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neuve, and at the same time supplied that embassador with the means of being exaatly informed of what passed in the grand vizier's camp.
. General Munich having left a body of troops before Azoph to continue the siege, had advanced into the Crim, where he forced the lines of Orkapi, and made himself master of Geuflevé and Bachaseray. The Cham had no other resource left than to reduce the Russians to an impossibility of subsisting in the Crim, by destroying the provisions and poisoning the waters of all the places he was forced to abandon to them, and then retire himself to Caffa, where the captain bashaw waited for him, in order to concert their operations together.
"The arrival of this news confirmed the Ottoman court in the resolution to enter into a negociation as soon as possible, with that of Petersburg. At the request of the grand vizier, the court of Vienna fent orders to M. Talman, the emperor's resident at the Porte, to repair to the Turkish army, and alsume the character of embassador plenipotentiary, in case he should interpose in the quality of mediator between the Porte and Russia, when the expected negotiation should be begun.'
The conduct of the Porte on this occasion was very inconsistent, for they wrote letters to the king of England, and the States-general, begging for their mediation ; but the famous cuunt Bonneval, who was then at Constantinople, endeavoured to diffuade the grand vizir frum trusting to the maritime powers. By this time Munich had taken Aroph, but had been forced to leave Crim Tartary. The Porte, to please the Russians, had depored the Khan, and it was thought a peace would be concluded between the Turks and Russians at the head of the two armies, under the emperor's mediation, which the imperial plenipotentary Talman was to undertake. Not. withstanding the unsteadiness of the Porte, Bonneval pressed for the mediation of France, and secretly founded Villeneuve her embassador, who did not decline the office if he had the orders of his court, which he insinuated was favourable to the Ottomans. Mean while a check which the Rullians had re. ceived, induced the czarina to propose a suspension of arms, and to prevail with the emperor to withdraw his troops from Hungary; upon which the credulous grand vizir dismisied his army, but the Porte continued to elude Talman's mediation.
Somewhat perspires in this part of our author's narrative that is extremely remarkable, but we shall leave our reader to form his own conje&ture what may be the consequence of such a measure at the end of the present war. Talınan, it seems, had it in charge to demand for the Russians liberty to trade not only in the Black Sca but also in the Mediterranean through
it to mainiftry to b Bringing the
the Straits of the Dardanelles. The late successes of the Turks and the diversion in their favour, expected from Kouli Khan, made them treat the Russians with the less ceremony, and the war was once more renewed by the Crim Tartars. The emperor, zealous to give proof of his friendship to the Russians, threatened to declare war if the Turks did not accept of the terms proposed, and even excluded the maritime powers from all share in the mediation. Bonneval advised the vizir to continue the war rather than submit to the emperor's terms; and Villeneuve, perceiving the Ottoman ministry to be bent upon peace, took meafures by order of his court for bringing the Porte to accept of his master's mediation, by raising their apprehensions that the emperor and the king of Poland would join the Russians. This part of his embassy appears to have been discharged with great fagacity and address ; and in the beginning of the year 1737, the imperial minister had signified to the vizir, that if peace was not made between the Porte and the czarina, his master should be obliged to take part with the latter.
Villeneuve did not at all diminish the apprehensions of the Porte, and managed matters so, that Mr. Talman was treated by the grand vizir in a pretty cavalier manner; but the Ottoman ministry made dispositions for continuing the war, if neceffary, with the utmoft vigour.
In this part of the work Villeneuve's conduct in explaining and puzzling, in encouraging and intimidating, gives us a lively idea of the genius of French mediation, and brings to our mind the character of duplicity and craft, of which the French ministry is accused in bringing on the present war bem tween the Turks and Russians; the whole, however, tended to the grand point of prevailing with the Porte to accept of the French mediation. Villeneuve seeins, at last, to have almost outwitted himself by his refinements. His instructions were, that in case the Turks should give up Afoph to the Russians, the latter should be prevented from carrying on a trade in the Black Sea, and from thence into the Mediterranean ; and, indeed, when we throw our eyes upon the map, nothing seems to be more practicable than the shutting the Russians out of all communications with the Black Sea by fortifying Tamanı and Yegmicale, and by raising works in the straits of Zabache; even supposing them to be in poffeffion of Afoph.
Though the abbe is filent upon this head, yet Villeneuve appears to have been terribly embarrassed left the grand fig. pior, who had obtained full powers from the divan, had adopted the plan of the fortifications, and concluded a peace without his mediation. A quarrel between Faulkner, the English, H2
and and Kalcoen the Dutch resident, struck both of them out of the co. inediation with Talman. A few weeks discovered that the Russians had only temporized in order to take the field with an irresistible army, and letters were intercepted from the Rufiin ministry to Talman deliring the latter to keep the Turks in a state of security in the mean while. This entirely broke the credit of Talman at the Porte, and the grand vizir again took the field under strong impressions of being able ftill to make peace. At last the emperor joining the Russians, the Turks sollicited the mediation of France, which was granted ; and it was accepted by the emperor: but the czarina delayed explaining herself, and the Turks were at great pains to create a division between the two allies.
