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diadem of the Egyptian kiuys, which is now lazarted NOTES ON ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. " — did it from his teeth"-i. e. To appearance only ; “Not in the power on't"-An obscure pliras not seriously. Thus Dryden, in his “ Wild Gallant:" which Malone has given the most probable "I am confident she is only angry from the teeth out “ His whole conduct in the war is not founded up ward.” So Chapman, in his version of the fifteenth that which is his greatest strength, (namely, bs * Iliad :"
force.) but on the caprice of a woman, who wishes She laughed, but meerly from her lips.
he should fight by sea." And Fuller, in his “ Holie Warre," (book iv.chap. 17:)“ This bad breath, thongh it came but from the teeth of
in such distRACTIONS”-i. e. Detack meste some, yet proceeded from the corrupt lungs of others.”
"— upon this JUMP"—i. e. Upon this ka:er!, 27
verb to "jump" is used in MACBETH and CORIOLA II This seems so obscure, in the ordinary sense of “stain," that Theobald changed it to strain, and Boswell sug. " — CANTLE of the world”-i. e. Portion. gested stay ; either of which may have been the author's word. Yet, as we find in some of the poets of the time,
" — the Token'D pestilence"-i. e. The patien "stain,” used in the sense of to eclipse, to throw in the
which is mortal, when those spots appear on the . shade, it may have been the word, and is therefore re
which were called God's tokens. tained. Thus, among several examples quoted by the
"— Yon' RIBALD Nag of Egypt"-i. e. That seeni commentators, we have, in Churchyard's poem of * Charitie," (1595)—
jade-a natural burst of indignation. The oli bus
print it “ribaudred nag," which Stevens has changada Whose beauty stains the fair Helene of Greece.
ribald-rid; but the ancient form of - ribald" was real
or ribauld, or ribaudrous, as ribaldry was spellei rik SCENE V.
rie. Ribaudred, then, seems to have been a mere De “ – denied him rivality"-i. e. Equal rank. In || print for one of the older förins of - ribald." Thos, e Hamlet, Horatio and Marcellus are styled by Bernardo TROILUS AND Cressida, we have, in the folios, "miste 'the rivals" of his watch.
croios." “ Hag of Egypt" is also the reading of a " — thou hast a pair of chaps,
of the modern editions ; but the allusion to the -- briza,
, -no more"-This line is sometimes pointed and read as if the sense were,
or gad-fly, the summer torment of horses and catch
Thion world hast no longer a pair of jaws;" but the sense is,
indicates “nag" to be the word intended. “ Thou hast but one pair of jaws, and no more.”
“ The Brize upon her"-i. e. The gad-fly, so trouble
some to cattle in summer. SCENE VI. “ Being an OBSTRUCT"- The original has abstracl,
Scene IX. which the edition of Knight retains, and several editors
“- He, al Philippi, kes defend, as meaning a separation. It seems clearly a His sword even like a DANCER," etc. misprint for “obstruct,” which is generally adopted.
That is—Czesar never offered to draw his sword, but - his potent REGIMENT”-i. e. Government, author kept it in the scabbard, like one who dances with! ity; the ordinary sense of the word in Shakespeare's sword ou, which was formerly the custom in Englui day. Thus, in the “ Faerie Queene," we have, “When A passage in All's Well That Ends Well explain he had resigned his regiment ;" and Lyly, (in 1597) this allusion :“Hecate in Philo's regiment."
Till honour be bought up, and no sword word,
But one to dance with.
So, in Titus Andronicus, we have, “ a dancing rapper 2. Thou hast forsPoke”-i. e. Spoken against, or for by your site.". The Poet ascribes the customs oi lui bidden.
own age to that of Antony. “ If not denounc'd against us, why should not we,” etc.
the Mad Brutus"-"Nothing can be more
character than for an infamous debauched tyraut to call The modern reading is
the heroic love of one's country and public liberty, Is't not? Denounce against us why should not we
madness."—WARBURTON. With Malone and Knight, we follow the original, the meaning of which is, If there be no special denunciation
" Dealt on LIEUTENANTRY"-Stevens has well ex. against us, why should we not be there?
plained this passage, which Johnson and others misanderstood. He says,
Dealt on lieutenantry'' meus — MERELY lose"-i. e. Entirely.
fought by proxy, made war by his lieutenunts, or 01 — TAKE IN Toryne"-i. e. Gain by conquest.
the strength of his lieutenants. In a former scene rez“O noble emperor, do not fight by sea," etc.
