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misdemeanors. If A. S. wishes this question answered more satisfactorily, he must have some case which involves this question carried up to the U. S. Supreme Court. I warn him and other inquirers that the commentators upon the U.S. Constitution, from Story & Kent downwards, preserve a discreet silence upon the question, whether the Bill of Rights in the first eight amendments controls state legislatures and courts or not.-A. O. WRIGHT.

15.—How many tenses ought there be given to the subjunctive mood?-C. A. T.

I think T. ought to revise his grammar, if he asks that question about English verbs. Every enlightened person ought to know that mode is not a property of English verbs.-OLD MAID.

17.--Is it right to require scholars to answer “perfect,” or “imperfect,” on calling the roll at night?

It is not right. Any teacher knows, or ought to know, that the self-reporting system is a great error in teaching.16.

18.-What forces hold the earth in its orbit? Why is its orbit not a circle? Two, the centripetal and the centrifugal.-Mrs. S. C. S.

Second Answer.—Two, first, the centrifugal, which tends to urge it forward in a straight line, and consequently away from the sun. Second, the centripetal, which tends to draw it toward the sun, and is caused by the attraction of the sun. The reason why the orbit of the earth is not a circle, is because the two forces at all times do not balance each other.-OLD MAID.

19.- Are the days and nights at the equator always equal?

Warren, in his treatise on Physical Geography, tells us that on the equator the duration of days and nights is equal, twelve hours each.-Ib.

22.-Longest side of a triangle 150 feet, other two 75 each, required value of gross at $10 per acre.

Letting fall perpendicular on base, it is bisected into two equal parts; to find length of perpendicular we have 75? — 75?=0; multiply nothing by 75 gives num. ber of acres; from which brother Mowry will have no trouble at all in finding value.-B. R. A.

NEW QUESTIONS.

33.-Section 3, Constitution of the United States, says: the President shall recieve Ambassadors and other public Ministers.” What does this mean?_W.H.S.

34.-What class of words are changed in meaning by a change of accent? 35.—What part of speech is good in the sentence,“ Mary is good ?”

36.-In the sentence, “Mary is exceedingly polite,” how are exceedingly and polite to be parsed ?

37.—Please analyze and parse the following : “ A mighty maze! but not without a plan.” 38.-Given 2h + yn =0

xm + ym=b to find the values of x and y.-L. CAMPBELL. 39.—Required a frame (of uniform dimensions), for a piece of glass 18 inches by 12; the area of the frame must be equal to the glass. What width, must the frame be?-J. F., Annaton.

40.-Will some one give a practical explanation of the words Civil and Military.--IB.

41.-A horse was sold for $39 00, a per cent. were gained as the number of dol. lars in the cost; what was the cost? Solution by Arithmeti:.-L. A.P.

42.-What number is that whose square root is 100 more than its cube root?--IB. 43.-Bound Wisconsin correctly.

44.—What is the average monthly salary of male and female teachers in Wisconsin ?-E. C. WISWALL, Prairie du Sac.

45.—Will some one please inform the readers of the JOURNAL the first and second Telegraphic communications in the United States, the name of the first Locomotive, the name of the first Hotel, and the name of the first Stage ?–MRS. S. C. SIRRINE.

46.—What eminent statesman is supposed to have desired that the offices of Senator and President should be for life ?-IB.

47.—Which President ardently desired to identify the cause and interest of the Republic of France with our own ?-IB.

48.-Who administered the oath of office to President J. Q. Adams, and who were his Constitutional Advisers ?-IB.

49.-Is there a grammatical inaccuracy in question 8, A pril JOURNAL?

50.—Will not some one who owns a copy of Townsend's Civil Government, please copy for the “ Box ” the names and respective terms of office of the several Chief Justices of the United States, as the same, according to answer to Query No. 76, are to be found on page 296.-H. CROUSE, Eau Galle.

