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the teacher is made. The lack of wisdom becomes manifest only when the time comes to secure the equivalent for this outlay.
This species of management would be less absurd were the loss of advantages in exact proportion to the loss of time by absence from school. But every teacher, as well as every intelligent person of any other class, knows that this is not the case. An average attendance of sixty-five per cent. of the pupils enrolled in any school does not, supposing the teachers' wages to represent the exact value of their services, secure to the district a return so great as sixty-five per cent. of what is expended. The injurious effect of frequent absences upon the school as a whole, must also be taken into the account.
While good reason may exist for a small part of this irregularity in attendance, it has, as a whole, no valid excuse.
The frivolous pretexts commonly assigned, only betray the extreme indifference of those who give them, not only to the highest interests of the children, but their more surprising lack of judgment in the expenditure of their money. Could a correct statement be made of the great waste of
money which the public allows to pass unnoticed in this way, it would be found, taking in the whole country, to exceed all the frauds, either proved or alleged, against corrupt public servants.
ORIGIN OF NAMES OF DAYS OF THE WEEK. In the museum of Berlin, in the hall devoted to northern antiquities, they have the representations of the idols from the names of which the days of our week are derived. From the idol of the Sun comes Sunday. This idol is represented with his face like the sun, holding a burning wheel, with both hands on his breast, signifying his course round the world. The idol of the Moon, from which comes Monday, is habited in a short coat, like a man, but holding the moon in his hands. Tuisco, from which comes Tuesday, was one of the most ancient and popular gods of the Germans, and is represented in his garments of skin, according to their peculiar manner of clothing. The third day of the week was dedicated to his worship. Woden, from which comes Wednesday, was a valiant prince amon the Saxons. His image was prayed to for victory. Thor, from whence Thursday, is seated in a bed, with twelve stars over his head, holding a scepter in his hand. Friga, from whence we have Friday, is represented with a drawn sword in her right hand, and a bow in her left. Seater, from which is Saturday, has the appearance of perfect wretchedness; he is thin-visaged, long-haired, with a long beard. He carries a pail of water in his right hand, wherein are fruits and flowers.—Mrs. S. C. SIRRINE, Plainfield, Waushara Co.
But it is our own school we want most to talk about–Joint District No.1, North Side. We are now putting the roof on our building, which is of brick, with Joliet marble
trimmings. It is 64x84 feet, three stories and a basement; was designed by G. P. RANDALL, Esq., of Chicago, and his best, too. It will cost $33,000. We have $4,000 to furnish it when it is ready to occupy.
Contractor ThomAS WINDIATE, Esq., of the Windiate House, Manitowoc, is to have the building ready to occupy January 1st, 1873. It has four school-rooms on the first floor, and four on the second, and two school-rooms and an assembly room on the third. It adjoins the public park, which serves as a famous play ground for the pupils; the park is nearly covered by a fine natural growth of pine, white birch and oak. The view from any of the windows is varied and pleasing; from three sides the lake and city form a part; the other, city, river, harbor and country. WM. PHIPPS, Esq., is general superintendent of the building. Our teachers are: that worthy gentleman, I. N. ŠTEWART, Esq., Principal ; Miss E. A. GUYLES, Assistant; Mrs. I. N. STEWART, Principal Intermediate, Miss ELLA SACKETT, Assistant; Miss SARAH_BURNETT, Principal in 2nd Intermediate, with Miss JOSIE YOUNG, Assistant; East Primary, Miss FANNIE O'CONNOR, Miss ANNIE NAGLIE, Assistant; West Primary, Miss GERTIE SIBREE.
The district has had to borrow money to build with. It is too bad that the state will invest the school fund in such a manner that school districts cannot borrow it. Milwaukee city water works are now having the benefit of our school fund, at 7 per cent. or less, while our schools, for whose benefit in part the fund is, have to pay 10 per cent. for money to build with. Why should not school purposes have the first right to the use and benefit of the school fund ?
Our Institute, which enrolled 115 members, had 90 present and ready for business on Monday, at 10 o'clock, A. M. Where do you beat that ?-JOHN LANTRY, Clerk of Joint District, No. 1.
MAUSTON.—A normal class of twenty-four members, nearly all of whom will teach in Juneau county this winter, has been in training in the High School here, under care of H. E. HOARD, Principal.
ROCHESTER SEMINARY.-J. H. GOULD remains in charge here another year, instead of taking a position at Necedah, as we supposed. The Catalogue for 1871-2 shows an attendance of 85 pupils. A Normal class is maintained.