Cæsar and Antony have ever won
More in their officer, than person. So when Antonius had determined to fight by sea, he set all the other ships on fire but threescore ships of
To“ deal on" anything is an expression often used by old Egypt, and reserved only the best and greatest galleys,
writers. In Plutarch's " Life of Antony," Shakespeare from three banks unto ten banks of oars. Into them he
found the following words :-". They were always nxirre put two-and-twenty thousand fighting men, with two
fortunate when they made warre by their lieutenants thousand darters and slingers. Now, as he was setting
than by themselves." his men in order of battle, there was a captain, a valiant man, that hind served Antonius in many battles and con
SCENE X. flicts, and had all his body hacked and cut, who, as An
“ As is the morn-dew on the myrtle-leaf tonius passed by him, cried unto him, and said, O noble
To us grand sca." emperor, how cometh it to pass that you trust to these vile brittle ships ? What, do you mistrust these wounds
Capell explains this passage thus :-“The sea, that of mine, and this sword? Let the Egyptians and Pho
he (the dew-drop) arose froin." nicians fight by sea, and set us on the main land, where
found in old English, even where no we use to conquer, or to be slain on our feet. Antonius
of gender was intended. passed by him and said never a word, but only beck “ The circle of the Plolemies”-i. e. The crown of oned to him with his hand and head, as though he willed hirn to be of good conrage, althouyh, indeed, he had no to thy grace"-1. e. now placed within the chance of great courage himself.- Nonth's Plutarch.
thy favour and pardon, or the reverse.
“ His" for its is often
" By the DISCANDERING of this pelleted storm,” etc.
This is the word of the original, but the invariable modern reading is descand ying; and Malone explains that “discandy is used in the next act.” But how is it used ?
On blossoming Cæsar. The expletive melt their sweets gives us the peculiar and more forcible meaning in which the word is here used. But the pelleted storm, which makes Cleopatra’s brave Egyptians lie graveless, is utterly opposed to the melting into sweetness of the word discandying. To squander is to scatter, and so Dryden uses the word :
They drive, they squander, the huge Belgian fleet. To dis-cander, we believe then, is to dis-squander. The particle dis is, as Mr. Richardson has stated, “ frequently prefixed to words themselves meaning separation, or partition, and augmenting the force of those words." We therefore, without hesitation, restore the original
discandering," in the sense of dis-squandering.KNIGHT.
“ – and FLEET”—The old word for float, which words were used indiscriminately.
“ – one other gaudy nighl"-i. e. A night of rejoicing-from the Latin gaudium. A “gaudy
day, in the Universities and Inns of Court, is a feast day. Nares, in explanation of the term, quotes from an old play :
A foolish utensil of state,
SCENE XI. “ Think, and die"-As before remarked on a parallel passage of Julius CÆSAR, (act ii. scene 1,) “ think” is used in its ancient sense of anxious thought, like the * take no thought" of our English Bible, for be not anrions, or solicitous. This sense is so common in old English, that there is no ground whatever for the odd alteration of Hanmer, adopted in several valuable editions, of " Drink and die."
NICK'D his captainship"—i. e. (says Stevens) Set the mark of folly upon it. So in the COMEDY OF ERRORS:
and the while His man with scissars nicks him like a fool. “ The MERED question” -“Mere" is a boundary, and to mere is to mark, to limit. Spenser thus uses the word as a verb. “Question" is used, as in Hamlet, for object, or subject :
- the king, That was and is the question of these wars, Antony was the subject, to which the whole war was limited.
To lay his gay comparisons a part, And answer me declis'd, sword against sword,” etc. Johnson explains the passage thus :—" I require of Cæsar not to depend on that superiority which the comparison of our different fortunes may exhibit to him, but to answer me man to man, in this decline of my age or power.”