51.-Can a member of Congress vote by proxy?-G. H. D., Janesville.
52.-What are the weights and measures of the States?-Ib.
53.-What is understood by“ the law of nations?”-Ib.
54.-What was the origin of the navy of the United States ?-Ib.
55.—What Presidents delivered their messagee to Congress personally?Ib.

56.- Is there not a misprint in the Constitutional Text Book concerning the number of square miles constituting counties that may be changed by legislative action ?-T. S. L., Richland Center.

57.-In the sentence,But as for me give me liberty or give me death,” how are indicated words parsed?—***, Black Earth .

How are indicated words in the following sentence parsed. “ We are all ready but packing the lunch.10.

58.-Should the indicative or subjunctive form of the verb be used in the following sentence? If the indicative, why? "If this cloth isbe-good, I will purchase it.”-16.

SCRAPS.

CONTRIBUTED BY “ PEN.” 1. Age of English Newspapers.—Many of the oid English newspapers have ceased to exist, o:ving to the great social and political reforms of the nineteenth century, and many new publications have been started that promise to outlast many generations to come. Among English papers of note that have arrived at a green old age are, The Sun, founded is 1792, (the celebrated Pitt was one of its contributors,) The Morning Post, first issued in 1772, and The Times in 788.

2. Lunar.-The Rev. R. W. Birt who has observed the moon since 1864, comes to the conclusion that the astronomical notion of "silence eternal" on our satellite, is probably incorrect, and the phenomenon of sound at least a possibility.

3. Butter in Uruguay.The Uruguay method of turning cream into butter rather smacks of that of the ancient Huns who were in the habit of placing their raw meat under the saddles of their chargers, then mounted and rode until they con

comes

sidered the meat sufficiently tender for cooking. Our Uruguay “Gaucho"

pours his cream into a strong boz secured with iron bands, fastens the lid, then ties the box to a lasso and the latter to the saddle of his strongest horse ; he then mounts and gallops over the level prairie. The butter “

in less than fifteen minutes. Su saith a traveler.

4. T heatres of Ancient Rome. -We are often surprised at the magnificence and expensiveness of our modern ballets and operas; but what does our extravagance amount to compared with that of the ancient Romans! The mere buildings dwarf our grandest structures. The Roman ædile, Me. Scaurus, erected a theatre which was to be used for a few weeks only; it was three stories high, contained three thousand bronze statues, and seated 80,000 persons. The tribune, Scribones Curio, had two wooden semi-circular theatres built, which rested on machinery and could be put together to form a huge amphitheatre where the countrymen of Nero and Caligula could witness the gentle sports of the Gladiators and wild beasts. To protect the spectators from the glare of the sun, these roofless buildings had awnings of silken, purple, and embroidered stuffs. Pompey was the first Roman who built a theatre wholly of stone; it seated 40,000 persons. Wealthy Roman office-seekers (unlike our own) expended large fortunes in building huge and costtheatres in order to bribe and flatter the sight-loving populace; they decorated these houses with the richest tapestry, with statuary and fresco-paintings. The very machinery used on the stage was in some of them, plated with silver. The largest theatre was that of Vespasian, known as the Coloseum, which had room for 90,000 spectators.

5. Statistical.- According to a statement of the Scientific American, chere occurred, in 1870, 118 boiler-explosions, causing the death of 326, and the injuring of 227 persons. Where did the weakness lie—with the boilers, or with the engiceers?

6. The Archbishops of Paris. The archbishops of Paris, since 1789, have been singularly unfortunate. Monsignor Pique died on the scaffold in 1765. Cardinal Maury was compelled to fly for life in 1815. In 1830, Monsignor de Queten was mobbed and his palace plundered and made a ruin. His successor, Mons. Affre, was killed on the barricades of the Fauburg St. Antoine in 1848, and Charles Libour was assassinated by the fanatic Verger in 1857. Cardinal Marlot enjoyed a tolerably long term of office, but the last archbishop, Mons. Darboy, died a victim of the Commune.

