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Ichthyocilla (ιχθυοκολλα, from ιχθυς a fh, and κολλα glue). Ilinglass; a glutinous fubftance prepared from fishes.

Ichthyolitius (ιχθυολιθος, from ιχθυς affh, and λιθος a ftone). A ftone having the figure of a fifh upon its surface.

Icofandria (Eixot aydpla, from -eixoor twenty, and aimp a man). A class of plants, fo nained because they have twenty or more chives or male parts of fructification, "Itérias (1XT Eplats, from ixt&pos the jaundice).

the jaundice). A stone so called from its dull yellow colour.

· Iftéricus (oXTepimos, from ixtepos the jaundice). Jaundiced. Applied to fevers accompanied with the jaundice.

I&teritia (from ičterus the jaundice). An eruption of yellowish spots. A yellow discoloration of the skin without fever, called chlorofis.

Isterócies, (integwdns, from intepos the jaundice). .The same as Ixtericus.' P. 386.

The chief fault in the work is, that some of the definitions are too concise for those medical students who have made little progress either in classical learning or in professional studies. · Experiments on the Insensible Perspiration of the Human Body, shew

ing its Affinity to Respiration. Published originally in 1779, and now' republished with Additions and Corrections. By William Cruikshank. Svo. 35. Nicol.

These experiments were originally offered to the public in 1779; and Mr. Cruikthank's attention seems to have been fince called to them by the different conclusions which Dr. Priestley has drawn from them. The ingenious trials and deductions of Mr. Abernethy on the same subject may, however, have had some share in bringing our author again to the confideration of these points.

A minute description is first given of the cuticle; and the opinions that have been maintained by anatomists concerning its nature, are stated. Mr. Cruikshank is inclined to believe that pores really exist either in the curicle or the rete mucofum ; but the arguments by which he endeavours to prove that these pores are organised and connected with the extremities of the exhalant arteries, and, though invisible in the dead separated cuticle, still exist, and are fufficiently dilated in the erected ftate of the extremities of the vessels of the living and perspiring skin, are not entirely satisfactory, though apparently forcible.

On the white filaments passing between the cuticle and cutis, as described by Dr. Hunter, our author has made fome observations; and he concludes, that, if they be really processes of the cuticle and rete mucisum, he can demonstrate three classes of processes in these membranes.

! The first line the pores, through which the hairs pass; these are the longest, and generally have the largest diameter. The fecond class are easily distinguished on the inside of the cuticte

which covers the palms of the hands or foles of the feet, or indeed on any part of cuticle; they line those pores described by Grew, and which Winslow calls the ducts of glands; they are short, compared to the former, are transparent on the sides, and have a white line in the centre, which he does not well understand ; they appear, in regular order, on those parts of the cuticle which correspond to the parallel, or spiral ridges of the cutis. The abovementioned filaments, perhaps constitute the third class, are longer than the last, and more slender than any of the former.' P. 26.

The writer afterwards informs us, that, although he has not seen vessels in the cuticle or rete mucosum, he has with success injected a membrane, between the rete mucosum and the cutis, in the skin of those who have died of the small pox. He therefore considers the membranes lying on the surface of the true skin as amounting to five, each of which is a real or incipient cuticle.

From several of the experiments, it appears, that the size of the body, the quantum of food received into it, the vigour with which the system is acting, the paffions of the mind, and the external heat or cold, may produce considerable variation in the quantity of the insensible perspiration.

Some of the conclusions in the pamphlet are not, in our opinion, fatisfactory; and we are surprised that Mr. Cruikshank should have suffered such observations to remain, after the princi. ples and reasoning of that science on which they chiefly depended, had undergone such important changes. In many respects, howa ever, the tract is ingenious and valuable.

RELIGION. Historical and Familiar Esays, on the Scriptures of the New Tefta

ment. By John Collier, Author of Elays on the Jewish History and Old Testament, 2 Vols. 8vo. 145. Boards. Scarlett. 1797.

