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A Simple Remedy.—People who travel, especially when ascending mountains, complain of dryness of the throat, and, in the latter case, of shortness of breath. Teachers, ministers, lecturers, leave the hot room where they have been getting their langs and throats ready for inflammation and bronchitis, and step out into the cool or cold evening or night air, talking perhaps, and most of them will inhale a large quantity of the air they pant for through the mouth-especially when under the influence of a catarrh in the head. Throat and lung diseases are frequently the consequence of throwing wide open, as it were, the gate of the throat and lungs, the mouth, and exposing those excited, parched organs to the chilling air of this murdrous climate. To prevent this we must not only keep the mouth shut, thus breathing through the nose, but we must also induce a liberal amount of saliva to collect in the mouth, dry and hot from long talking. The saliva forms an efficient protection for the throat and lungs, and to cause its accumulation we have a very simple remedy- so simple that we fear but few will care to use it. It is this: Before leaving the room place a couple of lemon or gum drops in your mouth, keeping them there until they melt away. Large lemon drops are the best, as their slight acidity is grateful to the palate when thirsty. Whenever your drop has melted away, take another. Try it upder the burning sun of August when you climb a steep hill on your rambles, or in midwinter as you leave the church or school, and you will find relief from dryness, soreness, and many other evils that enter a mouth open to the parching air or penetrating chill.
Giants of Vegetation.-The largest tree in the world is a mammoth fir sin California, 450 feet high, which is higher than the tallest steeple in Europe-that of the cathedral of Strasbourg. A tree of the family entaktyptus in Vandieman's Land is 320 feet high, a Norfolk fir in New South Wales, 270. The oldest trees, however, in the opinion of scientific men are the baobab trees on the banks of the Senegal, the age of which is estimated at 5,750 years, while the mammoth firs of California have an age of 5,000 and the cedars of Lebanon of about 2,500 years.
Forks vs. Fingers.--Forks are a modern invention, and before they came into general use, people ate with their fingers. As late as 1636 a conservative English minister declared, in one of his sermons, that the use of prongs or forks is a perversion of the Divine laws, and a disgrace to godly people.
FLASHES OF THOUGHT.
SELECTED BY“ PEN.” HE who annihilates one law of nature annihilates all.-L. Fleuerbach. MATTER may change its form, but cannot be destroyed.-Rossmaesler. THE simplest truths are always the last to be discovered.-L. Fleuerbach. THE HNORANT call him a heretic whom they cannot confute.-Camponella. God is a blank tablet, containing nothing but what you write thereon.-Luther.
OUR MIND contains nothing which did not enter there rough the senses.-Moleschott.
COMPARED with the Universe what is man but an intelligent atom or a grain of sand?-Guillemin.
TO THE DIALECTORS.-The world is a conception; to the anateur, a picture; to the visionary, a dream, and to the investigator only a truth.-Orges.
TO THE STUDY of nature men may always look as a source of pure, unalloyed enjoyment, a spring which is never dry, a food which never satiates.-Ib.
IF I COULD make a luminous body move at the rate of 20 miles in a minute, that would be almost rest compared with the velocity of light.-Prof. Huggins.
MATTER is not like a wagon drawn by force instead of horses. A particle of iron is, and always will be, the same, wbether it traverses the universe, & meteor; or swiftly glides on the rail in the form of a car-wheel; or whether it courses in a poet's veins.-Dubois-Reymond.
IF YOU ASK ME the use of science I will begin by telling you the story of that good old American philosopher, Benj. Franklin, who, like Prometheus of old, first brought lightning down to the earth by the string of his kite. He was asked the use of his discovery, and he answered, “Tell me the use of an infant. Make it of use!" So in science, the infant truths must be made useful.-Prof. Roscoe.
WE ALL KNOW how in England political power is gradually being transferred to the masses of the people. Whether that transference proves a blessing or curse, depends on the people themselves. A people whose masses are without knowledge and without tastes for higher things than the mere struggle for existence can come to no good. The education bill passed last session will, let us hope, secure for every child the the rudiments of education; but to elevate the tastes of the people, to show how debasing are the habits to which many of them are chained,
and to point out the direction in which they must tread in order to be true and happy. This is even a more difficult and tedious task.-Prof. Roscoe.
