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miles. The entire site is traversed by two sets of streets from 70 to 100 feet wide, at right angles to one another; the whole being intersected obliquely by fifteen avenues, from 130 to 160 feet wide. It is also called the “Executive City,” and sometimes the “ Federal City."
Rochester is called the “Flour City, owing to the great number of its flouring mills, some of which are said to be the largest in the world.
Springfield, Illinois, is also called the “ Flower City,” being distinguished for the beauty of its surroundings.
Pittsburg is the “ Iron City," from its iron trade and manufactories. It is also emphatically called the “Smoky City."
Cleveland, from the number of original forest trees in its park and public square, is called the “ Forest City.”
Portland, Maine, is sometimes known by the same name. Louisville is known as the “ Fall City,” being situated at the falls of the Ohio river.
St. Louis is called the “ Mound City,” on account of the numerous artificial mounds that occupy the site on which the city is built.
“Crescent City” is a popular name for the city of New Orleans, the older portion of which is built around the convex side of a bend of the Mississippi river. The bend represents a crescent, or new moon. In the progress of its growth up stream, however, the city has now so extended itself as to fill the hollow of a curve in the opposite direction, so that the river front presents an outline resembling the letter S.
Ann Arbor is frequently known as the “Athens of the West."
Detroit is the “ City of Straits,” being situated on the stream that connects the two lakes, Erie and St. Clair.
Dubuque is the “ Key City,” as is said to open the doors of trade to the Northwest and Pacific. It was settled by the French in 1786.
Lowell is the “Spindle City,” from the great number of its cotton manufactories.
Milwaukee is the “Cream Colored City,” from the color of the bricks of which its houses are made.
Indianapolis is the “Railroad City,” from the number of railroads entering it. Twelve railroads now center in it, and it is the largest city in the United States not situated on some body of water. From 1860 to 1870, it increased in population from 18,000 to 51,000. Its present population is about 60,000.
Richmond, Indiana, is known as the “Quaker City of the West," as it is one of the principal settlements of Friends.
Keokuk is the "Gate City," a translation, I believe, of its Indian
La Fayette is the “Star City."
Chillicothe is called the “ Ancient Metropolis,” because it was the first capitol of Ohio. In 1810, the capitol was changed to Banesville, where it remained only two years, when it was moved to Columbus.
Montpelier is the “Green Mountain City,” being the capitol of the Green Mountain State.
Piqua, Ohio, is the “ Border City,” from its proximity to the border of Miami county, in which it is situated.
St Paul is the “ Diadem City,” since it occupies the chief place in the civic crown of the Northwest.
Chicago is called the “Garden City,” from the great number and beauty of its private gardens.
Galena is the “ Lead City," from the vast quantities of lead ore found in its vicinity.
Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, is called the “Fountain City,” from the multiplicity of its fountains.
Nashville is known as the “ City of Rocks.”
Brooklyn is known as the “City of Churches," from the large number of churches it contains.- Indiana School Journal.
THE ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF THE FUTURE.
James Russell Lowell is said to have remarked, not long ago, that if he could command the requisite time he would make a dictionary of the English Language. We may fairly infer from this that in his opinion existing dictionaries are not what they should be; and it is safe to say that our best scholars and writers heartily agree with him. On this side of the Atlantic, at least, there is no unimpeachable authority, no final tribunal, in questions of language. Webster rules here, Worcester there, and elsewhere is chaos. There is something postively ridiculous in the thought that thirty millions of people have no means of knowing, beyond doubt, whether they talk and write their language correctly. When a question of orthography or pronunciation arises, they refer to Webster, who lays down a rule; but, refering to Worcester, they find a rule in direct contradiction of the first. " Who shall decide when doctors disagree?” The result of this disagreement of authorities is, of course, a breadth of licence in orthography and orthoepy which seriously impairs the symmetry of the language, and which must be almost as perplexing to the foreigner as the dialects of European nations are to us. It is easy to say that Webster or Worcester, as the case may be, is the only safe guide; but so long as a party, respectable in numbers and culture, raises an opposing cry—so long as his authority is questioned, indeed-neither can be such. Autocracy in language is no safer than in politics: one man should not be trusted to impose a code of laws for the government of speech and composition upon a whole people. Even Mr. Lowell accomplished philologist though he is, could not safely be invested with such despotic power. The days of the “King's English” have passed; and, in this country at least, the laws of language should be enacted according to the republican system.