We have here a complete view of the history of the chief persons in the New Testament, and of the doctrines which they taught, The essays are written in an easy and familiar manner, and may prove useful to such families as employ their Sundays in religious ftudies. We could have wished, however, that the author had di. stinguished between facts and relations of doubtful authority. Thus we have an account of the deaths of Peter and Paul, without any reference to the books on which this relation is suppofed to be founded; and the uninformed reader may imagine that these circumstances are of equal authority with the history of our Saviour.

• During Paul's second visit (fays Mr. Collier) to the churches in Crete, since his release from Rome, while he was busily employed in re&tifying the errors, and regulating the societies in that illand, news was brought of Nero's accusation of the Christians, and the


perfecution at Rome. The crime laid to their charge was no less than their being accessaries to the late most destructive conflagration of the city. Paul, alarmed for his friends, their sufferings and danger, thought his presence might be of use to the brethren, and he determined to set fail immediately for Italy.

The magistrates well knew the emperor's mind, his inveteracy and prejudice against the Chriftians, and of what was laid to their charge. As the head of the party, Paul's active zeal could not efcape their notice, and they foon filenced him by imprisonment secured his person in a common jail, and loaded him with irons, The crime of which he was accused was fedition an accessary to the conflagration of Rome.

Alarmied at the rage of the Tribunes and the threats of the emperor, the brethren all fied, not one of them appeared in court on his trial, or when he made his defence, and gave in his answer.

· Nero pasled sentence of death on Paul. Peter and this glorious confessor were executed on one and the same day. Peter was cru, cified, and on the cross, at his humble request, his head hung down, wards,

Paul, as a Roman citizen, was beheaded. Three miles from Rome, at Aquæ Salviæ, in the thirteenth year of the reign of Nero, on the twenty-ninth of June, in the year 66, Paul laid his head on the fatal block. His body was given to his disciples, fome of whom, having taken courage, stood forrowing near, and they paid it funeral honours, burying him in the Via Ostensis, two miles' only from Rome,

• The executioner, and two others who were fpectators, struck with the behaviour of Paul, became converts to Christianity, and all three of the suffered martyrdom. The day of the death of Paul, one of the Fathers aflirms, was far more memorable than the day of the death of Alexander.--As venerable relicks, his chains are hung up in Rome, and in the year 318, Conftantine, the first Christian emperor, built over his fepulchre a magnificent church " Sacred to the memory of Paul.”

Vol. ii. P. 229.' All this is tradition; and why should we affect to be wise abovę what is written? The holy scriptures will not be less true, because little is known of the first teachers of Christianity after the performance of their mission. A Discourse preached before the Corps of Hampshire Fawley Voluna

teers, at the Church of St. Thomas, in the City of Winchester, on Sunday, March 19, 1797. By George Ifaac Huntingford, D.D. &c. 8vo. Cadell and Davies. 1797.

From the fourth chapter of Nehemiah (ver. 14), Dr. Huntingford takes occafion to point out the duties of the association before which he preached, the situation of thecountry, the nature of the hoftilities that are to be repelled, and the importance of the liberty

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and property which we have to guard. The language is easy, sometimes elegant ; and the sentiments are apposite and manly. , On Benevolence and Philanthropy; an occafivnal Sermon : preached

by the Author, in the Parish Church of Theddlethorpe, All Saints, upon the Lindsey Coast, in the County and Diocese of Lincoln ; at the particular Request of the Louth Independent Volunteer Yeomanry Cavalry, on the 21st Day of May, 1797. By the Rev, Francis Burton, Vicar of Theddlethorpe. 8vo. 15. Johnson, 1797

The benefits that would accrue from univerfal benevolence to human beings, form the subject of this discourse, in which we discover more of pious intention than of ability. Mr. Burton ap- , pears to be unaccustomed to composition; or perhaps he confiders its niceties as unnecessary in the service of the fanctuary ; an error which cannot but be discovered when preachers are defired, as in this case, to publis. Daniel's Seventy Weeks. A Sermon, preached at Sion-Chapel, on

Sunday Afternoon, September 18, 1796, to the Jerus. By Wil liam Cooper. Being his second Address to that People. Svo. 6d. Chapman.

