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under the two lines of Eurypon and Agis, till it fell under the power of tyrants, from whom it was at last freed by Philopämen, who joined it to the Achæan league. Next comes the succession of the kings of Athens from Cecrops, by whom it was erected in the year 1$ 56, before Christ, down to Codrus, after whose death the regal government was abolished, and perpetual presidents, or archons, introduced, who were liable to give an account of their administration. The year 1044 is remarkable for the colonies settled in Ionia and Æolia, when ail Afia-Minor was filled with Grecian cities. In the year 776, when the Olympic games, instituted by Hercules, were revived, the times called fabulous are supposed to end, and the historical times begin, wherein the affairs of the world are related by more faithful and authentic narratives. In 254, the power of the archons was, by the Athenians, rendered decen. nial, instead of perpetual ; and in 684, it was farther reduced, and rendered annual. In 560, the sovereign power was usurped at Athens by the tyrant Pififtratus. After Atheng had recovered her liberty, a long war ensued between that republic and the Persians, in which the former gained several considerable victories over the latter, and a peace at length was concluded between the two powers, highly honourable to the Athenians. No sooner were the Athenians and Spartans freed from the common enemy, than they began to quarrel with each other, and this brought on the Peloponnesian war in 431, which ended in 405, by Lysander's defeating the Athenian fleet of 180 ships at Ægos-Potamos, and afterwards taking the city of Athens. In the year 400 the Athenian democracy was diffolved, and the people obliged to submit to the government of the thirty tyrants; but the social war afterwards breaking out, they recovered their freedom and independency. To this succeeded the Phocian or sacred war, which was ended by Philip, king of Macedon, who defeated the Athenians and Thebans at the battle of Cheronæa, and became master of all Greece. Athens, attempting to recover her liberty, was again reduced by Alexander the Great, in 335. In 281 the Achæan league was formed, which was a' kind of republic, composed of several Grecian cities, united together for their mutual defence. Thus we have the outlines of the Grecian history, down to the year 246, when Corinth being destroyed by the Romans under the conful Memmius, the Achæan league perisha ed with it, and Greece became a part of the Roinan empire. To this compendium of the Grecian history is added a list of the persons eminent for learning or genius among that nation.
Mr. Stackhouse then proceeds to give a sketch of the Ro. man History, which he traces from its first foundation by Romulus, in the year before Christ 753, through the early ages, when it was under the regal and consular government, down to the Roman or fourth monarchy : this began with Julius Cæsar in the year 48 before Christ, and ended in the year of our Lord 474, when Odoacer, king of the Goths, confined the Jast emperor Augustulus in a castle, and put that prince's father, Orestes, to death. The western empire being thus dissolved, our author gives a list of the most remarkable of the castern emperors, with a concise account of their principal exploits, down to the last of them, Constantine Palæologus, under whom Constantinople being besieged and taken by the Turks, the eastern empire was utterly destroyed. With this memo. rable event the abridgment of the history of the fourth monarchy concludes, and is followed by a list of the persons most eminent for their learning or genius amongst the Romans,
Upon the whole it must be acknowledged, that this histo. rical compendium is well calculated to aid the memory, and direct the researches of those, who are desirous of making a proficiency in ancient history; and it is rendered still more fo, by technical lines for retaining and imprinting on the memory, the succession of the kings of the several monarchies, and the centuries in which they reigned. At the same time we readily do justice to the merit of the author, who, in this elementary piece, has given equal proof of his learning and fagacity ; we can by no means approve of his deviating from the com. Mon chronology, and adopting that of Mr. Kennedy, who fixes the first of Christ to the year of the world 4008. There are about a hundred different opinions of chronologers upon this very article, and they all pretend to ground their systems on the authority of the scripture. Now the common chronology, which is that of the great primate Ulher, and fixes the birth of Christ to the year 4004, is grounded on the Hebrew computation; and as it is better known, more uni. verfally received, and liable to no greater difficulties than the Samaritan, Septuagint, or other calculations, it ought to have a preference in a work designed for the use of youth, whose heads are not to be perplexed with the intricacies of chronology. The account of ancient geography is much too dry and jejune, and for want of maps must be almost use. less : to say that the latter would increafe the price of the book is no excuse, since it would be less expence to have a map or two annexed to this abridgment, than to buy Danville's maps, or those of Dr. Blair. Besides, most readers are desirous of having a work complete within itself, and not
to be referred to other performances. We could likewise have wished that the author had given us the modern as well as the ancient names of places, which would have rendered this part of the work more useful and instructive to young pupils. Another circumstance which appears to us somewhat extraordinary, is that Mr. Stackhouse should take no notice of the Jewish history before their kings ; surely the transactions of that people, as contained in the books of Moses, must be allowed to . constitute a part of ancient history ? Perhaps the Mofaical accounts did not fall within his plan of the four great mo• narchies; yet it might have been prefixed to the work by way of introduction : por to mention that the plan of dividing ancient history by the four great monarchics, is now almost generally exploded. However, it must be acknowledged, that the work before us justly deserves the attention of such as are concerned in the instruction of youth, being drawn up, as the author himself informs us, with a view of promoting the great and important business of education.
