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the Panjab. The eastern streams come from the neighbourhood of Little Thibet, where the Ganges rises ; and these rivers include what may be called the peninsula of Hindoostan'; an extent of near 1400 miles, from north to south. The head of the Indus, however, is farther to the northward. It rises in Kashgar, a mountainous part of Tartary; and its western branches come from that high region which pours the Oxus into lake Aral, at a little distance from the Caspian Sea.
A curious trait of ancient commerce occurs in the following quotation :
• In respect to the antient Russian commerce with these distant parts, I shall conclude the subject with observing, that after the various commodities of India had arrived through the channel of the Oxus into the Caspian sea, they were shipped for the Volga, the Rha of the antients. That river was so little known to the an. tients, that they have not left us the name of a single place in its whole course. The merchants afcended that great river. After navigating it a very considerable way they entered the Kama, and arrived through the Kokra at Tcherdyn, seated in lat. 60° 25" north, in those early times a mighty emporium. From thence the several eastern articles of commerce were dispersed over all the arctic regions. The Nortmans and the Sueons, people of the Baltic, had great intercourse with them through the Neva, and Ladoga, another vast emporium, seated on the lake of the same name. proof of the antiquity of its commerce, coins of Greece and Rome, of Syria and Arabia, have been found in the antient burying places, evidences that the people of the east and of the west had met there to supply their several wants; even at Tcherdyn, coins of the Arabian caliphs have been discovered. Notwithstanding the immense wealth of both Tcherdyn and Ladoga, scarcely a trace is to be seen of those great emporia. The commerce of the first extended even within the arctic.circle. The Beormas, the people of the old Permia, afcended the Petzora with their furs, exchanged them for the products of the torrid zones, and falling down that northern river difperfed them over all their chilly regions.' Vol. i. P. 13.
Mr. Pennant is of opinion, that the Seres were the Chinese. M. Goffelin's work on the geography of the ancient Greeks. seems to have escaped him ; for that author has shown that Ptolemy erred greatly in his longitude, extending the eastern regions too far. In reality, the Seres were inhabitants of Little Bucharia, wliere their posterity are distinguished by fimilar manners; and it is not so probable that filk was received from them in traffic, as that it was not known in Rome till after the time of Augustus. The serice vestes,
perhaps, were the muslins of India, or the shawls of Cashmere.
The march of Alexander to the Panjab is a subject of curious inquiry. From this part we hall select an important passage.
' On the banks of the Hydaspes was fought the decisive battle between Alexander and the Indian monarch Porus, both equal in valour ; but the former, by his great fuperiority in the art of war, obtained a complete victory with a handful of men.
Porus employed not fewer than two hundred elephants, which, terrific as they might have been to the Macedonian horses, were, with their garrisoned towers, totally destroyed by the victorious army.
"I cannot resist the introduction into this place of the following curious anecdotes of the two famous monarchs, aś communicated to me by major Oufeley, the ingenious author of the Persian miscellanies. He informs me, that two Persian writers mention the invasion of Hindoostan by 'Alexander the great. Ferdusi in his Shah Nameh, or Chronicle of Kings, written about the latter end of the 10th century and beginning of the 11th; and Nezami, another celebrated poet, who flourished in the 12th. The first enumerates the various troops of Persia, Greece, and India, and the camel loads of presents whichi Alexander received from Keid, the Indian prince. Nezami, in his Skander Nameh, or History of Alexander, says, that forty elephants were loaden with the various productions of the country, among which several carried Indian steel. Porus is mentioned under the name of Four. adds, he brought two thousand elephants into the field ; which, by a contrivance of Aristotle (Alexander's secretary) were completely routed, and Four himself killed by Alexander, who found in his castle of Canoogo immense treasures !! Vol. i. P. 19.
The review of the Indus contains an account of the country to the eastward of it, and is expanded into a description of the places on its principal branches. The whole of this account is curious,
From the most eastern branch of the Delta of the Indus, more strictly from the southern extremity of the gulf of Gutch, the land trends in different directions, and forms the gulf of Cambay. “This scene may become interesting, if Buonaparte, unable or unwilling to risque the dangers of the sea, fhould attempt to penetrate to Surat by land. The route is not unknown or impracticable.-From the gulf, the coast takes a southern course to Surat and Bombay. The descripțions of these settlements are interesting.–The account of the origin of the Mahratta ftates we shall transcribe,
• Sevatjee was founder of the Maliratta kingdom we fo often
hear mentioned. The rame is derived from Mahrat, the province in which he first established his independency. This hero derived his lineage from the rajahs of Chietore, who pretend that their deicent is from Porus. He took advantage of the troubles which arose in his time in the kingdom of Vifapour, and again, during the wars between Aurengzebe and his brothers. He extended his conquests from Baglana, near Surat, to the Portuguese districts near Goa, a little beyond the foot of the Ghauts. His capital was Poonah, an open town, but he kept his archives at Poorundar, a place of vast strength, a fortress on the summit of a mountain ; he died in 1680. His successors extended their conquests, or rather their inroads, all over Hindoostan ; and even compelled the great Mogul to pay them a chont, or tribute, to save his subjects from future calamities.
• From time to time they extended their dominions to a vast magnitude, and divided them into two empires, that of Poonah, or the western, and Berar, or the eastern. The first is divided again among a number of chieftains, who pay just as much oben dience as they like to a paishwah, or head, whom Mr. Rennel juftly compares to the emperor of Germany, and the chieftains to the princes of that great body; they often quarrel with him, and often among themtelves, and never are united, but by the apprehension of a common danger. Their empires extend from Guzerat to near the banks of the Ganges, and southerly to the northern borders of the dominions of Tippoo Sultan. Their forces consist of two hundred thousand foot and horse, and the fame number in garrison. In their inroads they come in clouds, and spread desolation far and wide.
