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their quota. Stevens pronounces, that "the plain sense pected resemblances between the customs of the court of the passage seems to be, these ladies rendered that of the Pharaohs and those of modern times, that it would homage which their assumed characters obliged them not be very surprising to find that Cleopatra migbt to pay their queen-a circumstance ornamental to them- have amused herself with this very game. re-iuvenied selves. Each inclined her person so gracefully, that the centuries after in France. Of course Shakespeare knew very act of humiliation was an improvement of her own nothing of these antiquities, but he knew very well that beauty."
games of some sort, uniting exercise with manual des. Knight's comment is as follows:-"Warburton pro- terity and skill, were used in all refined and luxurious posed to read adorings; and the controversy upon the communities; and because he could not express an instmatter is so full that Boswell prints it as a sort of sup- tation to such an amusement, in a vague circumlocation, plement at the end of the play. We hold to the adorn- he employed the familiar English word for the game inge' of the original."
most like that he supposed inight bave been played in Collier says, ihat " tended in the eyes” means nothing old times. else but teniled her sight; as in the MIDSUMMER Night's Dream we have “ gambol in his eyes," for gambol in
“Rain thou thy fruitful tidings in mine ears," etc his sight. “ Made their bends adornings" is to be un
The old text has “ Ram thou," etc., which Collier rederstood that they bowed with such grace as to add to tains. Yet the epithets “ fruitful" and " barreu" are so their beauty.
congruous with “rain," and the same image having
been used in Timon, ( Rain sacrificial whisperings in * Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale
his ear,") there seems little doubt that ram is a literal Her infinite variety."
error for “ rain." Cleopatra, as appears from the tetradrachms of Antony, was no Venus; and indeed the majority of ladies, “ But there's no goodness in thy face, if Antony who most successfully enslaved the hearis of princes, are
Be free and healthful:
:-80 tart a favour,” etc. known to have been less remarkable for personal than We follow the original reading, as well as punctuamental attractions. The reign of insipid beauty is sel- tion, agreeing with Knight that, thus read, the lives are dom iasting; but permanent must be the rule of a wo- full of characteristic spirit. The bulk of modern ediman who can diversify the sameness of life by an inex- tions alter, without reason, the punctuation thus:hausted variety of accomplishments.-STEVENS.
But there's no goodness in thy face : If Antony
Be free, and healthful, -uhy so tart a favour
To trumpet such good tidinys i
“Not like a FORMAL man"-i. e. A man in his senses. “Whose fortunes shall rise higher, Cæsar's or mine ?”.
(See Comedy of Errors, act v. scene 1.) So in the With Antonius there was a soothsayer or astronomer TWELFTH Night—"any formal capacity." of Egypt, that could cast a figure, and judge of men's nativities, to tell them what should happen to them. " I'll set thee in a shower of gold, and hail He, either to please Cleopatra, or else for that he found
Rich pearls upon thee.” it so by his art, told Antonius plainly that his fortune
A magnificent image, which Milton has borrowed, (which of itself was excellent good and very great) was and added to its splendour of diction, by incorporating altogether blemished and obscured by Cesar's fortune; with it the “ Barbarico auro" of Virgil, and an actual and therefore he counselled him uiterly to leave his custom of the Persian court :company, and to get him as far from him as he could.
the gorgeons East, with liberal hand, For thy demon, said he, (that is to say, the good angel
Showers on her kings Burbaric pearl and gold. and spirit that keepeth thee,) is afraid of his; and, being courageous and high when he is alone, becometh fear.
" Thou art not what thou’rt sure of"-Such is the ful and timorous when he cometh near unto the other.
reading of the original, which, though obscure from the Howsoever it was, the events ensuing proved the Egyp- speaker’s hurried brevity, I understand as saying, as if tian's words true: for it is said that, as often as they two
in a relenting moment—" Thou (the bearer) art not thydrew cuts for pastime who should have anything, or
self the evil thing of which you are so certain, and do whether they played at dice. Antonius always lost.
not merit to bear its odium." If the reader is not satis Oftentimes when they were disposed to see cock-fight,
fied with this, he may adopt the conjectural emendation or quails that were taught to fight one with another,
of M. Mason, adopted by Stevens: Cæsar's cocks or quails did ever overcome.--North's
O, that his fault should make a knave of thee, Plutarch.