7. Vegetable Ink.-The ink manufacturers are being threatened by an important rival, a most excellent ink of nature's own making. A plant, Coriaria Thymifolia, has been discovered in New Granada, the juice of which is used as ink. The fluid-Chanchi-needs no preparation whatever, and it does not corrode steel pens as common ink does. It first appears rather pale, but soon changes into jet black. It resists chemicals and dampness; a manuscript written with chanchi had lain in sea-water for several days, and not a word was obliterated, while that portion written with common ink could not be deciphered. The government of New Granada has ordered all documents to be written with the new ink.

8. In Support of Darwin.--Seventy years ago, a couple of tame rabbits were left on Sable Island, a small island of sandy soil off the coast of Nova Scotia. There they remained and soon had a numerous progeny, which, of course, grew up in total ignorance of the civilization which their ancestors had enjoyed. But not only have they returned to the wild and “natural” state of rabbit-dom, they have also changed in appearance, being now in color a beautiful silver-grey with snowy collar, and thus exhibiting a strong resemblance to certain extinct species.

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Editorial Miscellany.

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TWENTIETH ANNUAL SESSION OF THE WISCONSIN TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, TO BE HELD AT MADISON, JULY 9, 10 AND 11, 1872.

PROGRAMME. General Meeting, Assembly Chamber, Tuesday Evening, July 9th. 7.30. Introductory Exercises. 8.00. Lecture-J. H. Twombly, D. D., Madison.

Wednesday Morning, July 10th. 9.00. Opening Exercises. 9.15. President's Address—Samuel Shaw. 9.45. Appointment of Committees ; Proposed Amendment of Constitution ; Busi10.00. Educational Intelligence-Two-minute verbal reports. 10.30. Recess. 10.40. Essay—“Woman's Wages for Teaching,” Martha A. Terry. 11.00. Discussion-A. F. North, Ella Stewart.

High School Section, at Senate Chamber-W. D. Parker, Chairman. 11.30. Self Reporting by Pupils—W. C. Whitford. 11.50. Discussion-"Rhetorical Exercises,” Albert Salisbury, W. W. Freeman. 12.20. Paper-" School Economy,” W. D. Parker. 12.35. Discussion-J. K. Purdy, H. A. Hobart.

Intermediate and Primary Section, at Assembly Chamler-Robert Graham, Ch'n. 11.30. Essay—“The Child,” Mrs. H. E. G. Arey. 11.50. Discussion—"The Kindergarten,” J. Q. Emery, A. Eartl in. 12.20. Model Drill in Numbers-Anna W. Moody. 12.35, Discussion_" Arithmetic,” Robert Graham, Duncan McGregor.

General Meeting, Wednesday Evening, July 10th. 7.30. Report of Committee on County Academies—A. Earthman. 8.00. Conscience and Culture-Rev. J L. Dudley, Milwaukee.

Thursday Morning, July 11th. 9.00. Opening Exercises. 9.15. Business. 9.30. The Mental Faculties Neglected in School, T. C. Chamberlin, 9.45. Discussion-"Course of Study,” Alexander Kerr, C. F. Viebahn. 10.20. Reading--S. S. Rockwood, 10.30. Recess. 10.40. General Discussion—"To what extent should the Bible be used in Schools ?

Samuel Fallows, Oliver Arey, M. Montague. 11.10. Election of Officers, etc.

High School Section. 11.30. Have we a State School System ?-G. S. Albee. 11.50. Discussion-W. H. Chandler, B. M. Reynolds. 12.20. Frequent Examinations of Scholars-George Beck. 12.35. Discussion -- H. H. Drury, E. Marsh.