XI. An Appeal 10 the Public on Behalf of Samuel Vaughan, Esq.
in a full and impartial Narrative of bis Negotiation wirb the Duke
of Grafton, &c8vo. Pr. 25. Dilly. THE part Mr. Vaughan has taken with regard to political
affairs, seems to render this appeal somewhat interesting : since the public naturally expeets that men, who set up for patriots, and exclaim so loudly against bribery and corruption, Should approach the sacred altar of liberty with unpolluted hands, and be patterns of disinterestedness and integrity themselves. It has been this gentleman's misfortune, however, that at the very time he was acting as a champion on the side of the Bill of Rights, an atrocious crime was alledged against him, no less than an attempt to corrupt a prime minister. This charge has been long echoed through all the papers, and Mr. Vaughan's filence has been construed by both parties, as a presumption of guilt. But it was reasonable to expect, that fo zealous à patriot should have some defence to make against an accusation of fo pernicious a 'nature. At length he hath thought proper to publish his apology, which had been hitherto delayed, only because as the affair was to be agitated in a court of law, he was willing to avoid the charge of a de. lign to bias the jury ; but as there was no notice or suggestion of trial the latt term, the obítruction of appealing to the public is now removed ; and Mr. Vaughan is happy in bringing his cause before that impartial tribunal. This is the avowed motive of publishing the piece now before us, in which he seems to express great confidence in his innocence, and to rely Vol. XXIX. March, 1770.
on the justice of his cause and the uprightness of his heart. It is proper therefore we should give him a fair hearing.
The complaint of the duke of Grafton against Mr. Vaughan was, for an attempt to corrupt his Grace, by the offer of a fum of money to obtain for himself, or his son, an office in the colonies. The office was, that of clerk of the supreme court in the island of Jamaica. Upon the accession of king George I. this office was granted by letters patent in 1716, to one John Page, who held it for his life, but was only a trustee for one Woodhouse. The latter died insolvent in Eng. land, and by a decree of the court of chancery this office was fold for the benefit of his creditors. Under that decree Mr. Lawton purchased the office for the sum of 1350 1. for his own benefit, and that of Mr. Nicholas Paxton. Mr. Lawton and Mr. Paxton applied in 1735, for a new grant of the office, which was granted to them in that same year, and to Abra
ham Farley, for their joint lives, and the life of the longest · liver. Farley executed a deed, declaring himself to be a truf
tee, and Lawton and Paxton executed a deed to bar the survivorship amongst themselves. Mr. Lawton died, and devised
his moiety to his widow, (who is now the wife of the reverend . -Mr. Whittington) for her life, and two persons in remainder
i after her death.'. The other moiety of Paxton's was sold by . his executors, and purchased by Mr. Richardson and Mr. Tuff.
nelo Mr. Richardson devised his fourth part to Mr. John Ri. . V chardson , Mr. Tuffnel's fourth part came to his son, captain 11. Tuffnel. The right of the office stands thus at present : Mr. .*: Farley, the laft life in the patent is still living; the office bei longs beneficially to Mrs. Whittington for her life, for one ... moiety, and to Mr. Tuffnel and Mr. Richardson, for the other
moiety. : An office so situated, could not be very punctually ,' executed'; and this occasioned many complaints in Jamaica.
The duty of the office is to feal processes, to figu writs, to enter > · up judgments, and keep tbe records of the court, Mr. Vaughan
had resided many years as a merchant in Jamaica, and after
his return to England in 1762, he applied to the proprietors ..: for a lease of the office, (the old lease being then expired) not
for himlf, but for one Mr. Evans, whom he appointed his attorney, and for whoin he became surety, and obtained it. Upon the death of Evans, Mr. Vaughan took the lease in his own name, in March 1765, which was granted by all the proprietors for seven years, determinable in case of the death of the patentee, or that of Mr. Vaughan. After taking this step Mr. Vaughan went over to Jamaica, in order to put the office upon a right footing, the security of his own property and that of others depending upon its being properly executed.
Having made several useful regulations in this office, with the applause of the inhabitants of Jamaica, he determined to make an application for the grant of it in his own name, upon the expiration of the right of the proprietors. Accordingly he made his application in 1766 to the duke of Grafton, and general Conway, by means of Mr. Newcome, of Hackney, who was intimate with the duke. It did not succeed ; his grace de. claring, that he had heard Mr. Vaughan had been making application to the marquis of Rockingham (which was a mistake) and he never chose to interfere out of his own department. Mr. Vaughan remained in the execution of the office, and nothing else remarkable happened till the year 1769, when, about the month' of February or March, Mr. Richardson came to him, and told him, he had been applied to, to dispose of his interest in that office ; and that the person who applied to hiin had agreed with Mr. Tuffnell and Mr. Whittington, and only wanted Mr. Richardson's confent. Mr. Vaughan enquired who this person was; and Mr. Richardson told him, it was one Mr. Howel, formerly a surgeon to the hospital in Germany. This Mr. Howel acquainted the proprietors that he fhould be glad to give them a good price, but that they must fell out; for, it seems, Mr. Howel had such interest that there was no refifting it. Mr. Vaughan was naturally, alarmed at this ; as in case of a surrender, and a new title, his leare, of which three years were unexpired, would of course, he thought, have been determined. After some interviews with the proprietors, as well as with Mr. Howel, Mr. Vaughan discovered that the interest of the latter was his money, and therefore concluded, that the only way of counterading this interest was to make use of the same weapon. He therefore waited again on Mr. Newcome, and told him, that if the office was to be disposed of in that manner, he was ready to give more for it than any other person : but as he was sensible of his being obnoxious on account of his principles, and that it might be therefore suspected he had proposed this as a trap, he offered to take an oath of secrecy, in order to remove that suspicion. Accordingly, he made an affidavit, and upon Mr. Newcome's declining to be concerned in the affair, he inclosed it in the following letter to the duke.
"My Lord Duke. • Mr. Henry Newcome's ftri& honour, as well as his very - fincere regard for your grace, rendered him, in my opinion, the properest person to intrust with a proposition that required the utmost secrecy ; but his delicacy preventing, I am by the nature of it precluded from every other method, but by imme