That art not! What? thou'rt sure of't? “ Becomes a FEAR"-A “Fear" was a personage in
SCENE VI. some of the old Moralities. (See Troilus and CresSIDA, act iii. scene 2.) The whole thought is borrowed
“ Your hostages I have, so have you mine," etc. from North's translation of Plutarch.
Sextus Pompeius at that time kept in Sicilia, and so
made many an inroad into Italy with a great number of - and his QUAILS ever
pinnaces and other pirate-ships, of the which were cap Beat mine, IN HOOP'd, at odds.
tains two notable pirates, Menas and Menecrates, who Shakespeare derived this from Plutarch. The an- so scoured all the sea thereabouts that none durs: peep cients used to match quails as we match cocks. Julius out with a sail. Furthermore, Sextus Pompeius had Pollux relates that a circle was made, in which the dealt very friendly with Antonius, for he had courteously birds were placed, and he whose quail was first driven received his moiher when she Hed out of Italy with out of the circle lost the stake. We are told by Mr. Fulvia; and therefore they thought good to make peace Marsden that the Sumatrans practise these quail com- with him. So they met all three vogether by the Mount bats. The Chinese have always been extremely fond of Misena, upon a hill that runneth far into the sea; of quail fighting. Mr. Douce has given a print, from an Pompey having his ships riding hard by at anchor, and elegant Chinese miniature painting, which represents Antonius and Cæsar their armies upon the shore side, some ladies engaged at this amusement, where the quails || directly over against him. Now, after they had agreed are actually inhooped.—Douce's Ilustrations of Shake- that Sextus Pompeius should have Sicily and Sardinia, speare.
with this condition, that he should rid the sea of all
thieves and pirates, and make it safe for passengers, sod SCENE V.
withal that he should send a certain quantity of wheat " - let us to BILLIARDS"— The critics pounce upon to Rome, one of them did feast another, and drew cuts this from all quarters. “The game (as Malone says) who should begin. It was Pompeins' chance te invite was not known in ancient times.” The later explora- | them first. Whereupon Antonius asked him, And where tions ut' Egyptian antiquities have shown so many unex- shall we sup? There, said Pompey; and showed him
his admiral galley, which had six banks of oars: That but not the one in the Poet's joind. The old Latin and (said he) is my father's house they have left me. He English dictionaries, and translators contemporary with spake it to taunt Antonius, because he hail his father's || Shakespeare, all show that “pink eyes” meant small house, that was Pompey the Great. So he cast anchors eyes, (as Bishop Wilkins's Dictionary—“ Pink-eyed; enow into the sea, and then built a bridge of wood to narrow-eyed.") Fleming, in his “ Nomenclator," gives convey them to his galley, from the heail of Mount Mi
as synonymous, " Ayant fort petits yeur : that hath little sepa : and there he welcomed them, and made them eyes-pink-eyed." great cheer. Now, in the midst of the feast, when they fell to be merry with Antonius' love unto Cleopatra,
ACT III.-SCENE I. Menas the pirate came to Pompey, and, whispering in his ear, said unto him, Shall I cut the cables of the an
Without the which a soldier, and his sword, chors, and make thee lord, not only of Sicily and Sar
Grants scarce distinction." dinia, but of the whole empire of Rome besides ? Pom
“Grants" for affords. ** Thou hast that. Ventidius, pey, having paused awhile upon it, at length answered which if thou didst want, there would be no distinction him, Thou shouldst have done it, and never have told it between thee and thy sword. You would be both me; but now we must content us with what we have; equally cutting and senseless." This was wisdom, or as for myself, I was never taught to break my faith, nor knowledge of the world. Ventidius had told him why to be counted a traitor. The other two also did like- he did not pursue his advantages; and his friend, by wise feast him in their camp, and then he returned into this compliment, acknowledges them to be of weight. Sicily:-North's Plutarch.
There is somewhat the same idea in CORIOLANUS:- much tall youth"-" Tall" is used in its old col
Who sensible outdares his senseless sword.
“ — hearts, tongues, figures, scribes, bards, poets," etc. sessions; having added to thy own my father's house.
This whimsical arrangement of words, as it is here “O'ercount" seems to be used equivocally, and Pom- jocosely introduced, seems a passing sneer at the tastes pey perhaps is meant to insinuate that Antony not only
of the day, in affecting this conceit in graver poetry. outnumbered, but had overreached him. The circum
Thus, in Daniel's eleventh Sonnet:stance of Antony's obtaining the house of Pompey's
Yet will I weep, vow, pray to cruel shee; father, the Poei had from Plutarch.