“A messenger from Cæsar." Therewithal he sent Thyreus, one of his men, unto her, a very wise and discreet man, who, bringing letters of credit from a young lord unto a noble lady, and that, besides, greatly liked her beauty, might easily by his eloquence have persuaded her. He was longer in talk with her than any man else was, and the queen herself also did him great honour, insomuch as he made Antonius jealous of him. Whereupon Antonius caused him to be taken and well favouredly whipped, and so sent hiin unto Cæsar, and bade him tell him that he made him angry with him, because he showed himself proud and disdainful towards him; and now, specially, when he was easy to be angered by reason of his present misery. To be short, if this mislike thee, (said he,) thou hast Hipparchus, one of my enfranchised bondmen, with thee; hang him if thou wilt, or whip him at thy pleasure, that we may cry quittance. From henceforth, Cleopatra, to clear herself of the suspicion he had of her, made more of him than ever she did. For, first of all, where she did solemnize the day of her birth very meanly and sparingly, fit for her present misfortune, she now in contrary manner did keep it with such solemnity that she exceeded all measure of sumptuousness and magnificence, so that the guests that were bidden to the feasts, and came poor, went away rich.—North’s Plutarch. " — begin to squARE"-i. e. Begin to Quarrel. "Say to great Cæsar this in DISPUTATION," etc. So the old text, and the sense is good. Say to him in discussion, nothing but my submission. Yei there is probability in Warburton's amendment, "in deputation"-i. e. say you, as my deputy, this to him.
"Like boys unto a muss"-i. e. A scramble-a word now considered only as childish or vulgar, but used by the best authors as late as Dryden, who speaks of "a muss of more than half the town."
- one that looks on FEEDERS"— Antony is comparing Cleopatra with Octavia. * One that looks on feeders" is one that bestows favours on servants. Eaters, "feeders," were terms for servants in the old dramatists. Gifford has shown, in a note to the “Silent Woman," that Dr. Johnson was mistaken when he interpreted the passage in the text to mean that Antony was abused by Thyreus—by one that looked on while others fed.
ACT IV.-SCENE I.
Laugh at his challenge."
He hath many other ways to die: mean time
I laugh at his challenge. This is certainly the sense of Plutarch, and given so in modern translations; but Shakespeare was misled by the ambiguity of the old one:—* Antonius sent again to challenge Cæsar to fight him: C:esar answered, that he had many other ways to die than so."—FARMER.
SCENE II. " — and cry, 'Take all'”-i. e. Let the survivor " take all;" no composition-victory or death. So in King LEAR:
unbonneted he runs, And bids what will, take all. “ Cal forth my household servants; let's to-night," etc.
Then Antonius seeing there was no way more honourable for him to die than fighting valiantly, he determined to set up his rest both by sea and land. So, being at supper, (as it is reported,) he commanded his officers and household servants that waited on him at his board that they should fill his cup full, and make as much of him as they could, for, said he, You know not whether you shall do so much for me to-morrow or not, or whether you shall serve another master; it may be you shall see me no more, but a dead body. This notwithstanding, perceiving that his friends and men fell a weeping to hear him say so, lo salve that he had spoken he added this more unto it, that he would not lead them to battle where he thought not rather safely to return with victory than valiantly to die with honour.–North's Plutarch.
- the gods YIELD you for 't"-In As You Like IT we have the familiar expression, “ God 'ild you," which is equivalent to God yield you, or God reward you.
“ Ho, ho, ho !"-Boswell suggests that these interjections were intended to express an hysterical laugh; but the old usage of "ho" was to express slop, desist-being but another form of whoe, still used to horses. Thua
And we will shock them.
Now he had a man of his NOTES ON ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. Lord Berner, in his Froissart"_" * There was no ho “ Like a right gipsy, hat h, at FAST AND LOOSE," ex between them;" and Burton (“* Anatomy of Melan
The allusion is to the game of " fast and loss.": choly”) has, “ He is mad, mud, no whoe with him.”
pricking at the belt or girdle still practised be just
cheats, and which was practised by the gipsies in San SCENE III.