Intermediate and Primary Section. 11.30. Essay, “The Country Teacher”-Mrs. I. N. Stewart. 11.50. Discussion, “How to Improve Mixed Schools"-J. B. Pradt, A. O. Wright. 12.20. Model Drill," Only a Kernel of Corn”-C. H. Allen. 12.35. Discussion, “Oral Instruction for Children"-D. E. Gardner, I. N. Stewart.

General Meeting, Thursday Evening, July 11th. 7,30. Reports of Committees-Business. 8.00. Reunion. W. A. De La Matyr will take charge of the music.

xa 3—(VOL. II.-No. 6.]

STEAMERS AND HOTELS.—The railroad companies of the northwest having entered into a compact which precludes any reduction of passenger fares, the Executive Committee is unable to announce the usual arrangements with them.

The Goodrich steamers will carry teachers towards Madison at full fares, and will return them free on the Association certificate of membership, until July 14th.

The Northwestern Union Packet Company will carry teachere holding vouchers of the Executive Committee, towards Madison, at half fare, and will return them on the Association Certificate of membership, at half fare, until July 14th.

Membery of the Association will be entertained as follows: Private boarding houses $1.00 to $1.50 per day, on application at the Assembly Chamber; Vilas House, $2.00 per day; Railway Hotel, $2.00 per day; Park Hotel, $2.50 per day.

In the names presented in the programme of exercises of the Association, the teachers of the State will find a guarantee of a profitable gathering, and a cordial invitation is extended to all persons who are interested in education, to attend the meeting and participate in the exercises.

SAMUEL SHAW, Pres. Assoc., Berlin.
WARREN D. PARKER, Chm. Ex. Com., Janesville.

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THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. The next annual meeting of the National Educational Association will be held in the city of Boston, Mass., on the 6th, 7th and 8th days of August, 1872. The forenoon and evening of each day will be occupied by the General Association, and the afternoon of each day by the four departments—Elementary, Normal, Superintendency and Higher Education. The attendance from Wisconsin we presume will be small, but we give the programme, as a matter of general interest. The exercises will be held in the Lowell Institute Hall and the Hall of the Institute of Technology:

General Association-E. E. White, President. 1. Methods of Moral Instruction in Public Schools, by Dr. A. D/ Mayo, Cincinnati, O.

2. The Co-Education of the Sexes in Higher Institutions, by President White of Cornell University.

3. Compulsory School Attendance, by Newton Bateman, State Superintendent, Ill.

Discussior to be opened by J. P. Wickersham, State Superintendent of Common Schools, Pa.

4. The Examining and Certificating of Teachers, by John Swett, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, San Francisco, Cal.

5. System of Normal Training Schools best adapted to the Wauts of Our PeopleReport by Wm. F. Phelps, Minn., Chairman of Committee.

6. The Educational Lessons of Statistics, by Hon. John Eaton,Jr., National Commissioner of Education.

7. Drawing in the Public School, by Walter Smithı, State Director of Art Education, Mass. 8. Comparison in Education, by J.D. Philbrick, Superintendent of Schools, Boston.

Elementary Department-Miss D. A. Lathrop, Cincinnati, O., President. 1. Objective Teaching-Its Scope and Limit, by V. A. Calkins, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, New York City.

2. English Grammar in Elementary Schools, by M. A. Newell, Principal of State Normal School, Baltimore, Md.

3. Instruction in National Science in Elementary Schools.

4. Adaptation of Froebel's Educational Ideas to American Institutions, by W.N. Hailman, Louisville, Ky.

Normal Department-C.C. Rounds, Farmington, Mc., President. 1. The Proper Work of the Normal School, by J. C. Greenough, Principal of State Normal School, Rhode Island.

2. Professional Training in Normal Schools, by T. W. Harvey, State School Commissioner, Ohio.

3. The Normal Institute, by A. D. Williams, Principal of State Normal School, Nebraska.

4. Normal Work among the Freedmen, by S. C. Armstrong, Hampton, Va. 5. Model Schools—Their Uses and their Relation to Normal Training.

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