Flint, frost, disdaine, weares, inelts, and yields we see.
And Sir Philip Sydney's “Excellent Sonnet of a Nymph," since the cuckoo builds not for himself"—i. e. printed in “ England's Helicon," is a tissue of this kind. Since, like the cuckoo, that seizes the nests of other birds, you have invaded a house which you could not They are his SHARDS, and he their BEETLE"-i. e. Luild, keep it while you can.
They are the wings, that raise this heavy lumpish insect ("* For this is from the PRESENT")—i. e. Foreign to
from the ground. So in Macbeth—"The shard-borne
beetle." the object of our present discussion. Shakespeare uses the “ present” as a substantive many times.
and as my furthest BAND "You and I have known"-i. e. Have been ac
Shall pass on thy approof." quainted. So in CYMBELINE:—“Sir, we have known
“ Band" and bond were of old used indiscriininately. together at Orleans.”
Octavius charges his sister to prove such as he thinks
her, and as his amplest bond would be given that she Octavia is of a holy, cold, and still CONVERSATION" '--" Conversation" is behaviour; manuer of acting in common life. * He useth no virtue or honest conver- “ He were the worse for that, were he a horse," etc. sation at all: Nec habet ullum cum virtute commer- Stevens says, that “ a horse is said to have a cloud in cium."-BARET.
his face when he has a black or dark-coloured spot in
his forehead, between his eyes.” It is thought to indiSCENE VII.
cate a vicious temper. Burton applies the phrase to an " They have made him drink alms-drink”—“ A phrase ugly woman. “ Every lover admires his mistress, though (says Warburton) among good fellows, to signify that she be thin, leane, chitty-face, have clouds in her face, liquor of another's share which his companions drink to be crooked," etc -( Anatomy of Melancholy.) ease him. But it satirically alludes to Czesar and An
“What willingly he did con FOUND"-i. e. Destroy. tony's admitting him into the triumvirate, in order to lake off from themselves the load of envy."
SCENE III. “— pinch one another by the disposition"—Warbur
“ Her MOTION and her staTION"-"Station" is the act ton explains this phrase as equivalent to one still in use,
of standing, as“ of touching one in a sore place."
·motion" is the act of moving. So iu
HAMLET—" A station, like the herald Mercury.” ' - a PARTIZAN I could not heave"-A “partizan" was a weapon between a pike and a halberd; not being
"— I repent me much so long, it was made use of in mounting a breach, etc.
That I so HARRIED him."
To “harry” is to harass, to worry, to use roughly, to They take the flow o'the Nile," etc.
vex, or molest, from the old Norman-French harier, of Shakespeare might have found a description of the the same meaning, or from the Anglo-Saxon hergian. rise of the Nile, and the estimate of plenty or scarcity The word occurs frequently in our old writers. Thus, thereon depending, in Holland's translation of Pliny.
in the “* Revenger's Tragedy,” (1607:)The Nilometer is described in Leo's “ History of Africa."
He harry'd her amidst a nest of pandars. translated by John Pory. Both works were published
So Nash, in his “ Lenten Stuff":"-" As if he were har. at the beginning of the seventeenth century.
rying and chasing his enemies." “ Whate'er the ocean PALFS, or sky Inclips"-i. e. Walter Scott revived the use of the word in his poems. Every thing that the ocean encloses, or the sky embraces.
SCENE IV. “ Plumpy Bacchus, with PINK EYNE," etc. The modern reader will take this in the sense of "- he not took'?”—The first edition bas" not look'd," pink-coloured, as if alluding to the redness of the eyes which seems a clear misprint, though the Pictorial ediof the god of Bacchanals-a good and appropriate sense,
tion retains it.
“ – did it from his teeth”-i. e. To appearance only ; “ Not in the power on 't"-An obscure phrase. of not seriously. Thus Dryden, in his “ Wild Gallant:' which Malone has given the most probable seuse :"I am confident she is only angry from the teeth out- “ His whole conduct in the war is not founded upon ward.” So Chapman, in his version of the fifteenth that which is his greatest strength, (namely, his land “ Iliad :"
force,) but on the caprice of a woman, who wishes that She laughed, but meerly from her lips.
he should fight by sea.” And Fuller, in his “ Holie Warre," (book iv. chap. 17:)“This bad breath, though it came but from the teeth of
" — in such distractions"-i. e. Detachments. some, yet proceeded from the corrupt lungs of others."