speare's time, as appears in an epigram of Thomas
man's, in his collection, called - Run and a Great C “ Peace, what noise ? '
(1614,) which is printed in the Variorum Skatesger Furthermore, the self-same night, within a little of together with Sir John Hawkins's description 1 midnight, when all the city was quiet, full of fear and
game. sorrow, thinking what would be the issue and end of this war, it is said that suddenly they heard a marvel " For poor'st diminutives, for DOLTS"—We read lous sweet harmony of sundry sorts of instruments of original. The ordinary reading ismusic, with the cry of a multitude of people, as they
For poor'st diminutives to dolts ;had been dancing, and had sung as they used in Bac and it is explained that the poorest diminutives are de chus' feasts, with movings and turnings after the man smallest pieces of money. Others read “ for de ner of the Satyrs; and it seemed that this dance went diminutives and doits each meaning small mit through the city unto the gate that opened to the ene “ Poor'st diminutives" are the children of the barbi mies, and that all the troop that made this noise they condition, and classed with “dolts"—the silly and is heard went out of the city at that gate. Now, such as rant of a larger growth; the whole formning whai ( in reason sought the depth of the interpretation of this patra, in the last scene of the play, calls the “sbasis wonder, thought that it was the god unto whom Anto varletry" of Rome. We must, therefore, undersen nius bare singular devotion to counterfeit and resemble “for” to mean for the gratification of, or adopt as him that did forsake them.—North's Plutarch.
gestion by Malone, " be shown fore," etc.
We have, with Knight, preferred this old reading 3 Scene VI.
the later reading and explanation, because the contr
does not lead to the idea of Cleopatra's being małe : “ – the THREE-NOOK'D world”-i. e. The three-cor show for money, but represents her as made a patir nered world. It is not easy to explain why three cor show in Cæsar's triumph. ners, and no more, were allowed the world; but such was the language of the times. Thus in King Join:
“Was never 80 Emboss'd"-This word is need in the
old hunting sense, for foaming at the moutk. " — sar'd the bringer"-i. e. Made safe. This is one of the only two instances of this use of the word, in any
SCENE XII. author, the other being in Chapman's “ Odyssey."
“ They are black vesper's PAGEANTS"-T. Parton
rightly reminds us, that the beauty both of the expres SCENE VIII.
sion and the allusion is lost, unless we recollect the fire “ – this great Fairy"— The term “ fairy," in former quency and the nature of these shows in Shakespeare's time, was applied, not only to imaginary diminutive age. The following apposite passage from a germae
. beings, but also occasionally to witches, and enchanters;
by Bishop Hall, is cited by Boswell:-“ I feare some in which last sense it is used in the text.
of you are like the pageants of your great solemnities wherein there is a show of a solid body, whether of a
lion, or elephant, or unicorne ; but if they be curiously SCENE IX.
look'd into, there is nothing but cloth, and sticks, and “ — RAUGHT him"-" Raught," in olden English, was ayre.' the preterite of reach, and was also used for reft; so
" This is, without doubt, one of the finest pieces of that it may here have either signification.
poetry in SHAKESPEARE. The splendour of the imagery
, the semblance of reality, the lofty range of picturesque - (order for sea is given; objects hanging over the world, their evanescent nature, They have put forth the haven,") etc.
the total uncertainty of what is left behind, This passage is parenthetical. Omit it, and Antony
like the mouldering schemes of human greatness.".
HAZLITT. says, that the foot soldiers shall stay with him, upon the hills adjoining to the city
“ The rack dislimns"-i. e. The fleeting away of the Where their appointment we may best discover.
clouds destroys the picture. There is, therefore, no need or propriety of Malone's
My mistress lov'd thee, and her fortunes mingled insertion of “Let's seek a spot,” or Rowe's “ Further
With thine entirely." on," before “Where their appointment," etc.
Then she, being afraid of his fury, fled into the torph “But being charg'd, we will be still by land," etc.
which she had caused to be made, and there locked the That is—Unless a charge is made upon us, we will
doors unto her, and shut all the springs of the locks with remain quiet on land. But," in this sense of unless, or
great bolts, and in the mean time sent unto Antonius to noithout, is often found in old English, as well as in later
iell him that she was dead. Antonius, believing it, said Scotch. Stevens quotes two lines from a version of an
unto himself, What dost thou look for further, Antonius
, old French romance
sith spiteful fortune hath taken from thee the ouly joy
thou haddest, for whom thou yet reservedst thy life?