Why can we not have a congress of authors and scholars which shall determinately adjust disputed points in language?-which shall tell us whether we shall spell honor with or without a u; whether we must say précedent or precédent; whether the i in squirrel should be sounded as in pit, according to the dictionaries, or as in bird, according to usage? These are points that occur to us as we write, and all that we have space to mention; but our readers can easily cite a multitude of cases of disagreement of authorities, and consequent perplexity to themselves. A congress, constituted, say, by the appointment of two delegates from each State of the Union, -men eminent
in scholarship and culture,-could, we believe, by a few weeks' work discose of the most glaring and grievous of these differences, and secure the desired uniformity of orthography and orthoepy on this continent, at least.
Their decision would possess a weight that no dictum of even the most learned lexicegrapher can carry, for the reason-one among many—that individual crochets and fancies, which in some minds are strong enough te resist even mathematical demonstration, would be overwhelmed by the voice of the majority. It could not, of course, be expected that this body would take cognizance of all the vexed questions that disturb the language, but it could, we confidently believe, lay down some general rules, and agree upon some general principles, that would go far toward improving and unifying the Englishor American--tongue.-Literary World.
TEACHER, BE CHEERFUL.--Show your pupils that you love your work. Let them see, in every movement, that you desire nothing so much as to do them good; and if such is your real desire, it will make you cheerful and happy. Greet your pupils with a pleasant smile as they come into your presence. It will cost you but little; it will do them immense good. You are to shed light on the little community around; let no dark clouds come between you and them, except such as their own wrong doings may cause.
Has it ever been your lot to be a pupil in a school whose teacher was a morose, uncongenial, capricious spirit, that cast a shadow on all around him? Nothing pleased him; nothing caused a cheerful look. He never smiled, never spoke in pleasant tones, often frowned, and always uttered words of censure and impatience. No one could have any respect for him. All felt a kind of unholy satisfaction in annoying him—to see the clouds thicken on his brow. All
“Learned to trace The day's disaster in his morning face.” Every memory of such a teacher, in after life, is sad and gloomy.
I have known a teacher whose cheerfulness was constant. She loved her pupils, and they, without exception, reciprocated her love. Her approving smile and pleasant words were all the reward they wished. How delightful the school with such a teacher to preside! and how pleasant all the memories that we cherish of such a school and such a teacher! Study to cultivate a constant spirit of genial cheerfulness. It will promote health and happiness. It will enlarge your usefulness and greatly increase your happiness. Be cheerful!—The School.
THE TRUE WORK of our Schools is not so much the acquisition of knowledge, as of the ability to acquire knowledge,
ENLARGE not on thy destiny, saith the oracle of old; endeavor not to do more than is given thee to do.
TEMPERANCE is corporal piety; it is the preservation of divine order in the body.--T. Parker.
He who procrastinates reform yields to Satan all he asks.
TIMELY THOUGHTS FROM REPORTS OF COUNTY SUPER
INTENDENTS. The following extracts from the last printed reports of some of our County Superintendents are worthy of consideration, at this season, when the important schools of the year are opening:
Rightly to educate children, teachers need very much knowledge not found in common text-books. One who is not a thinker cannot teach others to think. If he does not understand mind, then he is not prepared to control and develop it. Merely to “hear lessons” is a very small part of a teacher's work. Power of mind to stimulate thought, and such a knowledge of mind as will enable the teacher to reach it and bring it into healthy action, in the pupil, are essential to anything like success in educating. Very little of this is generally required of the teachers of our common schools. Yet through them the masses are to be reached, if at all. The work done in them will do more to give character to this nation, and to decide its destinies, than any other influence of the land. " Common school education is, therefore, one of the most important causes to which our attention can be directed. It is worthy of our best talent, energies and efforts. -J. W. Harris, Rock Co., First Dist.