" — upon this Jump”-i. e. Upon this hazard, as the
verb to "jump" is used in Macbeth and CORIOLANCS. This seems so obscure, in the ordinary sense of "stain," that Theobald changed it to strain, and Boswell sug. “- CANTLE of the world”-i. e. Portion. gested stay; either of which may have been the author's word. Yet, as we find in some of the poets of the time,
the token'd pestilence"-i. e. The pestilence “stain," used in the sense of to eclipse, to throw in the
which is mortal, when those spots appear on the skia shade, it may have been the word, and is therefore re
which were called God's tokens. tained. Thus, among several examples quoted by the commentators, we have, in Churchyard's poem of
" — Yon' RIBALD Nag of Egypt"-i. e. That obserne
jade-a natural burst of indignation. The old folios “ Charitie," (1595)
print it “ribaudred nag," which Stevens has changed to Whose beauty stains the fair Helene of Greece.
ribald-rid; but the ancient form of “ ribald" was ribaud, Scene V.
or ribauld, or ribau drous, as ribaldry was spelled riband.
rie. Ribaudred, then, seems to have been a mere mis"- denied him RIVALITY”-i. e. Equal rank. In print for one of the older forms of ribald." Thus, in HAMLET, Horatio and Marcellus are styled by Bernardo TROILUS AND Cressida, we have, in the folios, “ ribauld "the rivals" of his watch.
croios." “ Hag of Egypt" is also the realing of many
of the modern editions ; but the allusion to the brize, " - thou hast a pair of chaps,—no more"—This line is sometimes pointed and read as if the sense were, “ Thou
or gad-fly, the summer torment of horses and cattle, world last no longer a pair of jaws ;" but the sense is,
indicates “nag" to be the word intended. “Thou hast but one pair of jaws, and no more.”
“ The brize upon her”-i. e. The gad-fly, so trouble
some to cattle in summer. SCENE VI. “ Being an OBSTRUCT”—The original has abstract,
SCENE IX. which the edition of Knight retains, and several editors
“ – He, al Philippi, kept defend, as meaning a separation. It seems clearly a His sword even like a DANCER," etc. misprint for “obstruct," which is generally adopted.
That is–Cesar never offered to draw his sword, but - his potent REGIMENT"—i. e. Government, author- kept it in the scabbard, like one who dances with a ity; the ordinary sense of the word in Shakespeare's sword ou, which was formerly the custom iu England. day. Thus, in the “ Faerie Queene,” we have, "When A passage in All's Well that Ends Well explains he had resigned his regiment ;” and Lyly, (in 1597)
this allusion :“ Hecate in Philo's regiment."
Till honour be bought up, and no sword worn,
But one to dance with.
So, in Titus Andronicus, we bave, “a dancing rapier * Thou hast forsPOKE”-i. e. Spoken against, or for- by your side.”. The Poet ascribes the customs of his bidden.
own age to that of Antony. • If not denounc'd against us, why should not we,” etc.
" — the Mad Brutus"-"Nothing can be more in
character than for an infamous debauched tyrant to call The modern reading is
the heroic love of one's country and public liberty, Is't not? Denounce against us why should not we
madness."'-WARBURTON. With Malone and Knight, we follow the original, the meaning of which is, If there be no special denunciation
“ Dealt on LIEUTENANTRY"-Stevens has well er. against us, why should we not be there?
plained this passage, which Johnson and others misunderstood.
· Dealt on lieutenantry" means - MERELY lose"-i. e. Entirely.
fought by proxy, made war by his lieutenunts, or on – TAKE IN Toryne"-i. e. Gain by conquest.
ihe strength of his lieutenants. In a former scene Ven. “ O noble emperor, do not fight by sea," etc.