When he had said these words, he went into a chamber
and unarmed himself, and, being naked, said thus:-0, - this GRAVE charm"-Some of the editors of the Cleopatra, it grieveth me not that I have lost thy com last century print, without reason, gay charms;" but
pany, for I will not be long from thee; but I am sorry the words mean, this deadly or destructive piece of that, having been so great a captain and emperor. I am witchcraft. In this sense the epithet “grave" is often indeed condemned to be judged of less courage
, and used by Chapman, his translation of Homer. Thus, noble mind than a woman. in the nineteenth book:
called Eros, whom he loved and trusted much, and who But not far hence the fatal minutes are
he had long before caused to swear unto him that he Of thy grave ruin.
should kill him when he did command him, and ther It seems to be employed in the sense of the Latin word he willed him to keep his promise. This man, draw gravis.
ing his sword, lift it up as though he had meant to bart
, -are jast
tricken his master; but, turning his head at one side, le thrust his sword into himself, and fell down dead at iis master's foot. Then said Antonius, O noble Eros, I hank thee for this, and it is valiantly done of thee, to show me what I should do to myself, which thou couldst not do for me. Therewithal he took his sword, and thrust it into his belly, and so fell down upon a little bed. The wound he had killed him not presently, for the blood stinted a little when he was laid ; and when he came somewhat to himself again, he prayed them that were about him to despatch him; but they all fled out of the chamber, and left him crying and tormenting himself, nntil at last there came a secretary unto him called Diomedes, who was commanded to bring him into the tomb or monument where Cleopatra was. When he heard that she was alive, he very earnestly prayed his men to carry his body thither, and so he was carried in his men's arms into the entry of the monument.NORTH's Plutarch.
- PLEAch'd arms"-i. e. Folded, interwoven.
Dispos'd with Cesar"-i. e. Made terms with.
SCENE XIII. " ( Charmian, I will never go from hence." Notwithstanding, Cleopatra would not open the gates, but came to the high windows, and cast out certain chains and ropes, in the which Antonius was trussed; and Cleopatra her own self, with two woinen only which she had suffered to come with her into these monuments, * trised " Antonius up. They that were present to be hold it said they never saw so pitiful a sight; for they plucked up poor Antonius, all bloody as he was, and drawing on with pangs of death, who, holding up his hands to Cleopatra, raised up himself as well as he could. It was a hard thing for the women to do, to lift him up; but Cleopatra, stooping down with her head, putting to all her strength to ler utterinost power, did lift him np with much aulo, and never let go her hold, with the help of the women beneath that bade her be of good conrage, and were as sorry to see her labour as she herself. So when she had gotten him in after that sort, and laid him on a bed, she rent her garments upon him, clapping her breast, and scratching her face and stomach. Then she dried up his blood that had berayed his face, and called him her lord, her husband, and emperor, forgetting her own misery and calamity for the pity and compassion she took of him. Antonius made her cease her lament. ing, and called for wine, either because he was athirst, or else for that he thought thereby to hasten his death. When he had drunk he earnestly prayed her and persuaded her that she would seek to save her life, if she could possible, without reproach and dishonour, and that chiefly she should trust Proenleins above any man else about Cæsar; and, as for himself, that she should not lament nor sorrow for the miserable change of his fortune at the end of his days, but rather that she should think him the more fortunate for the former triumphs and honours he had received, considering that while he lived he was the noblest and greatest prince of the world, and that now he was overcome, not cowardly, hut valiantly, a Roman by another Roman.—North's Plutarch.
“I dare not, dear"-Cleopatra dares not come down out of the monument, to bestow the poor last kiss.
BROOCH'D wilh me”-i. e. Adorned as with a brooch; a name then given to any ornamental jewel.
“ Your wife Octavia, rith her modest eyes
And still conclusion," etc. "With her sedate determination, silent coolness of resolution,” explains Johnson. But this meaning is hardly conveyed by the words, nor would such a temper be specially offensive to Cleopatra. I agree with Nares, (Glossary,) that she meant deep but quiet censure, looking demure all the while.” The conclusion” is the opinion formed, by inference, from observation.
"QUICKEN with kissing”-i. e. Revive by my kiss. To “ quicken,” according to Baret, is "to make livelie and lustie; to make strong and sound; to refresh.”.
the meanest CHARES"-A “chare," or char, is a single act, or piece of work; a turn, or bout of work, (from the Anglo-Saxon, cyran, to turn.) Hence, a char
The word, now quite obsolete in England, is still retained in the United States, in the form of chores; signifying any of the smaller work about a farm or house, in the sense here used.
ACT V.-SCENE I.
