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CHICAGO.-The fire turned out of school about one-third of the teachers and pupils of the city. Four large grammar school buildings were destroyed, and the same number of primary school houses. The loss not covered by insurance was about $200,000. Four days after the fire the teachers that remained met and passed a resolution tendering their services to the city for one year, relying on the Board of Education for such remuneration as they might be able to give, “ be it much or little.” Certain miembers of the Board have shown an equally generous spirit by offering to take teachers into their families, and it is expected trat other teachers will do likewise. As soon as provision can be made for the victims, now sheltered by the remainiug school-houses, as many schools will be opened as can be sustained, those teachers who lost most by the fire to be employed first. The High School and the Normal School cannot be opened until other provision is made for the courts which now occupy the buildings.

NEBRASKA.—We 'have read, with much pleasure, the Address of Welcome, by Hon.O. B. HEWETT, and the Inaugural of Dr. ALVIN D. WILLIAMS, delivered at Peru, December 4, 1871, on occasion of the assumption by the latter of the principalship of the State Normal School recentiy established at that place. It is refreshing to see a man called to such a position who gives such evidence as is contained in the following extract, that he comprehends the place, the sunctions and the importance of the Normal school in the general work of education:

"It is true, that while the Normal School occupies no secondary place among our educational institutions, and while its training is equally important and valuable for all other schools—including the college, the university and our professional schools-yet thus far it has been shaped and carried on with special reference to the wants of our common, grammar and high schools. Thus far we have not attempted to supply teachers for the college or the professional schools, but only for the schools that are parts of our grand public system.

"But the University is fast becoming a part of that system, and eventually law, medical, scientific and polytechnic schools will become integral parts of it. And then the Normal School must train and fit teachers alike for them all.

“And not only this, but the superiority of normal training is so evident that all schools must soon yield obeisance to it. Already normal graduates s.rpass and supplant even college graduates in the best public school positions in the country. With perhaps less technical knowledge, the normal graduate, by his superior facility in using and imparting what he has, is everywhere in greatest demand, and receives the largest compensation. It has even come to this, in respect to many of the first positions; that none but normal graduates can attain them at all.

Theoretically and practically, the Normal School stands at the head of all the schools with which it is associated; and it ought to be, and eventually will be, associated with all schools, of every kind and grade. Especially must it soon be recognized as occupying this position, with respect to all the schools carried on by the State.”

EDUCATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.-Substantially, collegiate education is free in Pennsylvania. Three well-established colleges at least, within a radius of a hundred miles of Philadelphia, offer instruction without money or price. The old University of Pennsylvania, for fifty years or more, by its charter, extends free tuition to the graduates of the high school, under certain conditions of selection. Franklin ard Marshal College, Lancaster, does the same for that county, besides having out a large number of free scholarships. More than this, this college has a standing offer of free tuition to all the young men of any county, coming from any school, on the contribution by the county or any one in its name, of a few thousand dollars. How many counties of the State have closed with this liberal offer we are unable to say at present. Finally, Hon. Asa Packer, last summer, gave an additional half million to the Lehigh University to make it free to all the State. The fact is that liberal education in Pennsylvania is more freely given than received. In general it is better to give than to receive, but in this case the rule might be safely reversed. We may add that of these institutions the two foxmer lean towards a classical, the latter towards a scientific or technical basis of study.-Philadelphia Press.

MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY. -The requirements for admission in several of the departments have been increased. In comparing the summary of students with that of the last catalogue, the following results are obtained: In the Literary Department, there are at present 509, instead of 488 last year; in the Law Department 348, last year 307; in the Department of Medicine 350, while last year there were only 315. According to the summary in the new calendar there will be graduated in the Literary Department this year 82, instead of 60 last year, The total number of students in all the departments is 1,207. Las year's total showed only 1,110, and in the summary for the present calendar it is specifically stated that “no name is counted more than once One of the features of the new calendar for this year is a summary of the students by states. From this we learn that Michigan has 565 students in the University; Ohio, 134; Illinois, 123; New York, 87; and Indiana, 56. Other States and Territories are less numerously represented There is ono student from Montana, one from New Brunswick, one from the Sandwich Islands, and 27 from Canada. In all 31 different political organizations are represente.-College Courant.

