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Iago. There's many a beast then in a populous city,

And many a civil monster.

Oth. Did he confess it?

Iago. Good sir, be a man;

Think, every bearded fellow, that's but yok'd,
May draw with you: there's millions now alive,
That nightly lie in those unproper 1 beds, [ter.]
Which they dare swear peculiar; your case is bet-
O, 'tis the spight of hell, the fiend's arch-mock, 10
To lip a wanton in a secure couch,
And to suppose her chaste! No, let me know;
And, knowing what I am, I know what she shall
Oth. O, thou art wise; 'tis certain. [be.
lago. Stand you a while apart:
Confine yourself but in a patient list2.
Whilst you were here, ere while, mad with your


(A passion most unsuiting such a man)
Cassio came hither: I shifted him away,
And laid good 'scuse upon your ecstasy;
Bade him anon return, and here speak with me;
The which he promis'd. Do but encave yourself,
And mark the fleers, the gibes, and notable scorns,
That dwell in every region of his face;
For I will make him tell the tale anew,——
Where, how, how oft, how long ago, and when
He hath, and is again to cope your wife;
I say, but mark his gesture. Marry, patience;
Or I shall say, you are all in all in spleen,
And nothing of a man.

Oth. Dost thou hear, Iago?

I will be found most cunning in my patience;
But (dost thou hear?) most bloody.

Iago. That's not amiss;

But yet keep time in all. Will

you withdraw?
[Othello withdraws.

Now will I question Cassio of Bianca,
A housewife, that, by selling her desires,
Buys herself bread and clothes: it is a creature,
That dotes onCassio,--as 'tis the strumpet's plague,
To beguile many, and be beguil'd by one;
He, when he hears of her, cannot refrain
From the excess of laughter :-Here he comes:-
Enter Cassio.

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Oth. Look, how he laughs already! [Asidk.
Iago. I never knew a woman love man so.
Cas. Alas, poor rogue! I think, indeed, she

loves me.

As he shall smile, Othello shall go mad;
And his unbookish' jealousy must construe
Poor Cassio's smiles, gestures, and light behaviour,
Quite in the wrong.-How do you now,lieutenant?
Cas. The worser, that you give me the addition, 50
Whose want even kills me.

Oth. Now he denies it faintly, and laughs it out. (Aside.

Jago. Do you hear, Cassio?
Oth. Now he importunes him

To tell it o'er: Go to; well said, well said. [Aside.
Iago. She gives it out, that you shall marry her:
you intend it?
Cas. Ha, ha, ha!

Oth. Do you triumph, Roman? do you tri-
Cas. I marry her!-what? a customer'! I
pr'ythee, bear some charity to my wit; do not
think it so unwholesome. Ha, ha, ha!

Oth. So, so, so, so. They laugh, that win. [Aside.
Jago. Why, the cry goes, that you shall marry
Cas. Pr'ythee, say true.


Iago. I am a very villain else.

Oth. Have you scor'd me? Well.


Cas. This is the monkey's own giving out: she is persuaded I will marry her, out of her own love and flattery, not out of my promise.


Oth. Iago beckons me; now he begins the story.

Cas. She was here even now; she haunts me in every place. I was, the other day, talking on the 30 sea-bank with certain Venetians; and thither comes the bauble; by this hand, she falls thus about my neck ;

Oth. Crying, O dear Cassio! as it were: his gesture imports it. [Aside. Cas. So hangs, and lolls, and weeps upon me; so hales, and pulls me: ha, ha, ha!—


Oth. Now he tells, how she pluck'd him to my chamber: O, I see that nose of yours, but not that dog I shall throw it to. [Aside.


Cas. Well, I must leave her company.
Iago. Before me! look, where she comes.
Enter Bianca.

Cas. 'Tis such another fitchew! marry, a per fum'd one.-What do you mean by this haunting 45 of me?

Bian. Let the devil and his dam haunt you! What did you mean by that same handkerchief, you gave me even now? I was a fine fool to take it. I must take out the whole work.-A likely piece of work, that you should find it in your chamber, and not know who left it there! This is some minx's token, and I must take out the work? There, give it your hobby-horse: wheresoever you had it, I'll take out no work on 't. Cas. How now, my sweet Bianca? how now? how now?


To score,

Unproper, for common. 2 List, or lists, is barriers, bounds.-Keep your temper, says lago, within the bounds of patience. 3 i. e. trance. i. e. hide yourself in a private place. Unbookish, for ignorant. Othello calls him Roman ironically.-Triumph, which was a Roman ceremony, brought Roman into his thoughts. 'A common woman, one that invites custom. says Mr. Steevens, originally meant no more than to cut a notch upon a tally, or to mark out a form by indenting it on any substance; but it was soon figuratively used for setting a brand or mark of disgrace on any one. A polecat.-A pole-cat was anciently one of the cant terms for a strumpet.


Oth. By heaven, that should be my handkerchief!]

[Aside. Bian. An you'll come to supper to-night, you may: an you will not, come when you are next prepar'd for. [Exit. 5

lago. After her, after her.

