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The candidates must have a clear understanding of such subjects as the philosophic principles of the Haute Grammaire, and of logic, the rules of art, the canons of taste, and the philosophy of history. They must have studied not only the present French code, but also the principles of common law.

It is obvious that such work cannot be accomplished by mere cramming. Women who are really prepared for such an examination must have made the knowledge acquired a part of themselves; must have developed their minds by it, so that they may truly be called wise. We

range over so many things, that we are coming to measure the value of acquirements by their variety; and we have fallen so far into thinking thoroughness means a multitude of details, that the simpler education of French women may seem scanty. No mistake could be greater; for it admits of incontestable proof that the well-trained French woman is more than the equal of the English or the American. I mean, of course, to


those who have had the best of the distinctive training of each country.

Such a French woman has a steadiness of judgment and a clearness of reason that seizes the vital point in a question, and weighs and decides justly..

If ever we quit creating French women from our own fancy, out of the mateterials of romances and fashion-plates, we shall find the real women the most sensible, the intelligent companions for men, because the most nearly their equals; and what may seem an anti-climax, but what is of vital interest to us in the lessons they can teach, they are the model business women of the world.-Magazine.

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OBEDIENCE.—The first requisite of a school is obedience, either voluntary or compulsory. Nothing so alarms a teacher as an indication among his pupils of self-will or indifference in regard to his rules ; but he who cannot secure a rigid compliance with his requirements, will fail to accomplish what he undertakes, and may well stop to inquire “What is the trouble?” No matter how limited this experience, he who has made a conscientious preparation to enter into the field of teachers, by becoming himself obedient to the law of God, as found in the ten commandments, must and will succeed.—Mrs. H. S. ZOLLER, Douglas Center.

The purest joys of earth are like those eastern birds whose beauty is in their wings.

Men blame themselves only for the purpose of being praised Rochefoucauld. A JOYLESS life is worse to bear than one of active grief.–Faber.

2Vol. II, No. 12.

Official Department.


Prepared by the Assistant Superintendent. Q. If a district clerk leaves home for an indefinite period and leaves word that he does not want the office, should the office be considered vacant, and filled by appointment?

A. This would be proper.

Q. If the man comes back, and attends annual meeting, after the election of another clerk without objection on his part can he claim the office himself?

A. His claim, under such circumstances, would not be a sufficient reason for setting aside the election, nor is it likely he would be adjudged the office on a quo warranto.

Q. If a director needlessly and persistently refuses to approve the bond of the treasurer, what can be done?

A. Each member of the board exercises his judgment as to the sufficiency of the treasurer's bond. If a refusal to approve is thought to proceed from malicious motives, and to amount to neglect of duty, a petition can be made to the county judge for removal.

Q. If a treasurer is re-elected, must he give a new bond, or is his old bond in full force?

A. His bondsmen are not liable on his new term, without their own renewed consent, which should be expressed by a new bond.

Q. If a district treasurer refuses to settle with the district board, as provided in Section 38 of the School Law, what can be done?

A. A district officer is liable to removal from office for neglect of duty (Sec. 124), and a refusal by any officer to pay over money, lawfully demanded, is deemed embezzlement of the same. (See p. 62, School Code.)

Q. What evidence of a vacancy authorizes a town clerk to appoint a district officer?

A. The certificate of the other two members of the board, or the remaining member, if there be but one, with request for appointment.

Q. If a district vote to raise more money to build a school-house than the law allows, is such vote legalized by obtaining the consent of the town board?

A. The consent of the town board to raise an extra amount should be obtained first, and the vote to raise it taken afterwards.

Q. If notice is given on the 4th of a special meeting on the 9th of the same month, is the notice sufficient?

A. It would not be six full days, and strictly considered would not be sufficient. (R. S., chap. 140, sec. 52.)

Q. Can a town board alter a district in the month of November, when it is known the district board will not consent, and that the alteration cannot take effect for three months? Should they not wait till the 1st of April? A. The order for alteration


be passed at any time. The time when such alteration can take effect is regulated by law. In this case, it could not take effect before the 1st of April.

Q. Can school be taught on Saturday, and counted, if the district wish it?

A. That is the interpretation put upon the law; but Saturday cannot be counted, unless it is so specified in the contract with the teacher.

Q. In case a town returns to the single-district system, are all the district offices to be considered vacant, and filled by a new election, or by appointment?

A. The districts each have a clerk, who should request the town clerk to fill the other offices, till annual meeting comes round.