HOWARD UNIVERSITY, at Washington, the institution for the education of the blacks, named after Gen.O.O. Howard, as at present constituted has not only a Collegiate department and one each for the three learned professions of Law, Medicine and Divinity, but a Preparatory School, a Normal School, and a Commercial College. There are now nearly a thousand pupils, including some whites.- Ib.

TEXAS COMMON SCHOOL.—Texas has begun to open, for the first time, free common schools, and the eagerness of the political parties to prove their peculiar friendship for public education and to accuse their opponents of hostility to the schools, is reasonably good evidence that the schools have popular approval. The State hus school funds commensurate with its vast area. All the public lands of the State and one-fourth of all the taxes raised are set apart for public school purposes. Teachers' salaries are fixed by law. Those holding third-class certificates, granted by official examiners, receive $75 a month; second-grade teachers, $90 a month; first-grade, $110; principals, from $125 to $150 a month. Very many applications are made for certificates, but very few are able to pass examination. Those receiving first-class certificates are said to be very few. All persons between six and eighteen years of age are required to attend school at least four months each year. One seventeen-year-old matron begs a remittance of the fine for non-attendance on the following plea: “I have a husband to care for, a child to nurse, clothes to wash, meals to cook, and a house to clean. If they make me attend school another year, everything will go to ruin.” In view of her manifold duties, not to speak of her present and prospective service to the State, it would certainly be too bad to send her back to the spelling-book and (rammar.-The Christian Union.

DARTMOUTH COLLEGE has 398 students, 281 in the Academical, and 117 in the Professional Departments; viz: In Medicine, 40; in Engineering, 3; in Science, 62; and in Agriculture, 12. New England sends 316 students, the Middle States, 28, Western and Southern States 45,

Canada 5, Nova Scotia 2, Indian Territory 1, and England 1. The Libraries contain about 40,500 volumes.

FRANCE.— The Minister of Public Instruction has brought before the Assembly a bill, the provisions of which make education compulsory throughout the country. The Committee on Education has inaugurated a desirable reform by reporting in favor of allowing all properly qualified persons to teach in both public and private schools. This recommendation, if adopted, will sweep away a number of vexatious and ill-judged restrictions, which now hedge about the school teacher in la belle France.

BRAZIL.-In the Province of Rio Janeiro, the Legislative Assembly has decreed that all children between the ages of seven and fourteen, shall go to either public or private schools; has provided admirable schools and a good corps of teachers; and orders that children whose parents are too poor to give them decent raiment shall be clad at the expense of the Provincial Treasury.

INDIANA is the only one of the Northern States in which there are more male than female teachers. In this State the preponderance of females is about as seven to three.

THR NUMBER of officers of instruction and government in Harvard University this year is 115. The number of students attending is 1,081.

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BOOKS.
A COMPENDIOUS GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE. By ALPHEUS CROSBY,

Professor Emeritus of the Greek Language and Literature in Dartmouth Col-
lege: Woolworth, Ainsworth & Co., New York and Chicago. 370 pp., 12mo.

Although Dr. Crosby has for several years been disconnected with the active
work of the school-rcom, he has evidently lost none of his enthusiasm for his old
work. Something of the genial character of the man seems to give life and fra-
grance to “roots and “stems,” and with such a help, the student who is not a
perfect dullard, cannot but see some of the beauties and perfections of the lan-
guage in which Homer sung—the most marvellous language that has ever embod-
ied human thought. It is needless to add that all the results of modern scholar-
ship are brought into use, in the preparation of this model volume.
PRINCIPLES OF ZoöLOGY. Pari I. Comparative Physiology. By LOUIS AGGASIZ

and A. A. GOULD. Boston: Gould and Lincoln. 200 pp., 12mo. The names of the authors of this little manual are enough to insure its value. The first thing the eye meets, on opening the book, a striking diagram illustrating the history and development of animal life, in its four grand divisions, from the azoic to the modern age, itself a study of deep interest. Part II will be devoted to Systematic Zoölogy. No similar work exists in the English language, and when completed, it will revolutionize the study of the subject. THE ART OF TEACHING SCHOOL. By J. R. SYPHER, author of “History of Pennsylvania,” etc. Philadelphia : J. M. Stoddart & Co. 317 pp., 12 mo.