TO MORTALS it seems that their deities have mortal form, clothing and speech. The negroes adore black idols with flat noses; the Thracians have deities with blue eyes and red hair. If oxen and lions had hands and could make images of their deities, they would create them after their own likeness.-Xenophanes.
THE RESULTS OF GENERAL EDUCATION. The following statements from the report of Gen. John Eaton, Commissioner of Education, serve to illustrate the proposition that where general education is most widely diffused, there will be the most intelligence, inventiveness, wealth and prosperity. The best educated people will also exhibit the most prowess in war, and the smallest proportion of criminal acts in time of peace. Said Semore, Minister of Public Instruction in France, in 1865, “ Show ine the nation that has the best schools, and I will show you the foremost nation.” This was amply proved in the Franco-German war, five years later. Judge Daggett, of Connecticut, was accustomed to ask any criminal arraigned before him, who could not read and write, where he was born; and in his long judicial career he received for answer but once or twice only,“ in Connecticut.” Gen. Eaton says:
“ The number of patents issued to the inhabitants of Arkansas was one to every 37,267 persons, while in Connecticut there was oue to every 695 persons. In Arkansas there are sixteen adults unable to write to every one hundred inhabitants; in Connecticut there are four adults unable to write to every one hundred inhabit ants. In Arkansas the receipts of internal revenue are twenty-six cents and nine mills per capita; in Connecticut the receipts are two dollars and fifty-four cents per capita. In Arkansas there resulted during the last year to the Post Office Departaient a dead loss of over forty-nine cents for each inhabitant of the State, a loss in amount almost double the internal revenue receipts from the State! In Connecticut there accrued a 'net profit to the Post Office Department of twenty-six cents per capita. In Florida there are twenty-three adnlts unable to write to every one hundred inhabitants. In that State one patent was issued to every 31,291 inhabitants, or only six in the entire State. The internal revenue collected amounted to sixty-four cents per capita of the entire population. From that State the Post Office Department suffered a loss of ninety-two cents per capita. Contrast this with California, where the number of patents issued was one to every 2,422 inhabitants, and the amount of internal revenue collected was six dollars and forty-three cents per capita! But in California there are only four adults unable to write to every one hundred of the inhabitants. In Tennessee twelve adults are unable to read and write to every one hundred inhabitants, and the State pays internal revenue at the rate of sixty-nine cents per capita; while Ohio, in which are four illiterate adults to every one hundred inhabitants, pays five dollars and sixty-eight cents internal revenue per capita.”
STATE CERTIFICATES. -Life Certificates have been awarded to the following persons: Miss Martha E. Hazard, Oshkosh; Volney Underhill, Eagle; Miss De Etta Howard, Janesville; Albert Salisbury, Brodhead. Certificates for five years Lave also beeu granted as follows: James Taylor Lunn, Sandusky; Clarence L. Powers, Troy Center; John Nagle, Manitowoc; Charles Zimmerman, Milwaukee; Isaac A. Sabin, Baraboo.
CHANGES Among the leading teachers have been so numerous that we are tempted to omit the “small capitals," lest the printers should "get out of sorts," both literally and figuratively.
Beginning at the capital city-B. M. REYNOLDS, so long and faithfully known at his post, goes to Monroe, where in the new, fine school house, he will give an earnest impetus to the culture of all the young Monrovian's. We have not heard any good reason for this change, but it is thought, we suppose, as among the Methodist friends, that the best men should not stay too long in one place. His successor, Mr. W. H. CHASE, comes here from Minnesota. He is graduate of Brown University; has had much experience and brings good credentials.
At Green Bay, our oldest town, (first occupied by fur traders in 1664), and one of the few green spots, educationally speaking in Brown county, L. W. BRIGGS, from Racine, takes charge, and will introduce, we doubt not, some of the excellent system which has so long characterized the schools of the latter city. Brown county, so far as we recollect, has never held a teacher's institute, and furnishes no subscribers for the Journal outside of "the Bay,” including Ft. Howard and Depere. May there be a waking up.
Manitowoc gains two good workers for her two schools, C.F. VIEBAHN, late superintenendent of Sauk county, and I. N. STEWART, from Waukesha. We predict that in two years this city will establish a central high school in a suitable building.