Cæsar and Antony have ever won
More in their officer, than pereon. So when Antonius had determined to fight by sea, he set all the other ships on fire but threescore ships of
To“ deal on” anything is an expression often used by old Egypt, and reserved only the best and greatest galleys,
writers. In Plutarchi's “ Life of Antony," Shakespeare froin three banks unto ten banks of oars. Into them he
found the following words :- * They were always more put two-and-twenty thousand fighting men, with two
fortunate when they made warre by their liculenan's thousand darters and slingers. Now, as he was setting
than by themselves." his men in order of battle, there was a captain, a valiant man, that had served Antonius in many battles and con
SCENE X. flicts, and had all his body hacked and cut, who, as An
" As is the morn-dew on the myrtle-leaf tonins passed by him, cried unto him, and said, O noble
To nis grand sca." emperor, how cometh it to pass that you trust to these vile brittle ships? What, do you mistrust these wounds
Capell explains this passage thus:--" The sea, that of mine, and this sword ?
His" for its is often Let the Egyptians and Phe
he (the dew-drop) arose froin." nicians fight by sea, and set us on the main land, where
fomd in old English, even where no figurative change
of gender was intended. we use to conquer, or to be slain on our feet. Antonius passed by him and said never a word, but only beck- “ The circle of the Plolemies"--i, e. The crown or oned to him with his hand and head, as though he willed diadein of the Egyptian kinys, which is “ now bazarded him to be of good courage, although, indeed, he had no to thy grace"-i. e. now placed within the chance of great courage himself.- North's Plutarch.
thy favour and pardon, or the reverse.
" By the DISCANDERING of this pelleted storm,” etc.
This is the word of the original, but the invariable modern reading is descand ying; and Malone explains that “discandy is used in the next act.” But how is it used ?
On blossoming Cæsar. The expletive melt their sweets gives us the peculiar and more forcible meaning in which the word is here used. But the pelleted storm, which makes Cleopatra’s brave Egyptians lie graveless, is utterly opposed to the melting into sweetness of the word discandying. To squander is to scatter, and so Dryden uses the word :
They drive, they squander, the huge Belgian fleet. To dis-cander, we believe then, is to dis-squander. The particle dis is, as Mr. Richardson has stated, “ frequently prefixed to words themselves meaning separation, or partition, and augmenting the force of those words." We therefore, without hesitation, restore the original
discandering," in the sense of dis-squandering.KNIGHT.
“ – and FLEET”—The old word for float, which words were used indiscriminately.
“ – one other gaudy nighl"-i. e. A night of rejoicing-from the Latin gaudium. A “gaudy
day, in the Universities and Inns of Court, is a feast day. Nares, in explanation of the term, quotes from an old play :
A foolish utensil of state,
SCENE XI. “ Think, and die"-As before remarked on a parallel passage of Julius CÆSAR, (act ii. scene 1,) “ think” is used in its ancient sense of anxious thought, like the * take no thought" of our English Bible, for be not anrions, or solicitous. This sense is so common in old English, that there is no ground whatever for the odd alteration of Hanmer, adopted in several valuable editions, of " Drink and die."
NICK'D his captainship"—i. e. (says Stevens) Set the mark of folly upon it. So in the COMEDY OF ERRORS:
and the while His man with scissars nicks him like a fool. “ The MERED question” -“Mere" is a boundary, and to mere is to mark, to limit. Spenser thus uses the word as a verb. “Question" is used, as in Hamlet, for object, or subject :
- the king, That was and is the question of these wars, Antony was the subject, to which the whole war was limited.
To lay his gay comparisons a part, And answer me declis'd, sword against sword,” etc. Johnson explains the passage thus :—" I require of Cæsar not to depend on that superiority which the comparison of our different fortunes may exhibit to him, but to answer me man to man, in this decline of my age or power.”
“A messenger from Cæsar." Therewithal he sent Thyreus, one of his men, unto her, a very wise and discreet man, who, bringing letters of credit from a young lord unto a noble lady, and that, besides, greatly liked her beauty, might easily by his eloquence have persuaded her. He was longer in talk with her than any man else was, and the queen herself also did him great honour, insomuch as he made Antonius jealous of him. Whereupon Antonius caused him to be taken and well favouredly whipped, and so sent hiin unto Cæsar, and bade him tell him that he made him angry with him, because he showed himself proud and disdainful towards him; and now, specially, when he was easy to be angered by reason of his present misery. To be short, if this mislike thee, (said he,) thou hast Hipparchus, one of my enfranchised bondmen, with thee; hang him if thou wilt, or whip him at thy pleasure, that we may cry quittance. From henceforth, Cleopatra, to clear herself of the suspicion he had of her, made more of him than ever she did. For, first of all, where she did solemnize the day of her birth very meanly and sparingly, fit for her present misfortune, she now in contrary manner did keep it with such solemnity that she exceeded all measure of sumptuousness and magnificence, so that the guests that were bidden to the feasts, and came poor, went away rich.—North’s Plutarch. " — begin to squARE"-i. e. Begin to Quarrel. "Say to great Cæsar this in DISPUTATION," etc. So the old text, and the sense is good. Say to him in discussion, nothing but my submission. Yei there is probability in Warburton's amendment, "in deputation"-i. e. say you, as my deputy, this to him.
