this scheme was, that, before the end of July, fifty-eight of the most seditious were appre
Vol. ii. P. 153:
hended and tried. Some were condemned to imprisonment for three years, others for two years, in the Bicêtre ; where they remained till August, when the populace set them at liberty.
(To be continued.)
An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the great Mortality
among the Troops at St. Domingo: with praciical Remarks on the Fever of that Island; and Directions, for the Conduet of Europeans on their first Arrival in varm Climates. By Hector M Lean, M. D. Asistant Inspector of Hospitals for St. Domingo.
8vo. 6s. Boards. Cadell and Davies. 1797
THE season of war, in tropical climates, is constantly a season of distemper. Haraised by the fatigues of military duty, and unaccustomed to the noxious effects of a warm climate, the soldier foon becomes the prey of disease. New regulations may, indeed, be introduced, and new modes of medical treatment be proposed; but the disease too frequently proceeds with unabated violence. Much has been lately alferted of the powers of particular remedies in preventing the ravages of the fevers of hot countries; but the writings of those who ought to be the best informed on the subject, do not, in general, display a coincidence of opinion in the authors themselves, with regard to the causes or the nature of the disorders, or propose any determinate plan of management for the cure of them. We therefore are not surprised to find that Dr. M.Lean differs in many particulars from other medical gentlemen who have treated of the diseases in question.
The points which he chiefly labours to establish are, that ' what has been termed the yellow fever of St. Domingo is not an infectious disease, and that it is not a new or peculiar distemper, but the common remittent endeinic of that coui). try, applied to the English constitution, and occasionally accompanied with yellowness as an accidental symptoin.' These are conclusions which, though plausible, cannot be fully established by fo few facts as are here brought forward.
His ideas of the causes of the malady of St. Domingo may be collected from the following passage, which he introduces by remarking, that some places can scarcely by any means be rendered healthy
• Port-au-Prince' (he says) is one of those: It is placed at the bottom of an immense bite, which pushes itself into the heart of St. Domingo. The scite of the lower part of the town is, irr fact, on a marih gained from the sea, the skirts of which are covered with weeds or mangroves, where decomposed animal and
a horizontal plain stretches towards the town.
vegetable matters are promiscuously thrown ; on these the fun ex erts its power, and the breeze conveys the noxious particles with a new activity to the lungs and bosoms of the inhabitants. But this is not all: the sea breeze, which in other situations is hailed as the genial source, of refreshment and health, is here interrupted; the island of Gonave is so placed in the mouth of the harbour, as, in a great measure, to intercept this falutary gale; and, before it arrives at Port-au-Prince, it loses its usual coolness, by passing over heated lands, and gathering in its course noxious vapours. This necessarily results from the inland situation of the town. Besides these manifeft causes of ill health, Port-au-Prince is exposed to the action of others. It is placed on a level, on the verge of the bite, and surrounded by very lofty mountains, from the bottom of which
Torrents of water, in times of rain, rush through this plain, and retain their impetuosity till they reach the sea.
The land is moistened, but after the torrent ceases the water stagnates ; small streams, attaining a horizontal level, lose the impetus acquired in their descent; they linger in the plain, and by mingling with the foil form a marsh. On this marsh a vigorous fun acts daily, and evaporates its noxious particles, which are conveyed to the lungs of every one that breathes, and applied to their skins, and probably in this manner communicate with the blood. This is a never cealing cause of disease, a nursery conftantly rearing mortal poison. "In every inspiration, we draw into our bosom a column of air thus impregnated; in every step we walk, a fresh application of these particles is made to our bodies; it is no wonder then, that on this fatal spot the British troops caught fever in each treacherous breeze. It is true, that the French, when they exclusively possessed this town, did not perish in the same propora tion with us. The causes of this difference are not difficult to trace; the French poffeffed a free open country, and could at pleasure retire to breathe the more pure atmosphere of their distant plantations. Every merchant, every planter, in short, every inhabitant, poffelled the power of retiring into the country and changing their situation. P. 9.
He cenfures, perhaps justly, the timid dietetic practice of the French physicians in this fever. He seems to think that patients were frequently loft by such feeble management.
In investigating the more remote causes of this fever, our physician makes tome good observations; but he seems to have fallen into an error with regard to the innoxious effects of night dews in the West-Indies.