The round world
And citizens to their dens." The Johnson and Stevens editors and commentators agree in pronouncing that some worils or lines have been lost here, and amend in several ways; but we retain the old lines as first printed, and agree with Knight, that nothing can more forcibly express the idea of a general convulsion than that the wild beasts of the forest should have been hurled into the streets where men abide, and the inhabitants of cities as forcibly thrown into the lions' dens. Of the proposed amendments the best is that of Malone, thus:
The round world should have shook,
Thrown hungry lions into civil streets, etc. - FOLLOW'd thee to this"-i. e. Hunted thee to this.
- should divide Our equa!ness to this." That is-Should have marle us, in our equality of fortune, disagree to a pitch like this, that one of us must die.
"A poor Egyptian yet”-i. e. Yet an Egyptian, or subject of the queen of Egypt, though soon to become a subject of Rome.
SCENE II. “ Enter Cleopatra, Charmian, and Iras." Malone
says, “Our anthor here, (as in King HENRY VIII., act v. scene 1.) has attempted to exhibit at once the outside and inside of a building. It would be impossible to represent this scene in any way on the stage, but by making Cleopatra and her attendants speak ali their speeches, till the queen is seized, within the monument.' The higher interior elevation of the old Eng. lish stage has already been noticed, and by its aid Cleopatra and her two attendants were exhibited in the monument above, in the rear of the stage; while the Romans appear in front below.
" – and never palates more the dung The beggar's nurse and Cæsar's." Voluntary death (says Cleopatra) is an act which bolts up change; it produces a state
Which sleeps, and never palates more the dung,
The beggar's nurse and Cæsar's; which has no longer need of the gross and terrene sus. tenance, in the use of which Cæsar and the beggar are on a level. It has been already said in this play, that
our dungy earth Feeds man as beast. “ The Æthiopian king, (in Herodotus, book iii.,) upon hearing a description of the nature of wheat, replied, that he was not at all surprised if men, who eat nothing but dung, did not attain a longer life."
Such is the comment of Johnson and of Stevens, which gives the sense of the anthor, if the punctuation be as above, and as it is in the folio of 1623, referring the
dung." But if we read with another pointing
and never palates more the dung; The beggar's nurse and Cæsar'sthe common "nurse” of all men must then refer to that which “ ends all other deeds," (i. e. death.) I prefer the former printing and sense.
-pray in aid for kindness"-A phrase drawn from morial of all the ready money and treasure she has to the technical language of the English common law: by chance there stood Seleucus by, one of her 12. * In real actions the tenant may pray in aid, or call for rers, who, to seem a good servant, carne straga: el, the assistance of another to help him plead. Thus a sar to disprove Cleopatra, that she had not set in 2. to tenant for life may pray in aid of him that hath the re kept many things back of purpose. Cleopatra : version; that is, that he be joined in the action, and such a rage with him, that she flew upon him, bin help defend,” etc. (III. Blackstone's Commentaries, him by the hair of the head, and boxed him well is 300.)
edly. Cæsar fell a-laughing, and parted the fray. di
said she, 0 Cæsar! is not this a great shame aud res_ “ Proculeius and two of the Guard," etc.
that thou having vouchsafed to take the pains tor: The stage-direction is wanting in the older editions. unto me, and hast done me this honour, poor som This is added in the modern editions, from the account and caitiff creature, brought unto this pitiful and is thus given in North's " Plutarch:”—
able estate: and that mine own servants should 19 * But Cleopatra would never put herself into Procu come to accuse me, though it may be I have resenie. leius' hands, although they spoke together. For Pro some jewels and trifles meet for women, but not a culeius came to the gates, that were very thick and (poor soul) to set out myself withal, but meaning to strong, and surely barred; but yet there were some some pretty presents and gifts unto Octavia and be crannies through the which her voice might be heard, that, they making means and intercession for me to and so they without understood that Cleopatra demand thou mightest yet extend thy favour and mercy ed the kingdom of Egypt for her sons; and that Procu me?