The multiplication of books of this character is a good sign. They cannot supersede the necessity for professional training and actual experience, but they stimulate young teachers to seek improvement and help to increase the popular demand for true teachers. The author treats the various topics that belong to his subject in a concise, forcible and sensible way, and evidently writes from an extended experience. He goes outside of the school room, at several points, and his last chapter, especially, on school books, has some shorp hits. EDUCATIONAL YEAR BOOK—1872. New York : A. S. Barnes & Co., for the Na.

tional Publishers' Association.

This very useful and timely book, in the compilation of which, as we infer, the well known educational writer, WM. B. SMITH, is concerned, as one of the editors, gives a synopsis of the school systems of the states and territories, with a list of chief officers and their salaries, with much other information in regard to colleges, normal and other professional schools, cost of education and educational endowments, also practical suggestions, forms, prevalence of illiteracy, history of “book agency,” etc., etc. In short, it is a sort of indispensable vade mecum, for

every "live" and growing teacher.

MUNROE'S FIFTH READER.-This is a volume, which contains,in moderate compass a treatise on “ Physical and Vocal Training, and selections of Prose, Poetry and Dialogues for reading lessons. The part relating to “ Physical and Vocal Culture”

consists of brief, clear, yet comprehensive directions as regards “ Position and Carriage of the Body;" Development of the Chest,”; “ Right Use of the Voice; " Articulation Slides; Quality of Voice, Movement, Force and Pitch of Voice.” Tha selections are admirable; they are short, characteristic extracts from all the best writers of the day with some of the“ standard ” pieces of earlier writers; their range is wild, and they are of unusual merit as to information and enjoyment. Publishers have done their duty in the matter of type, paper and binding, aud the work is worthy the attention of all interested in the subject of the best books for schools. Philadelphia: Cowperthwait & Co., 1871.

CATALOGUE AND CIRCULAR OF COOK COUNTY, ILLINOIS—Normal and Training School. This pamphlet contains the names of the Faculty, Students, the Course of Study, and other matter usually found in such publications, but with paper and type of such excellence as to be especially noteworthy. Chicago Lakeside Publishing and Printing Company.

OF

THE GREAT INDUSTRIES THE UNITED STATES, INCLUDING PERSONAL

SKETCHES. By HORACE GREELEY, JOHN B. GOUGH, ALBERT BRISBANE, F. B. PERKINS, and other eminent writers.

This work is a series of popular, yet compreher sive sketches of the origin, development, and present condition of the principal arts and industries of this country. It contains information which could hitherto be obtained only by laborious reference to Cyclopedias, heavy tomes, and numerous works, each treating of only some single invention, and therefore, supplies a much needed and much coveted desid• eratum. Its value and popular attraction are enhanced by the addition of biographical details respecting those who have achieved most eminence in tneir inventions, or as leading manufactures. Writers specially familiar with each subject have been employed. Nothing has been omitted, in respect to accuracy, comfleteness, style, embellishment of the work, to render it a popular resume of the chief Industries of the United States. Published by J. B. Burr, Hyde & Co., Chicago and Cincinnati. See advertisment on th second page of cover. SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL MASTERS. From the writings of CHARLES DICKENS.

Edited by T. J. CHAPMAN, M. A. A. S. Barnes & Co, New York and Chicago: 215 pp., small 12 mo.

This volume embraces " Dotheboy's Hall ” with the immortal Squeers, the “ School at Dr. Blimmer's,” the “ School at Salem House” and the “ School at Dr. Strong's,” recalling at once some of the most graphic parts of “ Nicholas Nickelby,” “ Dombey & Son” and “ David Copperfield.” It is decidedly a book for a teacher's library, blending amusement with many a bit of useful instruction.