At Sheboygan, Jas. M. RAIT takes charge. Mr. Rait goes from Stevens Point, and is a graduate of Plattville Normal School, of 1869. The resignation of Mr. HATCH, the late principal at Sheboygan, was much regretted, and his predecessor, H. A. GAYLORD, who died a few months since, is also very kindly remembered there.
At Waukesha, Mr. STEWART is succeeded by W. E. ANDERSON, a teacher of promise.
Baraboo loses E. A. SABIN, who goes we hear, to Fountain City, and gains Mr. HUTCHINS, from Michgan, who formerly taught in Baraboo, we believe.
We shall chronicle other changes next month.
NORMAL INSTITUTES.--Several of these important Institutes are now being held in different parts of the State, in charge of some of our most experienced teachers. The report of attendance of teachers, interest manifested, etc., are very encourag. ing. These schools are conducted as Model Schools, continuing from four to six weeks. We have found in our visits an earnestness and enthusiasm on the part of all concerned at once gratifying and commendable. Full reports will be given of these Institutes in our next number.
SHORT INSTITUTES.-In addition to those announced last month, short Institutes are appointed as follows: Janesville, Sept. 23; West Bend, Oct. 7; Fort Atkinson, Nov. 4. The Institute for Adams county will be at Friendship, Oct. 28. An Institute was held at Darlington, La Fayette Co., Aug. 26–30.
MILWAUKEE.- In this connection it gives us much pleasure to say that arrangements are in progress to provide for the normal instruction of teachers for the public schools in Milwaukee. The experience of Prof. PICKARD, President of the High School, will be of great service in this direction.
STATE UNIVERSITY.—We are gratified to learn that the prospect for attendance, at the Fall Term, is very large indeed. The University is becoming known and appreciated all over the State.
RESIGNATION.-Prof. Chas. H. ALLEN, the faithful, indefatigable and successful Agent of the Board of Regents of Normal Schools for the past year, has tendered his resignation, to take effect on or before September 10, 1872. His many friends in Wisconsin will learn of this action with deep regret. He has been identified with the educational interest of the state for several years.
As an Instiiute worker, when the Institute system was first introduced among us, as Principal of the Normal' Department of the University of Wisconsin, as President of the Platteville Normal School, and as Agent of the Board of Regents of Normal Schools, he has given full proof of his ability as a versatile and accomplished instructor.
Efforts have been made to secure his valuable services in the Normal work of California. Our loss will be the gain of our western friends.
PROF. ROBT. GRAHAM.-We have strong grounds for believing that Prof. Graham will be induced to accept again the position of Agent of the Board of Regents of Normal Schools, for conducting Institutes in the State, made vacant by the resignation of Professor Allen. His acceptance of the place will give the greatest satisfaction to all interested in the cause of education among us, as he will bring to the discharge of its duties, breadth of information, sterling integrity of character, aptness to teach, suavity and firmness of manner, with a ripe experience as an Iustitute conductor. The Institutes heretofore announced, will be attended, in any event, by competent and experienced teachers.
GOOD ADVICE.—Many of our county superintendents are doing much good by Circulars scattered among the school officers, and by communications in the local papers. In this number of the Journal we give some letters from Superintendent HOLFORD, of Grant county, (and call attention to his suggestions as to assistant superintendents,) and below an extract from a circular of Superintendent CRAIG, of Jefferson county:
“Before engaging a teacher be careful to examine the certificate. Be not satisfied that applicant possesses a certificate. Remember that there is a great difference in the grade, and even in the standing in certificates of the same grade. Also inquire particularly in regard to character and ability to teach. Although good scholarship is essential yet many good scholars prove to be poor teachers. You cannot use too much care in this resp It is easier to hire a good teacher than to discharge a poor one. In fixing the wages be as liberal as possible. It is generally poor eccnomy to employ cheap teachers. There is nothing so stimulating to a teacher as good pay.
"Alter your school has commenced watch over it, not to be too meddlesome, but to do anything that will aid and encourage teacher and scholars in their work. And never, if you can prevent, allow personal ill-feeling in the district to affect the school.
“There is no better way to judge a school than by frequent personal inspection. And here let me say, that I shall use all time possible in visiting schools, yet the territory is so large with so many schools (nearly 150 different departments) that it is impossible to see you very often (about once a year), and if I do not call upon your school at an early day in the term it is not from any desire to neglect you."