WAUSAU.—The corps of teachers at present is as follows: G. M. BOWEN, formerly of Jefferson, principal; Miss CHAMBERLAIN, assistant; Miss M.J.THOMPson, intermediate, and Miss LINN, a former teacher, primary. Another primary school is to be in charge of Miss SARAH STROWBRIDGE. At the annual school meeting, the city added $4,000 to its present fund, $8,000, and voted to proceed immediately with the erection of a high-school building, to cost at least $12,000. It also voted to seat the old building with first class furniture. Mr. BOWEN, the principal, our informant adds, has so far acquitted himself well, and the schools are in a good condition.
KINDERGARTEN.—Circular of Information of Bureau of Education, for July
1871. Washington: Government Printing Office. We have received a copy of this pamplet from Gen. EATON, the Comissioner of Education. It contains a letter from the Commissioner to the Secretary of the Interior, on The Philosophy and Methods of the Kindergarten, for teachers in Italy, by Baroness Marenholtz Bulow, translated by Elizabeth P. Peabody, with an introduction; a translation of the Introduction to a practical work on Kindergarten in Belgium, recently published in Paris, and an Extract, upon the general subject from SCHMIDT'S Pedagogical Encyclopedia. The publication will we think, prove both timely and valuable.
1 (Ad.)-VOL. II, No. 11.
FELTER'S NEW PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC. Prepared by SELIM H. PEABODY,
A.M., Professor in Massachusetts Agricultural College, author of “Elements of Astronomy," etc. New York: Scribner, Armstrong & Co.
Formerly a prominent teacher in this state, and more recently in Chicago, Mr. Peabody's book will interest Wisconsin teachers. On examination it will be found eminently practical, freed from obsolete matter and brought up to the business wants of the day: Considerable
space is devoted in the concluding sections to Mensuration and Mechanics, and Ratio and Proportion are treated—we think wisely-with more than ordinary fulness. The “point of attack” in the book is “work”-a somewhat new feature in American text-books on Arithmetic. Exercises in Greek, Prose Composition. Part I., by ELISHA JONES, Professor of
Greek in the University of Michigan. Part II., by Jas. R. BOISE, Professor in the University of Chicago. S. C. Griggs & Co., Chicago.
The aim of Part I-the one before us—is a systematic drill in the more important principles of Greek syntax, with references to the grammars of Hadley, Goodwin and Kühner, with either of which it may be used. The style of the Anabasis is the one chiefly developed, and the book is an excellent preparation, not only for a more extended study of that work, but of the language generally. A sufficient vocabulary is appended. The mechanical execution of the book is certainly a credit to the new publishing house of S. C. Griggs & Co.
PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. A WESTERN PUBLISHING HOUSE.-In noticing, some time since, the new establishment of Jansen, McClurg & Co., in Chicago, and more recently the publication of two or three books, we fell into an inadvertence. The new firm succeed S. C. Griggs & Co. only in the Bookselling and Stationery business; the latter now devote themselves exclusively to their own publications, and propose to build up in Chicago a publishing house equal in character and influence, to that which they had gained as Booksellers. In the past 90 days, they have issued Peterson's Norwegian, Danish and German Readers, Thompson's First Book in Latin, Jones' Greek Prose Composition, and Boise & Freeman's Selections from Greek Authors; all of which we think may be shown with no discredit, beside any works yet issued from the American press. Messrs. Griggs & Co. have other works in press, soon to appear.
The Chicago Evening Post says: “S. C. Griggs, for so many years eminently connected with the book trade, is entitled to the original credit of adding to the culture and literary growth of the West a publishing house in Chicago for the issuance of first-class educational literature.”
The Post appropriately adds that “the publication of standard works, especially classical, in Chicago, will confer direct benefit upon the entire Western people, that Mr. Griggs has undertaken no trifling task, and that the whole West should help him bear the burden."
OMAHA.—The Omaha Board of Education recently adopted for the public schools of that city,McGuffey's Reader and Speller, The Eclectic Geographies, White's Arithmetics, Harvey's Grammar, and Venable's U. S. History.
LESSONS IN COMPOSITION.–Any School Superintendent who has not examined Hart's First Lessons in Composition, will be furnished a copy for examination, without charge, by addressing the publishers, Eldredge & Brother, No. 17, North Seventh Street, Philadelphia.
C. L. HART, M. D., OPHTHALMIC AND AURAL SURGEON.
DR. HART, A GRADUATE OF THE NEW YORK OPHTHALMIC HOSPITAL COLLEGE, and thoroughly educated as specialist in diseases of the EYE and Ear, takes pleasure in announce ing to persons thus afflicted that he is permanently located in Madison, and is prepared to give his patrons the benefit of the most modern and approved method of treatment.