"Like boys unto a muss"-i. e. A scramble-a word now considered only as childish or vulgar, but used by the best authors as late as Dryden, who speaks of "a muss of more than half the town."
- one that looks on FEEDERS"— Antony is comparing Cleopatra with Octavia. * One that looks on feeders" is one that bestows favours on servants. Eaters, "feeders," were terms for servants in the old dramatists. Gifford has shown, in a note to the “Silent Woman," that Dr. Johnson was mistaken when he interpreted the passage in the text to mean that Antony was abused by Thyreus—by one that looked on while others fed.
ACT IV.-SCENE I.
Laugh at his challenge."
He hath many other ways to die: mean time
I laugh at his challenge. This is certainly the sense of Plutarch, and given so in modern translations; but Shakespeare was misled by the ambiguity of the old one:—* Antonius sent again to challenge Cæsar to fight him: C:esar answered, that he had many other ways to die than so."—FARMER.
SCENE II. " — and cry, 'Take all'”-i. e. Let the survivor " take all;" no composition-victory or death. So in King LEAR:
unbonneted he runs, And bids what will, take all. “ Cal forth my household servants; let's to-night," etc.
Then Antonius seeing there was no way more honourable for him to die than fighting valiantly, he determined to set up his rest both by sea and land. So, being at supper, (as it is reported,) he commanded his officers and household servants that waited on him at his board that they should fill his cup full, and make as much of him as they could, for, said he, You know not whether you shall do so much for me to-morrow or not, or whether you shall serve another master; it may be you shall see me no more, but a dead body. This notwithstanding, perceiving that his friends and men fell a weeping to hear him say so, lo salve that he had spoken he added this more unto it, that he would not lead them to battle where he thought not rather safely to return with victory than valiantly to die with honour.–North's Plutarch.
- the gods YIELD you for 't"-In As You Like IT we have the familiar expression, “ God 'ild you," which is equivalent to God yield you, or God reward you.
“ Ho, ho, ho !"-Boswell suggests that these interjections were intended to express an hysterical laugh; but the old usage of "ho" was to express slop, desist-being but another form of whoe, still used to horses. Thua
Lord Berner, in his “ Froissart”—“ There was no ho “ Like a right gipsy, hath, at FAST AND LOOSE," etc. between them;" and Burton (“Anatomy of Melan
The allusion is to the game of “fast and loose," or choly") has, “ He is mad, mad, no whoe with him.”
pricking at the belt or girdle still practised by juggling
cheats, and which was practised by the gipsies in ShakeSCENE III.
speare's time, as appears in an epigram of Thomas Free
man's, in his collection, called “Run and a Great Cast," “Peace, what noise ?"
(1614,) which is printed in the Variorum Shakespeare, Furthermore, the self-same night, within a little of together with Sir John Hawkins's description of the midnight, when all the city was qıriet, full of fear and
game. sorrow, thinking what would be the issue and end of this war, it is said that suddenly they heard a marvel
“ For poor'st diminutives, for polts"-We retain the Jous sweet harmony of sundry sorts of instruments of original. The ordinary reading ismusic. with the cry of a multitude of people, as they
For poor’st diminutives to dolts ;had been dancing, and had sung as they used in Bac- and it is explained that the poorest diminutives are the chus' feasts, with movings and turnings after the man- smallest pieces of money. Others read “ for doits"ner of the Satyrs; and it seemed that this dance went diminutives and doits each meaning small moneys. through the city unto the gate that opened to the ene. “ Poor'st diminutives" are the children of the humblest mies, and that all the troop that made this noise they | condition, and classed with “dolts”—the silly and igno heard went out of the city at that gate. Now, such as rant of a larger growth; the whole forming what Cleoin reason sought the depth of the interpretation of this patra, in the last scene of the play, calls the - shouting wonder, thought that it was the god unto whom Anto- varletry" of Rome. We must, therefore, understand nius bare singular devotion to counterfeit and resemble “for” to mean for the gratification of, or adopt a sug. him that did forsake them.-NORTH's Plutarch.
gestion by Malone, “ be shown fore," etc.