On the roth of February 1738, Villeneuve entered upon his arduous negotiation. Treating and fighting went hand in hand, and he pleased the Turks so well that they rejected all mediation but that of France, tho' at the same time they rejected the preliminary articles proposed in the name of the allies. We are here:o observe that our author's account of this negotiation is far from answering the character which some writers affect to give of the penetration and sagacity of the Turkish ministers. They appear to have supplied those qualities with igncrance and obstinacy; but they likewise employed a reserve of low cunning in attempting to surprize or divide their enemies, which was seldom successful. Upon the whole, the grand vizic carried on the war; the negotiation broke off, the succeiles of the Turks made them raise their pretensions, and a coolness seemed to take place between the courts of Vienna and Petersburgh, Fresh conferences were set on foot; but in the mean while the grand vizir Yeghen Bacha was deposed and sent into exile. He was succeeded by Elvias Mahomet Bacha of Widden, who was a man of a very mild charafler, but of a narrow genius,
Soon after this event, Villeneuve had an audience of the grand fignior in his character of embassador plenipotentary, charged with the mediaticn. We should give our reader the ceremony of this audience, did our bounds permit, but he will have great entertainment in coin paring it with the account we have already given of the same ceremony * ; perhaps our author has noilificd soine circumstances that are mentioned by Mr. Porter. After this, Villeneuve arrived at the camp before Belgrade, and entered upon his negotiation, in which he met with great difficulties. Count Neuperg, entrusted with the emperor's tull powers, arrived at the camp, and Villeneuve of
* See vol. xxv. p. 331.
fered fered to resume the negotiation, and to demolish Belgrade; but the successes of the Turks had so much elevated the vizir, that he declared he would listen to no terms till the keys of that city were brought to him. His confidence of that event was so great, that upon a presumption it was in Neuperg's power to bring it about, the latter was put under arrest. The truth is, the vizir thought that his head depended upon the surrender of Belgrade, with its present fortifications and its antient territory. Villeneuve and Neuperg proposed, though the latter said that it exceeded the bounds of his instructions, that the new forti. fications should be demolished, and the old ones left ftanding. After many difficulties and altercations, this expedient was accepted of, and on the ist of September 1739, the preliminaries were signed, and hostilities ceased before Belgrade. The two definitive treaties afterwards were engrossed and signed. The peace displeased the haughty court of Vienna ; Neuperg and his predecessor general Wallis were put under arrest, where they remained during the emperor's life.
Thus ended a war which was managed disgracefully by the imperialists, but gloriously by the Rullians, who were but ill Supported by their allies. Our author, we think, has been somewhat deficient in not accompanying the narrative of his negotiation, with some of the chief events that influenced it. As the affairs of Russia are now our chief object, we shall just mention that the glorious campaigns made by Munich, Lacy, and other Russian generals, obtained the follouing preliminary terms, viz. “That Asoph should remain to Rulia, but be demolished, and its territory laid desart to forin a barrier between the two empires; that Rullia might build a fortress on this side of the Don, and the Porte another on their side of the river ; but the city of Taganro:k, built by Peter the Great, on the sea of Afoph, should have no vertels on that or the Black Sea, but should use the Turkish ships in their commerce in those seas; that the limits of the two empires, west of the Neiper, Thouid be the same as regulated in 1706, Kudack remaining to the Porte; and the limits in the east of the Nieper to be settled by a new convention.'
The war which was finished by this peace bore in its operations a great resemblance to that now carried on between the Turks and the Russians. Their grounds are certainly different, as we have alredy observed; but some of their objeås, perhaps, are the same. Upon a comparison there seems to be no general at the head of the Russians comparable to Munich, Lacy, or Keith ; but, on the other hand, the late war in Germany has improved the discipline and even courage of the Rui
fians to an amazing degree; so that in the field they are greatly superior to their enemies.
The French have now given a loose to those sentiments which M. Villeneuve so carefully concealed during the negotiation before us. Political and, perhaps, some personal considerations bid fair to bring Poland and Russia under the same head. The natural power of her Russian majesty is now encreased by a fleet that must prove formidable to the Turks; and, to say the least, if it meets with no unexpected check, must open the passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean through the Dardanelles; the consequences of which are obvious.
This history contains a series of events and negotiations, of which we have endeavoured to give an abridgment, that are hitherto but very little known, and illuftrate the interests of those great enterprizes in countries where Englifhmen may be said to be strangers; so that by the help of this publication, we can certainly read the progress and management of the present war to great advantage.
III. The Popbumous Works of a late celebrated Genius deceased.
2 Vols. 8vo. Pr. 55, Jewed. Robinson and Roberts.
W Ithout accusing the editor of those Shandiana of infidelity,
he may be justly charged with indiscretion in thus exposing to the world the nakedness of his friend. The French, with regard to posthumous works, must be acknowledged to be, in general, more judicious than the English. Authors of note commonly leave in the sweepings of their desks more that ought to be suppressed than published, and it is a cruelty to the memory of the deceased to send both kind into the world together ; as the unhealthy can only serve to corrupt the found.- Few late editors of posthumous works in England have had the virtue to sacrifice the prospect of gain to the duties of friendship.
As often as we drew our pen against Mr. Sterne's works, it was in the cause of virtue, which, but too often suffers the most from writers of the greatest wit and humour. We thought him immoral; we thought him even sometimes dull, and, to use the words of the Roman Critical Reviewer,
Quis tam Lucili fautor ineple eft