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reason, and keeping the lead constantly going, which is the furest and best guide in navigating a fhip where foundings can be had, or where there are no foundings., P. 7,
The dependence to be placed on the opinion given of a ship, where the characters of the seamen who Tpeak of her are not known, may be collected from the anecdote which follows.
" I must here beg leave to relate a matter of fact, with respect to what I have said in the working or management of a ship, which will sufficiently prove how differently thips act under the management of different officers, and that thips, like meis, often get good or ill characters without deserving them, or without any good grounds or reasons given for what is said of them, I failed two years in his majesty's ship G...n, was then removed into his majesty's ship E.:,,h, in which I served five years, we changed tips, captains, officers, and ships companies ; the character of each fhip, with respect to her failing, working, and her trim, was left in each ship in writing for the guidance of the commanders and officers.
" These two ships, characters, or qualifications, were almost opposite, or quite different to each other; the G...n was reported to sail pretty well, work well, was quick in stays, seldom or never missed stays, but was now and long in wearing, and steered weļl in general, She carried her helm weatherly upon a wind.
! The E. h's character was, that the failed very well, but was Nack in stays, frequently missing stays, even in moderate weather, but wore quick in general, the steered well
, but rather care pied a slack helm upon a wind.
• Those two thips were five years in company, being on service together in India, and you may fee from what follows how the hips qualities were changed, the officers of the G...n carried her qualities into the E.... h, and the E. h's officers carried her qualities into the G.. The E....h during that long service, feldom or ever missed stays, indeed she always stayed in all kinds of weather, when a ship could be expected to itay. The G...n stayed badly, very, frequently missed stays, and I have seen ber miss stays twice in three times in fine weather with all her fails set and smooth water, which was surprizing to fee; this thews that in the working a ship there lies more in the judgment of the seaman than in the quality of the ship, by which ships get bad characters undeservedly. This should make every seaman industrious to acquire the knowledge of working a fhip, which is every material for a seaman to know, and none inore useful or of greater consequence to himself and those about him." P. 49
If our limits would permit, we could with pleafure extracta
the description given of the ship Dolphin, on whose charms the writer dwells with the rapture which a lover would feel in expatiating upon those of his mistress. From the description given of this vefsel, it is to be lamented that we have not another built on the same construction; and, if his censures of the thips of twenty guns, built from that time to the prefent, are juit, there are defects in our dock-yards which all the prudence and wisdom of the adıniralty ought to be exerted to remedy.
It is unpleasing to find, that, after so many years employed in the service, and after a variety of dangerous expeditions, Mr. Nichelson should feel any symptoms of dissatisfaction.'
• The author, instead of being rewarded for his faithful and long services, has been sufficiently, mortified, by seeing junior ofi, cers in his line of service preferred before him, to places more lu. crative than that which he enjoys, which he thinks an hardship, and an inadequate reward for his long service : this puts him to the exercise of his Christian patience, and verifies the old saying, A man may deserve good fortune or good luck, but cannot coinmand it.---Such is the will and pleasure of the great.' P. 270.
Weconclude with earnestly recommending this work to the commanders and, conductors of thips in the royal navy, as. well as in the service of the merchants. The time of an admiral will not be lost in the peruíal of it; and many of the observations which it contains might, with advantage to the country, occupy the attention of the lords of the admiralty.
Observations on the Structure, Economy, and Diseases of ihe
Foot of the Hors, and on the Principles and Practice of Shocing. By Edward Coleman. Profilor of the Veterinary College, &c. Vol. I. 410. 125. Boards. Johnson. 1798.
As this work proceeds from an institution profeffedly established for the improvement of the veterinary science, it behoves us to examine' very particularly the doctrines which it contains.
The author begins with asserting, that the observations which he now submits to the public (as a specimen of what he has already done, and of what may in future be expected from him) are the fruits of an experience of four years. On the application of the principles here laid down, it will rea' main for the public to decide, whether it would not have been better for the cause if they had been 'matured by longer praćtice. We were sorry to obierve that our profeffor follows the track of those who have heretofore written on this now fa
hionable subject, in inveighing with warmth against the ignon rance and brutality of former
practisers of the art of thoeing horses. An improved practice, founded on found principles, does not require the effufions of invective or abuse against the followers of the old method, but is rather injured by such behaviour in the opinion of liberal inen. We cannot admit the truth of this indiscriminate imputation of ignorance, as it is probable that many persons had before made as deep researches into the anatomy of the foot of the horse, as any of the prefent day. Among many instances which occur to us, we must rescue the memory of Brydges, Oliner, and Ciarke, from this odium ; and the labours of Bourgelat and La-folle, and of many German veterinarians, should not pafs unnoticed. That many of those who have practised shoeing have been extremely ignorant both of the itructure of the foot and the principles of the art, we are ready to allow; but all should not be involved in one common censure.