We have, with Knight, preferred this old reading to SCENE VI.
the later reading and explanation, because the context
does not lead to the idea of Cleopatra's being made = " – the three-Nook'd world”-i. e. The three-cor
show for money, but represents her as made a public nered world. It is not easy to explain why three cor- show in Cæsar's triumph. ners, and no more, were allowed the world ; but such was the language of the times. Thus in King Joun:
“Was never so EMBOSS'D"- This word is used in the
old hunting sense, for foaming at the mouth. “ – saf'd the bringer"-i. e. Made safe. This is one of the only two instances of this use of the word, in any
SCENE XII. author, the other being in Chapman's “Odyssey."
They are black vesper's PAGEANTS"—T. Warton
rightly reminds us, that the beauty both of the expres. SCENE VIII.
sion and the allusion is lost, unless we recollect the fre“ – this great Fairy"— The term “ fairy," in former quency and the nature of these shows in Shakespeare's time, was applied, not only to imaginary diminutive
age. The following apposite passage from a sermon, beings, but also occasionally to witches, and enchanters;
by Bishop Hall, is cited by Boswell:—“I feare some in which last sense it is used in the text.
of you are like the pageants of your great solemnities, wherein there is a show of a solid body, whether of a
lion, or elephant, or unicorne ; but if they be curiously SCENE IX.
look'd into, there is nothing but cloth, and sticks, and - RAUGHT him"—“Raught," in olden English, was ayre." the preterite of reach, and was also used for reft; so
“ This is, without doubt, one of the finest pieces of that it may here have either signification.
poetry in SHAKESPEARE. The splendour of the imagery,
ihe semblance of reality, the lofty range of picturesque - (order for sea is given;
objects hanging over the world, their evanescent nature, They have put forth the haven,'') etc.
the total uncertainty of what is left behind,-are just This passage is parenthetical. Omit it, and Antony
like the mouldering schemes of human greatness."
that the foot soldiers shall stay with him, upon the hills adjoining to the city
“ The rack dislimns”-i. e. The fleeting away of the Where their appointment we may best discover.
clouds destroys the picture. There is, therefore, no need or propriety of Malone's
My mistress lov'd thee, and her fortunes mingled insertion of “Let's seek a spot," or Rowe's “ Further
With thine entirely." on,” before “ Where their appointment," etc.
Then she, being afraid of his fury, fled into the tomb “ But being charg'd, we will be still by land," etc.
which she had caused to be made, and there locked the That is—Unless a charge is made upon us, we will
doors unto her, and shut all the springs of the locks with remain quiet on land. “ But," in this sense of unless, or
great bolts, and in the mean time sent unto Antonius to
tell him that she was dead. Antonius, believing it, said without, is often found in old English, as well as in later
unto himself, What dost thou look for further, Antonius, Scotch. Stevens quotes two lines from a version of an old French romance
sith spiteful fortune hath taken from thee the only joy
thou haddest, for whom thou yet reservedst thy life! -- as schip boute mast, Boute anker, or ore, etc.
When he had said these words, he went into a chamber
and unarmed himself, and, being naked, said thus:-0, " -- this GRAVE charm"-Some of the editors of the Cleopatra, it grieveth me not that I have lost thy com last century print, without reason, gay charms ;" but
for I will not be long from thee; but I am sorry the words mean, this deadly or destructive piece of that, having been so great a captain and emperor, I aix witchcraft. In this sense the epithet “grave" is often indeed condemned to be judged of less courage and used by Chapman, in his translation of Homer. Thus, noble mind than a woman. Now he had a man of his in the nineteenth book :
called Eros, whom he loved and trusted much, and whom But not far hence the fatal minutes are
he had long before caused to swear unto him that he Of thy grave ruin.
should kill him when he did command him, and ther It seems to be employed in the sense of the Latin word he willed him to keep his promise. This man, draw gravis.
ing his sword, lift it up as though he had meant to have