" A new'empire is springing out of these people ; Madajee Sindia, a jaghiredar of the Mahratta states (of Poonah) or mere landholder, is now successfully conquering for himself. Since the year 1783 he has extended his frontiers from Malwa towards the Jumna, posseiled himself of the strong fortress of Guallior, and even gives a pension to the unhappy Mogul Shah Allum, who fled to him for protection, after having his eyes put out by a favage Ro. hilla chieftain, on whom Sindia revenged the cruelty by putting him to a most excruciating death. Such is the funk state of the representative of the mighty emperors of Hindooftan. Sindia refides at Ougein, in lat. 23° 14', a little north of the Nerbudda river. Vol. i. P. 84.
In these regions the Ghauts first become conspicuous. The name fignifies a defile in the mountains usually passable; but, by corruption, it has been applied to the nountains themfelves. From about 20° of north latitude, a mountainous chain is observed, which passes downward parallel to the coast, terminating at at, but at some distance from, Cape Comorin. The mountains do not project to form the cape : the land
in that part is low and flat. These mountains gradually approach the Malabar coast, till, about the Mysore country, they nearly reach the fea.
The smaller hills, at the foot of the Ghauts, furnish the teak, the oak of India, and supply the dock-yards of Bombay. The ships formed of this wood are very durable, and those built at Bombay are highly valued in the Indian seas. The various expeditions from Bombay are fucceffively mentioned ; and the caves of Salsette and Elephanta are described. These retreats of Indian superstition have been particularly noticed by various travellers, from Niebuhr to Irwin; and different representations of the gigantic idols of the caverns have been engraven. The mode of travelling, in these regions, is by oxen.
Some remarks on the objects of natural history found in this part of India, follow.
• The tribe of snakes is very numerous in India. I think their great historiographer, M. de la Cepede, enumerates forty-four species already known. I shall only mention the most curious: I am uncertain whether they are quite local. Mr. Ives speaks of some found in this island or neighborhood; the Cobra Capello I shall describe some time hence. Mr. Ives relates, that the Cobra Manilla is only a foot long, of a bluish color, haunting old walls. Its bite is as fatal as that of the Cobra -Capello, which kills in the space of a quarter of an hour. The Cobra de Aurellia is only fix inches long, and not thicker than the quill of a crow; it is apt to creep into the ear, and occasion death by madness. The land snake is small, but not less fatal than the others. The Palmira,, with a vie perine head, and varied body, is four feet long, yet in no part thicker than a swan's quill.
. Among the variety of beautiful shells found on the coast, is the noted Turbo Scalaris, or Wentle-trap, a shell feldom an inch and a quarter long of a pearly color, and with about seven spires, each having several elegant ridges, crossing them from the first spire to the last;
a fine representation of the winding staircase. A painter I knew, filled with the Concha-mania, once gave fifty-six guineas for three of them, one alone he valued at twenty-five.
• Some few other things, respecting the natural history of Bombay and its neighborhood, may be here taken notice of. The difeales of India begin to thew themselves in this place, but I shall only attend to the Barbiers, which is more prevalent on this side of the peninsula of India than the other. It is a palsy, which takes its name from Beriberii, or the sheep, as the afflicted totter in their gait like that animal when seized with a giddiness. Its fymptons are both a numbness, a privation of the use of the limbs, a trę. mor, and an attendant titillation usually not fatal, but extremely
difficult of cure. It comes on slowly, and usually in the rainy seafon ; but if a person drinks hastily, when heated, a large draught of Toddy, or the liquor of the coco nut, the attack of the disease is very sudden. Bontius (English edition, p. 1), treats largely of
He recommends strongly baths or fomentations of the Nochile of the Malabars, or Lagondi of the Malays, or the Jarminum Indicum.
The phænomenon of small fill appearing in the rainy season, in places before dry, is as true as it is surprising. The natives begin to fish for them the tenth day after the first rains, and they make a common dish at the tables. Many are the modes of accounting for this annual appearance. It has been suggested that the spawn may have been brought by the water fowl, or may have been caught up by thc Typhons, which rage at the commencement of the wet season, and be conveyed in the torrents of rain. I can only give an explanation much less violent : that these fishes never had been any where but near the places where they are found. That they have had a pre-existent state, and began life in form of frogs; that it had been the Rana paradoxa of Gm. Lin. iii. p. 10, 55. Their transformation is certainly wonderful. I refer the reader to Seba, i. p. 125, tab. 78; and to Merian's Surinam, p. 71, tab. 71, in which are full accounts of the wonderful phænomenon of these transmuted reptiles, which complete their last transformation in the first rains.
All kinds of reptiles appear about that season, among others, toads of most enormous fizes. Mr. Ives mentions one that he supposed weighed between four and five pounds; and measured, from the toe of the fore to tint of the hind leg, twenty-two inches. Vol. i. P. 101.
The pirate coaft extends from Bombay to Goa ; and there is some reason to think that the name of pirate arose from the ancient appellation of its inhabitants, though it is derived by Greek lexicograpliers from πειρω or from πειραω. Piracy was here reduced to a fyftem : but the chief fortreffes of the de. predators were destroyed by admiral Watson and commodore (afterwards fir William) James.
The settlement and the various fortunes of Goa are next described. It was the principal seat of the apostle of the Indies, St. Francis de Xavier; and, though he died off the coast of China, his body is preserved at Goa. At this place the turkey was first introduced by the Portuguese. The fact is mentioned in the memoirs of Jehan-ghir, translated by Mr. Gladwin.
Arriving at 15° of north latitude, we meet with the kingdom of Canhara, assigned to Tippoo in the treaty of partition. A little below, at Mergee, brigadier-general Matthews landed from Bombay, to attack Tippoo in the heart of his