Cas. I must, she 'll rail in the street else.
Iago. Will you sup there?
Cus. I intend so.

Iago. Something from Venice, sure. "Tis Lodovico, [him. Come from the duke: and, see, your wife is with


Jago. Well, I may chance to see you; for 110
would fain speak with you.
Cas. Pr'ythee, come; Will you?
Iago. Go to; say no more.
[Exit Cassio.
Oth. How shall I murder him, Iago? [vice?
Iago. Did you perceive how he laugh'd at his 15
Oth. O, Iago!

Iago. And did you see the handkerchief?
Oth. Was that mine?

Enter Lodovico, Desdemona, and Attendants.
Lod. Save you, worthy general!
Oth. With all my heart, sir.

Lod. The duke and senators of Venice greet you. [Gives him a letter. Oth. I kiss the instrument of their pleasures. Des. And what's the news,good cousin Lodovico? lago. I am very glad to see you, signior; Welcome to Cyprus.

Lod. I thank you: How does lieutenant Cassio?
Iago. Lives, sir.

Des. Cousin, there's fallen between him and
my lord

An unkind breach: but you shall make all well.
Oth. Are you sure of that?
Des. My lord?


Oth. This fail you not to do, as you will—'

Jago. Yours, by this hand: and to see how he prizes the foolish woman your wife! she gave it 20 him, and he hath given it his whore.

Oth. I would have him nine years a killing:A fine woman! a fair woman! a sweet woman! Iago. Nay, you must forget that.

Oth. Ay, let her rot, and perish, and be damn'd 25 to-night; for she shall not live: No, my heart is turn'd to stone; I strike it, and it hurts my hand. O, the world hath not a sweeter creature: she might lie by an emperor's side, and command him



[Reads. Lod. He did not call; he's busy in the paper. Is there division 'twixt thy lord and Cassio?

Des. A most unhappy one; I would do much To atone them', for the love I bear to Cassio. Oth. Fire and brimstone!

Iago. Nay, that's not your way.

Oth. Hang her! I do but say what she is:-So delicate with her needle!-An admirable musician! O, she will sing the savageness out of a bear!-Of so high and plenteous wit and inven- 35|


Jago. She's the worse for all this.

Oth. O, a thousand, a thousand times:-And then, of so gentle a condition!-

lago. Ay, too gentle.


Oth. Nay, that's certain: But yet the pity of it, Iago!-O, Iago, the pity of it, lago!

lago. If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend; for, if it touch not you, it comes near nobody.

Oth. I will chop her into messes:-Cuckold me!
Iago. O, 'tis foul in her.
Oth. With mine officer!
Iago. That's fouler.

Oth. Get me some poison, Iago; this night :-50
I'll not expostulate with her, lest her body and
beauty unprovide my mind again:-this night,

Des. My lord?

Qth. Are you wise?

Des. What, is he angry?

Lod. 'May be, the letter mov'd him;
For, as I think, they do command him home,
Deputing Cassio in his government.
Des. By my troth, I am glad on't.
Oth. Indeed?
Des. My lord?

Oth. I am glad to see you mad.
Des Why, sweet Othello?
Oth. Devil:

[Striking her.

Des. I have not deserv'd this.
Lod. My lord, this would not be believ'd in Ve
Though I should swear I saw it: 'Tis very much;
Make her amends, she weeps.

Oth. O devil, devil!

45 If that the earth could teem with woman's tears,
Each drop she falls would prove a crocodile :-
Out of my sight!

Des. I will not stay to offend you.
Lod. Truly, an obedient lady:


I do beseech your lordship, call her back.
Oth. Mistress,

A trumpet within. 60 Oth. Excellent good.-What trumpet is that


Des. My lord?

Oth. What would you with her, sir?
Lod. Who, I, my lord?

lago. Do it not with poison; strangle her in her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated.



Oth. Good, good: the justice of it pleases; very good.

Iago. And, for Cassio,-let me be his undertaker:
You shall hear more by midnight.

Oth. Ay; you did wish, that I would make her
Sir, she can turn, and turn, and yet go on,
And turn again; and she can weep, sir, weep;
And she's obedient, as you say,obedient,-
Very obedient;-Proceed you in your tears.-
Concerning this, sir,-O well-painted passion!-
I am commanded home:-Get you away;
I'll send for you anon.-Sir, I obey the mandate,

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And will return to Venice;-Hence, avaunt !-
[Exit Desdemona.
Cassio shall have my place. And,sir, to-night,
I do entreat that we may sup together.
You are welcome, sir, to Cyprus.-Goats and 5
Lod. Is this the noble Moor, whom our full

Call-all-in-all sufficient? This the noble nature
Whom passion could not shake? whose solid virtue 10
The shot of accident, nor dart of chance,
Could neither graze, nor pierce?

lago. He is much chang'd.

Lod. Are his wits safe? is he not light of brain?