Our opinion of Mr. Cooper's first address to the Jews may be seen in our XVIIIth Vol. (New Arr.) p. 232; and the present effusion gives us no opportunity of retra&ting what might be deemed unfavourable. The cause of real Christianity is greatly injured by the intrusion of those illiterate persons who cannot, by a rational use of the Scriptures, compensate their want of information in the science and history of religion, and who amuse themselves with dogmas which neither they nor their auditors can comprehend. The Favour of God the only Security in national Danger. A Sermon

preached at the Parish Church of St. Laurence Jezury, on Sunday, the 12th of August, 1798, before the Guild hall Volunteer Affociation. By William Lucas, A. M. Chaplain to the Asociation, 4to.

is. Robinsons. 1798. However we may disapprove the mixture of politics with theblogy, we cannot censure a minister of the church for inculcating on his auditors the importance and the necessity of the divine aid in all human operations *; and, however we may differ from the preacher whose discourse is now before 115, with regard to the ori. ginal justice' of the war, or the generosity and honour' with which it has been prosecuted on our part, we are ready to applaud the zeal with which he is animated, and which he endeavours to dif

* The text of this sermon is, " They got not the laud in poffeffion hy their own sword, neither did their own arm save them ; but thy right hand, and thine arm, and the light of thy countenance, because thou hadít a favour unte them.'

fufe around him, at a time when our country is endangered by the resentment and the menaces of a powerful enemy.

As some persons might be induced to think that a confidence in the favor of Heaven would ensure victory in war or great advantages in peace, without the exertions of individuals, Mr. Lucas properly combats this ó enthusiastic notion;' and not only urges the expediency of acting with prudence and vigor, but of pursuing a course of piety and devotion, that the blessing of Heaven may attend our endeavours. He might have quoted a passage from St. Paul in support of his arguments on this head : • I have planted; Apollos watered; but God gave the increase.' The Almighty did not give the increase to those who, from a blind expectation of his favor, indulged in liftless inactivity, but to those who exercised their industry and were usefully diligent.

This sermon is well adapted to the occasion on which it was delivered. The observations are such as seem naturally to flow from the subject; and the whole is an artless and unaffected appeal to the patriotism of armed volunteers. The preacher has in general tempered his zeal with discretion, and has not, like many of his brethren, poured forth virulent invectives against the enemy. His style is neat rather than elegant ; it is sometimes too familiar, and not always accurate : but, upon the whole, we may recommend the discourse as worthy of public approbation. We cannot dismiss it without informing our readers, that it gave great fatisfaction to the gentlemen before whom it was preached, and that they not only requested their chaplain to print it, but presented him with a sum of money adequate to the whole expense of publication.

EDUCATION. Youth's Miscellany; or, a Father's Gift to his Children: confifting

of original Esays, moral and literary; Tales, Fables, Refle&tions, &c. intended to promote a Love of Virtue and Learning, to correct the Judyment, to improve the taste, and to humanize the Mind, By the Author of the Juvenile Olio, &c. &c. 12mo. 45. Boards. Newbery. 1798.

This miscellany, we think, will answer the intention of the ingenious author. Curiosity is excited by the variety of topics introduced ; and the serious essays are so happily relieved by lighter matter, that we may venture to recommend it as an acceptable present to the young of both sexes. Tales for Youth, or the High Road to Renown, through the Paths of

*Pleasure; being a Collection of Tales illuftrative of an Alphabetical Arrangement of Subjects, the Observance of which will enable Young Men to arrive with Refpectability at the Pinnacle of Fame. Small 8vo. 35. Boards. Lane. 1797. The vulgarity of this title is an earnest of the coarse manner in

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