Our teachers, as a rule, are exerting an influence in this county that is most potent for good. They marshal a host of girls and boys every day, through which they can, if they will, exert a mightier influence for good than all other persons beside. We may, however, except the parents.-Lyman Earle, Racine Co.
As a class, our teachers are wakeful, and aspiring to larger growth. Quite a number have recently undertaken a more extended course of instruction, either in the Normal School at Oshkosh, or the College in Ripon, and a short time since, if my memory serves me, full half a score of them expressed their entire willingness to assume my position, and carry on the labors from which I have waited to be relieved. We accept this consideration as an evidence of the growth and good will of our teachers, and cordially transfer our responsibility to those whom the public have selected for that purpose.-D. B. Lyon, Fond du Lac.
YOUNG TEACHERS. We have in this district 104 school-houses and 115 departments. About one-third of those departments are filled by able and experienced teachers; the balance are mostly young and inexperienced, though there are a few among the two-thirds that are in their dotage. The average experience of teachers in this district is only about fourteen months. More than two-thirds of our teachers are females. They teach nearly all of the schools in the summer, and also many in winter. Our female teachers, generally, commence teaching at about eighteen years of age, teach from one to three years, get married and quit the business, (except to teach their own children, which is a great desideratum.) Our male teachers, generally, follow the business till something else turns up that will pay better, so that, on the whole, we have but a very few that follow teaching as a business or profession.
Our schools suffer very much on accout of this state of things, and he who will prescribe the remedy must be considered a great benefactor. As long as the lad of eighteen, or the lass of sixteen years, does the teaching mainly, so long will our schools fall short of what they ought to be.-L. M. Benson, Dodge Co., West Dist.
A few of the leading schools have been supplied with better teachers than formerly, while a large majority are supplied with mere children as teachers-children in the eye of the school code and of statute law; and children in ability and maturity. More than two-thirds of those licensed are less than twenty years of age. Almost invariably, where these children are employed as teachers, a general apathy pervades the district, or a general disturbance is bred, and of course, the teacher is not employed in the same school for a second term. Now comes another child as teacher, and a renewal of the old scene.-W. E. Cady, Sheboygan Co.
Many of our leading educators think that, as a general rule, persons under the age of sixteen ought not to be allowed to teach. As the law now is, a superintendent can license a person of twelve or fifteen years
of age as a teacher. Would it not be well to take this authority from the superintendents and amend the law so that none under the age of sixteen can be licensed? We certainly need men and women, either self trained or otherwise, in our schools as teachers—not boys and girls, as persons under the age of sixteen can only be classed. C. E. Mears, Polk Co.
EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. I do not attempt to make the examinations difficult; my aim is simply to learn whether the applicant understands the branches to be taught in our schools well enough to teach them; whether he is of good moral character, and if he can govern well. I rely more upon the oral than upon the written method, assigning at least two days for the examination of each class; sometimes, when the class is very small, finishing in one, and again using three days.-Geo. Paton, La Crosse County.
I still continue the practice of teaching, or developing, whatever is suggested by my questions, (and I endeavor to render my questions suggestive of what the teachers should study and know, as well as to render them a test of their ability.) This teaching I do of course, after I have received the answers of them all. I am very confident that this practice is a good one, for even teachers who have not attended an Institute nor a Normal School, and who were once noted as those who do not improve, have improved during the past year; and they tell me and others that this practice is in a great measure the cause of it; but I assure all such that they would have improved far more had they attended a Normal School or an Institute, or both, and then had these suggestions in addition. Another reason for my considering this practice a good one, is that teachers are fast becoming anxious to have it continued. I also notice with pleasure that the average “standing of teachers,” is gradually improving; this shows that they study, and thus discharge a duty that no teacher should leave undone W. H. Holford, Grant Co.