Q. Is it the duty of the county superintendent to grant private examinations, if asked ?

A. He has the power to do so, under section 94, but it cannot ordinarily be considered his duty, until the regular examinations are over -nor at any time without the 6 satisfactory proof” named in the section.

Q. If the director and treasurer hire a teacher, is it necessary that the clerk should sign the contract, or are their signatures sufficient?

A. Yes, any two members of the board can hire, but a meeting of the board must first be called. (See sec. 46 School Code and comments.)

Q. Can the secretary of a town board be hired by the other two members of the executive committee to teach one of the schools?

A. As in the case of a district clerk, who wishes to teach, the the proper way is to resign, and let some one else hold the office duthe term of school.

Q. Can an additional school house legally be built separate from the old one on a different site?

A. There is nothing in the law prohibiting it. Sometimes it is thought better to have primary school houses in separate buildings. Ordinarily, a country district needs but one site and one house.

INNOCENCE is like polished armor, it adorns and it defends-South.

Query and Scrap Box.

QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 41.-A horse was sold for $39, and the number of per cent. gain equalled the number of dollars cost; what was the cost? cts. 3

cts. (1) 3900. / 100=cost +100. (2) 2200.4736 | 118.56=cost + 100. 390



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In the last case we get one factor, which being squared, produces the given number; in the other cases we get two factors, one being 100 more than the other. By examining all, the work can be understood and the principle applied. I think they are better solved by algebra. Á selling price +25–5.0=cost. 39. +25.-5.=3. 3 x 10=cost.-J. B.-Fond du Lac.

64. Is the Coral an insect?

The coral is not an insect but an animal. Warren calls the Coral the calcareous secretion of many kinds of zoophytes. These zoophytes he considers to be small marine animals. He afterwards speaks of the coral animals. He afterwards speaks of the coral insect, which a contradiction of the above definition, and which we are led to believe is incorrect. Webster also defines a Zoophyte to be a simple polyp, and a polyp to be an aquatic animal.-D. M.

Questions 63 and 64, in regard to the coral, seem to have been sufficiently discussed, but we insert the foregoing as embracing a criticism on Warren. D. M. also answers 53 and 57, which have perhaps been answered sufficiently before.

90.-A. B. C., and G. H. D., of Janesville, have sent answers to this question, the same as previously published.

93.- What is the best method of teaching the alphabet ? The object method.-D. M.

97.—A blackleg purchased a hat for $10, and gave in payment a $50 bill. The hatter called on a merchant near by, who changed the note for him, and the blackleg having received his $40 change [not $42 as printed] departed. The next day the merchant ascertained the note to be counterfeit, and called upon the hatter, who was compelled immediately to borrow $50 from another friend to redeem it with. Provided the blackleg could not be found, what was the hatter's loss ?

This becomes quite simple, when we consider that the merchant lost nothing by the swindler; and the hatter could not lose more than the gambler carried away. Now since he came with a worthless piece of paper and left with $40 in cash and a hat worth $10, the sum of these, or $50, is the loss of the hatter.ALUMNUS, Waukesha.

Answered also by K. SPOOR, Brandon.

97.-An old man married a young woman; their united ages amounted to C. The man's age multiplied by four and divided by nine gives the woman's age. What were their respective ages ?

This example is not mathematical, because it gives three unknown quantities and only two conditions or equations. All that can possibly be determined is that their ages are as four to nine. Probably it would satisfy the proposer of the problem to say:—let twenty years be the age of the woman, then that of the man must be forty-five,—but any two numbers bearing the above ratio will satisfy the conditions given, hence their ages are indeterminable.-16. ANOTHER SOLUTION.—Let x represent the man's age, and y the woman's:

Then x+y=100 (or C.)


x=9y+4. Then by substitution, 9y:-4 for a, y +(97-4)=100; 13y+4=100; 13y=400; y=3044 years; x=(100-3013)=6935 years.—Theo. KuDER, Milwaukee.

Answered also, with same result, (assuming C to mean 100) by A. S. CHLOUPEK, K08suth, and H. NEILL, Alloa, and by J. B., Fond du Lac, and V. U., Eagle, calling C an unknown number.

98.-If a wolf can devour a sheep in % of an hour, and a bear in 4 of an hour, how long would it take them together to devour what remained of a sheep after the wolf had been eating 12 an hour ?

The wolf eats sheep in one hour, the bear eats sheep in one hour; both eat ($+$)=f sheep in one hour: when the wolf eats 4 of an hour he devours (1 of 4)=4 sheep, and there remains to be devoured by both wolf and bear; as they devour $i sheep in one hour (4:11) represents the time=***i= hours.-J. B., Fond du Lac.

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