Cæsar was glad to hear her say so, persuai leius answered her that she should be of good cheer, himself thereby that she had yet a desire to save be i and not be afraid to refer all unto Cæsar. After he had So he made her answer, that he did not only give r viewed the place very well, he came and reported her that to dispose of at her pleasure which she had been answer unto Cæsar, who immediately sent Gallus to back, but further promised to use her more bodas speak once again with her, and bade him purposely and bountifully than she would think for: add so hold her with talk whilst Proculeius did set up a ladder took his leave of her, supposing he had deceived be against that high window by the which Antonius was but indeed he was deceived himself.-North's Piesa trised' up, and came down into the monument with two of his men, hard by the gate where Cleopatra stood
“ I cannot PROJECT mine oun cause"-To "proje" to hear what Gallus said unto her. One of her women
is to delineate, to shape, to form. So in Look About which was shut in the monument with her saw Procu
You," a comedy, (1600:leius by chance as he came down, and shrieked out, 0,
But quite dislike the project of your sute. poor Cleopatra, thou art taken! Then when she saw Proculeius behind her as she came from the gate, she
MODERN friends”-i. e. Common, ordinary. thought to have stabbed herself with a short dagger
“With one that I have bred"-" With" for by, a she wore of purpose by her side. But Proculeius came common old English idiom, now become merely collo suddenly upon her, and, taking her by both the hands, quial and inelegant, if not incorrect. said unto her, Cleopatra, first thou shalt do thyselt great wrong, and secondly unto Cæsar, to deprive him of the
“ Make not your thoughts your prisons”-i. e. Bem occasion and opportunity openly to show his bounty and
a prisoner in imagination, when in reality you are free.
Johnson. inercy, and to give his enemies cause to accuse the most courteous and noble prince that ever was, and to
Casar through Syria • appeache' him as though he were a cruel and merciless Intends his journey,” etc. inan that were not to be trusted. So, even as he spake Dolabella sent her word secretly, that Cæsar deterthe word, he took her dagger from her, and shook her mined to take his journey through Syria, and that with clothes for fear of any poison hidden about her." in three days he would send her away before with bei
“ – I will eal no meal, I'll not drink"-i. e. I will not children. When this was told Cleopatra, she commandeat, and, if it will be necessary now for once to waste a
ed they should prepare her bath, and when she had moment in idle talk of my purpose, I will not sleep
bathed and washed herself she fell to her meat, and wai neither.-Johnson.
sumptuously served. Now, whilst she was at dinner,
there came a countryman, and brought her a basket. My country's high PYRAMIDES”—The Latin plural
The soldiers that warded at the gates asked him straight of pyramid; used as a word of four syllables here, as it
what he had in his basket. He opened the basket, and is by Sandys, Drayton, and other contemporary poets. took out the leaves that covered the figs, and showed
his rear'd arm
them that they were figs he brought. They all of them CRESTED the world,” etc.
marvelled to see such goodly figs. The countryman
laughed to hear them, and bade them take some if they Dr. Percy thinks that “this is an allusion to some of the old crests in heraldry, where a raised arm on a
would. They believed he told thein truly, and so bade wreath was mounted on the helmet." To: “ crest
him carry them in. After Cleopatra had dined, she sest
a certain table, written and sealed, unto Cæsar, and to surmount.
commanded them all to go out of the tombs where she “ A8 Plates dropp'd from his pocket”—Pieces of sil was but the two women; then she shut the doors to ver money were called " plates.” So in Marlowe's her. Cæsar, when he received this table, and began to * Jew of Malta :"
read her lamentation and petition, requesting him that Rat'st thou this Moor but at two hundred plates ?
he would let her be buried with Antonius, found straight It is from the Spanish name of silver money, plata,
what she meant, and thought to have gone thither him which, about the age of Elizabeth, was introduced into
self: howbeit he sent one before him in all haste that English.
might be to see what it was. Her death was very sudo
den; for those whom Cæsar sent unto her ran thither is " Which is the queen of Egypt ?”
all haste possible, and found the soldiers standing at the Shortly after Caesar came himself in person to see her, gate, mistrusting nothing, nor understanding of her death. and to comfort her.
When Caesar had But when they had opened the doors they found Cleo made her lie down again, and sat by her bedside, Cleo patra stark dead, laid upon a bed of gold, attired and patra began to clear and excuse herself for that she had | arrayed in her royal robes, and one of her two women, done, laying all to the fear she had of Antonius. Cæsar, which was called Tras, dead at her feet; and her other in contrary manner, reproved her in every point. Then woman, called Charmian, half dead, and trembling, she suddenly altered her speech, and prayed him to trimming the diadem which Cleopatra wore upon her pardon her, as though she were afraid to die, and desi head. One of the soldiers, seeing her, angrily said unto rous to live. At length she gave him a brief and me her, Is that well done, Charmian? Very well, said she