PERIODICALS. ECLECTIC MAGAZINE.—The March number of this sterling old monthly is at hand, and is embellished with an excellent porti ait, on steel, of Herbert Spencer, the celebrated English philosopher. In this number is begun “ The Strange Adventures of a Pheaton,” which will run through the year, and which promises to be one of the most brilliant and powerful stories recently published. It is by William Black, whose previous novels have earned for him an enviable reputation in America as well as in England. There is a singular fascination about these opening chapters which is not usually found at the portals of a story. The leading article of the number is a fine essay on Mahomet,” giving the results of the latest researches into his history, and written in a more popular and intelligible style than has usually been employed on this theme; next comes “ The Early Life of Charles Dickens;" and among the other articles are “ Strange News about the Solar Prominences;" “ National Debts and National Prosperity;" “ The Talking Animal," a very curious essay; “Quaint Customs in Kwei-Chow;" George McDonald;" “Spain, Her manners and Amusements;" “ The Haunted Enghenio;” and “Matri. monial Curiosities.” The departments of LITERARY NOTICES, SCIENCE, ART and VARIETIES, are very full and interesting; and there is a fine poem by Dante Ga briel Rosetti. Published by E. R. PELTON, 108, Fulton street, New York. Terms $5.00 a year; two copies, $9.00. Single numbers, 45 cents.

THE RADICAL.- The contents of the March number are as follows: 1, Theism, by Samuel Longfellow; 2, One God; 3, The State of Scientific Thoughts in England-A. Jayram; 4, Conquest, L. W. S.; 5, Prapers by Telegraph-A discourse given at South Place, London-Moncure D. Conway; 6, Thoughts upon Sacred Books, II-N. R. Waters; 7, The Ideal Wins All-George S. Burleigh; 8, Timothy Tot; A prose story, with poetic passages; V., VI.-Francis Gerry Fairfield; 9, Notes.

HARPER'S MAGAZINE for March has been received, crowded as it always is with solid and highly interesting matter, and its articles are penned by some of the country's ablest writers. The following is a list of some of the many valuable articles: “ The United States Treasury Department," Northern Bolivia and its Amazon Outlet,” “ Negro Life in Jamaica," “ The Old Ottoman and the Young Turk,” A Japanese Statesman at Home,” etc. For this valuable magazine address Harper & Brothers, New York.

THE LAWRENCE COLLEGIAN has reached the middle of its fifth volume. It is printed by the" Lawrence Collegian Company," at Appleton, and is conducted with tact and ability. Every graduate of the College, and as many of its friends as possible, should be numbered ainong its patrons. The January number asks and answers a pertinent question:

“ THE WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION should be taken by every teacher in the State. Is it? By no means. Teachers by the dozen in this State who never see an educational paper. There should be a waking up.”

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BY JACOB WERNLI, PRINCIPAL NORMAL SCHOOL, GALENA, ILL.

If the excellent text books of Professor Guyot, and others, who followed him in the right direction; if the hundreds of thousands of those books in the hands of the students, and the large sums spent for them every year, by the citizens of the United States, are a true index of the excellence of the method which is applied in teaching geography in the schools of America, then again, Switzerland and all Germany, even Prussia not excepted, stand far, very far below the Queen of the West,

But the text book is not the teacher, or at least, it should not be the teacher. The very best text book, in the hands of a poor, ignorant teacher, might prove a failure. This also is true in regard to outline maps, and the exercises in map-drawing. All these things are merely tools, and the teacher should be qualified to use them properly, or to advise the class in geography to apply them diligently in building up their knowledge in geography. It is a lamentable truth, that our scholars, and especially beginners, are overburdened with long and difficult lessons which they are obliged to commit to memory before they fully understand them. But their sound common sense soon revolts against this process of swallowing lessons without mastication, an outrage committed upon their mental nature, and those scholars that do not possess a very retentive memory, will soon regard this very interesting and useful branch as useless, and a burden, and try to get out of the class at a time when geography would become most profitable to the student.

It is not my object, however, to compare or contrast, but in a few words to state how Geography is taught in Switzerland, and I will leave it to the teachers to decide upon the merits of the methods..

Geography, like the other sciences, is highly esteemed on account of

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