NEW ADVERTISEMENTS.-We call attention to the new advertisements of Eldredge & Brother on the second and third pages of the cover, of Wilson, Hinkle & Co., and of the “Novelty Press.”
1 (Ad.)-Vol. II.-No. 9.
PERIODICALS. HARPER'S MAGAZINE for September, has been received, and it presents a volume of excellent reading, as usual, articles which are both interesting and instructive. Among the many, are the following; “The Republican Movement in Europe,” which contains some very interesting Historical facts. “The Mountains," " The Story of a Miniature," "The Political Characteristics of the Modern Greeks,” “Recolection of an Old Stager," " Press Management under the Empire,” etc. Address, “Harper & Brothers," New York.
THE ECLECTIC MAGAZINE, for September is at hand. It furnishes its readers by way of embellishment with a fine portrait on steel of Dr. Dollinger, the great Ger. man Theologian, the leader of the opposition to Papal Infallibility, and one who gives promise of being the Luther of a new Reformation. The leading article is an enjoyable essay on“ Wit and Humor,” abounding in shrewd analysis and apt quotation. General Clusseret, of Communist fame, gives a suggestive account of his “ Connection with Fenianism;" “ Thoughts upon Government,” by Arthur Helps, is continued; there is a fine lecture by W. G. Clark on “The Middle Ages and the Revival of Learning," and papers on
Clever Fishes;" Chateaubriand;" “ From Cairo to Athens;” “Romance of Arithmetic;" “ The Recent Fossil Man;" etc. “The Strange Adventures of a Phaeton,” is continued, and there is an excellent short story by the author of " Patty.” “ Barney Geoghegan, the Irish Mother," is a highly amusing caricature. Published by E. R. Pelton, 108 Fnlton street, New York. Termis, $5 a year; two copies, $9. Single number, 45 cents.
THE JOURNAL OF SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY for July, 1872, has a very attractive table of contents for the lovers of higher criticism and metaphysics. 1. Is Positive Science Nominalism or Realism? 2. Theories of Mental Genesis. 3. Anti-Materialism. 4. Interpretation of Kant's Kritik of Pure Reason. 5. The Tragedy of Julius Cæsar. 6. Hegel's Philosophy of Art, Chivalry and Love. 7. Rosenkranz on Hegel's Philosophy of Right. 8. The Parmenides of Plato. 9. Book Notices.
BOOKS. THE ECLOGUES, GEORGICS AND MORETUM OF VIRGIL. With Explanatory Notes
and a Lexicon. By GEORGE STUART, A. M., Professor of the Latin Language in the Central High School of Philadelphia. Published by Eldredge & Brothers,
Philadelphia. THE HISTORIES OF LIVY. Edited and annotated by THOMAS CHASE, M. A., Pro
fessor of Philology in Haverford College, etc. Same Publishers.
The Classical Series of these enterprising publishers, of which we have heretofore noticed the First Six Books of the Æneid and Cicero de Senectute et de Amicitia, are gaining wide approval and circulation, which is good proof of their merits. The gues, and especially the Georgics, are among the most finished and charming productions of antiquity. The glorification of labor in the latter—Virgil's father was a farmer-affords timely lessons to our young men. Livy, like Virgil, was one of the chief ornaments of the Augustan age, and his vivid, poetic and captivating style of narration makes us wish that the tooth of time had spared more of his inimitable "Histories.” The mechanical execution of this series of Classics is deserving all praise. ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE. A Text-Book for Schools, Academies, Col.
leges, and Families. By JOSEPH C. MARTINDALE, M. D., late Principal of the Madison Grammar School, Philadelphia. Price by mail, postpaid, $1.30. Eldredge & Brothers, Philadelphia.
The study of Physiology and the Laws of Health is as important as it is interesting. Its importance has become so generally recognized that there are now few good schools in which it does not occupy a prominent position in the course of instruction. Dr. Martindale's Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene presents the following claims to the consideration of teachers : technicalities have been avoided, so far as consistent with the treatment of the subject; the style in which it is written is not only pleasing, but such as to be readily comprehended by those for whom it is designed ; superfluous matter has been omitted, so that the book can be completed in a much shorter period than with most of the text-books on the subject as yet published.