With most other writers, our author finds the stomach in this fever to be the principal seat of disease : its sensibility and irritability are at an early period astonishingly augmented. He also supposes that considerable changes are produced in the
fuids; but the circumstances which he has adduced in support of the opinion, rather prove the folids to be the primary feat of the disease. The
appearance of livid spots, and the oozing of blood from the mouth and nofe, are no proofs of his position.
He roundly asserts that the fever of St. Domingo is not ins fectious; but to us it seems difficult to account for the uncommon fatality of the disease, without having recourse to a fupposition of the agency of contagion,
On the frequent occurrence of remittent fevers in that climate, their causes, nature, and phænomena, the author has offered many observations. On the diagnosis and prognofis, in particular, he has pointed out fome circumstances to which the medical practitioner should pay attention.
He appears to have arrived at the place of his destination with no correct ideas of tlfe nature and management of this disease. At first he followed the plans of those practitioners who were refident in the island ; but the want of fuccess inte duced him to relinquishy them.
He gives us the following method, as the result of many attempts and confiderable experience.
• Whenever I was called' (says he) to visit a person attacked by the remittent in the manner already described, if there was any inflammatory disposition, or that the patient was a stranger lately arrived, I instantly bled him in proportion to his strength and the urgency of the case; the quantity can only be ascertained by the circumstances then present, and cannot be regulated but at the patient's bed-fide. -No directions can be given in words, that would apply.to any number of cases; as minute occurrences often guide the physician. I am however of opinion, that much depends on the evacuation being liberal at' first; if the fymptoms do not change, and the pulse retains its vigour or increases in strength, the evacuation
may be repeated next day, but not so freely as on the first. After the blood-letting the patient was ordered into the warm bath, and whilst sitting there, half elevated out of the tub, three buckets of cold water were dashed over him; he was then taken out, and well rubbed with a rough dry cloth, and put to bed well covered; the room was chosen airy and open, and the bed placed in such a manner, that no direct draught of air played upon it, As soon as he was put in bed, an injection was administered, and eight or ten grains of calomel joined with a scruple of James's powder, were forned into pills, and one ordered every half hour till their effects were produced; the patient was permitted to drink freely of lemonade, beef tea, rice or barley water, tamarind water, orangeade, or any light drink that was pleasant to the taste. If the fever did not give way to this treatment, the bath and cold water were repeated again and again, till some impression was made in changing the given circumstances of the body.' P. 164.
The pills were continued till a disposition to looseness was brought on. The baths were directed three times a day. Blisters were also employed to lessen the irritability of the ston mach; and, in this respect, the doctor also found great advantage from a solution of white vitriol in peppermint-water, with a few drops of laudanum. The learned physician will teadily perceive that this mode of treatment has little foundation in fyftem.
The means of prevention, the changes induced on the fy. ften by heat, and the course of preparation for hot climates, afford opportunities for a variety of remarks, many of which are judicious. The directions for treating and exercising troops after their landing in such fituations, are well conceived; and the confiderations on military hospitals, and on diet, are frequently just.
We shall only remark farther, that Dr. M.Lean has not arranged the materials of his volume in the best inanner. They are frequently jumbled together without attention ei. ther to method or to the nature of the author's original plan.
The Annual Register, or a View of the History, Politics, and
Literature, for the Year 1792 *. Part I. History of Exrope. Part II. Chronicle, State Papers, Characters, &c. 800. 145. Boards. Rivingtons. 1798.
THE convenience and utility of a work of this kind are lo generally acknowledged, that it is unnecessary to insist on those points ; and it is equally superfluous to intimate the particular plan of this performance, as it has long been known and approved. But the causes of the delay which has occurred fince the publication of the last volume require some explanation. One cause is the extraordinary length of the historical part, which extends to the 521st page; another is, the critical and interesting period to which the voluine relates; a third is, the important variation of statement respecting the affairs of France, which rendered the task of discovering the truth extremely difficult. These allegations are not entirely satisfactory; but, as it is added, that the hopes of obtaining new information which had been promised to the world induced the compiler to keep the press standing a long time, we are the lefs disposed to complain of the delay.
The long arrears of the history of Poland are answered in the earlier part of the volume. The deliberations of the diet in the year 1789, for the settlement of a new constitution, are not ill sketched. The selfish policy of the late king of Pruffia is properly developed ; the patriotic exertions of Sta.
* A part of this title is very incorrect. The before history should be ex puoged, or for fhould be altered to of.