• As no improvements' (the author observes) have been, or were likely to be made by men laboring under these difadvantages, [want of anatomy and physiology] • it must be a matter of great exultation to the original founders and supporters of the veterinary college to be informed, that upwards of eighty pupils have been made acquainted with proper principles, calculated to improve the practice.'
We hope that the fuccess of their practice will justify the expectations of the public; and we trust that no pupil has obtained a diploma without an attendance of several years at the college. In the veterinary schools on the continent, a constant residence for three years, or upwards *, has been an essential condition for receiving a permission to practise; and no one has obtained a diploma there, whatever his abilities may have been, without such a residence. It has been said that young men, bred up in the shops of provincial apothecarics, have here. procured diploinas of competency for practice in a few months, and, thus fortified, have, in some instances, had the medical care of the horses of a whole regiment; and, in others, have gone into the country, and, by the novelty of their title and the influence of their diploina, superseded men of long practice. To the court of examiners belong men of. high relpectability in medicine and surgery; but we apprehend that they have had too little time for the study of farriery, to enable them to become competent judges' in this science. If the above stateinent be correct (and, if it be not, it ought to be contradicted), we do not yet know whether the
* In France four years, in Denmark three.
public ought to exult at fuch a profufion of diplomati fed practitioners; and, while the professor shall continue to receive a douceur of twenty guineas from each pupil, he will evidently be too much interested in precipitating the examination of the latter. This practice may enrich the professor; but it does not tend to enrich the science. It is also understood, that a fee is paid to the examiners for the diploma. We think the whole of this practice less confiftent with the nature of a public and now national establishment *, than that of the veterinary. schools on the continent, where no fees are received, and where the falaries of the professors, though liberal, are far from being equal to that of the professor of the veterinary college in England.
Mr. Coleinan states, that the horses belonging to the board of ordnance, and the greater part of the British cavalry, have been shod to advantage for two years in the manner which he recommends. We should have been much better pleased, if it had been employed with success on horses that are constantly used in drawing coaches or drays, and by whose owners both utility and economy are consulted.
• A proper mode of shoeing is certainly of more importance than the treatment of any disease, or perhaps of all the diseases iner cident to horses. The foot is a part that we are particularly required to preserve in health ; and if this art be judiciously employed, the foot will not be more liable to disease than any other organ,'
We admit, in its fullest extent, the propriety of the first part of this assertion, but think that the latter cannot be received without some limitation. In machinery, those parts which are most used, suffer most friction, and consequently are most liable to decay; and the feet of the horse, being employed in more frequent and severe labour than any other part of the body of that animal, must, by parity of reasoning, be most subject to injury. Indeed, we are of opinion, that there is no mode of thoeing, however judiciously employed, which will effectually prevent diseases in the feet in every instance.
The writer obferves, that, from an erroneous practice of shoeing, horses are liable to disease, and that, when they are diseafed, lameness is a frequent consequence,
If therefore' (he proceeds) "it' be a fact that the common practice of shoeing engenders diseases, while the practice here recommended preserves horses' feet in their natural state, then it will
* For so it must be conlidered, as parliament has afforded it pecuniary sup: port.
be admitted that great benefits result to the public from its general adoption.: P. II.
Few will diffent from the first part of this argument; but aš the second position is at present sub judice, the conclufion must not be admitted till the excellence of the practice be fully ascertained.
• That the practice (says Mr. Coleman) may be faithfully .executed in the army, a farrier of each' regiment of cavalry has been permitted to attend the college, to learn the practical part of flioeing. This plan was thought neceffary to remove the prejudices of the farriers, and to prevent their opposition to the principles ot shoeing, recommended at the college, and adopted by the army veterinary furgeons. P.11.
· No better plan for propagating any system could be devised; and we doubt not, that, even if this thould not be found to produce all the advantages which are expected from it, the pradlice will in fome degree be improved by it.-The author's plán is to begin with the structure and economy of the hoof.
We shall then' (he says). endeavour to prove that the common practice of fhoeing alters the natural form of the hoof, and produces in it a variety of defects, while the practice here recommended preserves its structure and uses unimpaired by shoeing. This Tubject will form the first volume.'
P. 15. . Sect., 1-The natural form, structure, and economy of the horse's hoof.
• Before we consider the best practical mode of preserving the feet of horses by shoeing, it will be necessary to describe the external form, the structure, and the economy of the hoof. P. 17. -- The writer shows that the bottom of the hoof approaches to a circle, and that this form is only to be found in colcs which have never been shod. This form is always changed by the common methods of Moeing; and he observes, that,,
carly in proportion to the repetition of shoeing, the foot deviates from a circle, and becomes oblong.
Indeed, many feet from this cause are not one third, and some not even one fourth, as wide as long. Age however has no effect in changing the form ; for we can not only preferve horses' feet in their natural condition, but, when contracted, restore them to their original figure.' P. 23.
The next sentence is a repetition of the first position in different words. Contraction of the feet, thruthes, and corns, are produced by the fame cause. ?
As Mr. Coleman, in his progress, advances fome ideas