REFERENCES.-J. H. Twombly, D.D., President of the State University; Samuel Fallows, D.
RESIDENCE.--32 MIFFLIN STREET, corner Butler street.
GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR.
EDITORS JOURNAL: I send you for publication in the JOURNAL, or for the waste paper basket, a hint or two regarding that much neglected subject, Greatest Common Divisor.
I copy from Robinson's Higher Arithmetic, page 77, Ex. 3: What is the G. C. D. of 42, 63, 126 and 189? The work on the blackboard would appear thus: *4*, 21, 63, 120, 180; 21 is the G. C. D.
Explanation.—Omitting multiples, I have 42 and 63. The G. C. D. can not be greater than 42. It is not 42; so it cannot be greater than one half of 42, or 21. 21, by trial, is the G. C. D.
Again, Ex. 6. What is the G. C. D. of 216, 360, 432, 648 and 936? 219, 360, 492, C., 936, 72 is the G. C. D. 100 172
The G. C. D. can not be greater than the smallest number, 216, but it may be 216. By inspection, I find that 216 is not the G.C. D. Since 216 is not the G. C. D., it can not be greater than one half of 216, or 108. By inspection, 108 is not the G. C. D. Since one half of 216 is not the G. C. D., it can not be greater than one third of 216 or 72. By trial, 72 is the C. G. D.
Of course all this must be preceded by thorough drill in the principles discussed by Robinson under the head of Exact Divisors, Page 65.
Taking Ex. 6 again, the G. C. D. may be readily found thus: 216, 360, 432, 648, 936. I see at once that 360 contains the factor 5, not found in the others. Taking out 5 I have 72, which, by trial, I find to be the G. C. D.
So, with Ex. 7: 102, 153, 255. Rejecting the factor 5 from 255, because it is not found in 102 and 53, and therefore cannot be the factor o'the G. C. D., I have 51, which, by trial, I find to be the G. C. D.
Again, taxing Ex. 1; 40, 75, 100. 40 is even, 75 is odd. Rejecting the factor 2 from 40 as often as it is contained in it, we get 5, which must be the G. C. D. if there be one. It is plain 5 is the G. C. D.
By a little practice in these methods, pupils are able to give the G. C. D. of such simple numbers as I have used, especially as the teacher can write them on the blackboard. Better still, they find little or no trouble in understanding the “why” add the “ wherefore.”—A. J. HUTTON, West Eau Claire.
It is easy to look down on others; to look down on ourselves is the difficulty.- Landor.
* Cancellation indicated by white line across the type.
THE TRAINING OF FEMALE TEACHERS IN FRANCE.
No person is allowed to teach in France without a government certificate, or “brevet de capacité.” This is furnished, after the prescribed examinations, by the rector of the academy of the department to which the applicant belongs. Such certificate can be used only within the department in which it is given; but the certificates given in Paris are valid throughout the country. Confining our inquiry only to women, we find these examinations succeeding each other at intervals of about three years. The first is passed at about eighteen, and is limited to the elements of education in its simplest branches. Yet great accuracy is insisted upon; and, unquestionably, one may be that a person who has passed it knows thoroughly the work she has undertaken. She cannot be wholly ignorant of domestic economy, or the business talent requisite for country women. She must be able to make a shirt for a man, and a chemise for a woman; and know how to teach the sewing of all kinds of seams, and the simpler sorts of embroidery.
Successful candidates, who pursue no further studies, expect to be employed in the lowest primary schools in the country villages, or as governesses for
very young children. The second examination requires a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the French language,-its history, grammar and literature,-a good understanding of arithmetic, and plane geometry. (The French do not make so much of algebra for girls as we do.) She must also know history, ancient and modern, the elements of natural science, and be acquainted with general literature,-not merely as one gains it from compendiums, etc., but from actual study of the works themselves. Although a knowledge of Latin and Greek is not expected, the examination presupposes veritable study of the classics by means of translations. This certificate entitles a woman to a place in the higher primary schools; or if she wishes to open a private school, she has a right to call it a pension. The larger portion of private governesses for
ladies are of this class. This explains the parenthetic diplomée which appears in the Times advertisements of French governesses. A Russian or German family in Paris, desiring to engage a governess, would first of all ask for her diploma.
The third certificate permits a woman to open an institution in which those of the second grade may hold the position of sous-maitresses. It is rarely taken by a person under twenty-four years of age. It requires not only a knowledge of books and facts, but also a maturity of reason and judgment only attained by long and patient study.