What he might be,-—if, what he might, he is not,—
I would to heaven, he were.

lago. He is that he is; I may not breathe my 15 Look in my face.


Lod. What, strike his wife!
Jago. 'Faith, that was not so well; yet 'would 120
That stroke would prove the worst.

Lod. Is it his use?

Or did the letters work upon his blood,

And new-create this fault?

Iago. Alas, alas !


It is not honesty in me, to speak
What I have seen and known. You shall observe
And his own courses will denote him so,

That I may save my speech: Do but go after,
And mark how he continues.

Lod. I am sorry that I am deceiv'd in him.



Another Apartment in the Castle.
Enter Othello, and Æmilia.

Oth. You have seen nothing then?
Emil. Nor ever heard; nor ever did suspect.
Oth. Yes, you have seen Cassio and she together.
Emil. But then I saw no harm; and then I

Let heaven requite it with the serpent's curse!
For, if she be not honest, chaste, and true,
There's no man happy; the purest of their wives
Is foul as slander.

Oth. Bid her come hither;-go-[Exit Æmilia.
She says enough;-yet, she's a simple bawd,
That cannot say as much. This is a subtle whore,
A closet lock and key of villainous secrets: [do❜t.
And yet she 'll kneel, and pray; I have seen her
Re-enter Emilia, with Desdemona.
Des. My lord, what is your will?
Oth. Pray, chuck, come hither.
Des. What is your pleasure?
Oth. Let me see your eyes;


I understand a fury in your words, 25 But not the words.


Des. What horrible fancy's this?
Oth. [To Emilia.] Some of your function,
Leave procreants alone, and shut the door;
Cough, or cry-hem, if any body come:
Your mystery, your mystery;-nay, dispatch.
[Exit Emilia.

Des. Upon my knees, what doth your speech

Each syllable, that breath made up between them.
Oth. What, did they never whisper?
Emil. Never, my lord.

Oth. Nor send you out o' the way?
Emil. Never.

[nothing? 45
Oth. To fetch her fan, her gloves, her mask, nor
Emil. Never, my lord.
Oth. That's strange.

Emil. I durst, my lord, to wager she is honest,
Lay down my soul-at stake: if you think other,
Remove your thought; it doth abuse your bosom.
If any wretch hath put this in your head,

Oth. Why, what art thou?
Des. Your wife, my lord;
Your true and loyal wife.

Oth. Come, swear it, damn thyself;

30 Lest, being like one of heaven, the devils them-
Should fear to seize thee: therefore be double-
Swear-thou art honest.

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Des. Heaven doth truly know it.

Shell. Oth. Heaven truly knows that thou art false as Des. To whom, my lord? With whom? How am I false?

Oth. O Desdemona!-away! away! away!
Des. Alas, the heavy day!-Why do you weep?
40 Am I the occasion of these tears, my lord?
If, haply, you my father do suspect
An instrument of this your calling back,
Lay not your blame on me; if you have lost him,
Why, I have lost him too.

Oth. Had it pleas'd Heaven

To try me with affliction; had he rain'd

All kind of sores, and shames, on my bare head:
Steep'd me in poverty to the very lips;
Given to captivity me and my utmost hopes;
50 I should have found in some place of my soul
A drop of patience: but (alas!) to make me
A fixed figure for the time of scorn'

Mr. Malone remarks, that "in this exclamation Shakspeare has shewn great art. Iago, in the first scene in which he endeavours to awaken his suspicion, being urged to give some evident proof of the guilt of Cassio and Desdemona, tells him it were impossible to have ocular demonstration of it, though they should be "as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys."-These words, we may suppose, still ring in the ears of Othello, who, being now fully convinced of his wife's infidelity, rushes out with this emphatic exclamation:-Iago's words were but too true;-now indeed I am convinced that they are as hot as "goats and monkeys." 2 i.e. my opinion. Mr. Rowe reads "hand of scorn;" and succeeding editors have followed him.-Mr. Steevens, however, would (though in opposition to so many great authorities in favour of the change) continue to read, with the old copy; "the time of scorn" and adds, "We call the hour in which we are to die, the hour of death ;-the time when we are to be judged, the day of judgement;-the instant when we suffer calamity, the moment of evil: and why may we not distinguish the time which brings contempt along with it, by the title of the time of scorn?"


To point his slow unmoving finger at,-
O! O!

Yet could I bear that too; well, very well:
But there, where I have garner'd' up my heart;
Where either I must live, or bear no life;
The fountain from the which my current runs,
Or else dries up; to be discarded thence!
Or keep it as a cistern, for foul toads [there!
To knot and gender in!-turn thy complexion
Patience, thou young and rose-lipp'd cherubim; 10
Ay, there, look grim as hell!

Des. I hope my noble lord esteems me honest.
Oth. O, ay; as summer flies are in the shambles,
That quicken even with blowing. O thou weed,
Who art so lovely fair, and smel'st so sweet,
That the sense aches at thee,~'Would, thou hadst
ne'er been born!

Des. No, as I shall be saved.

Oth. Is it possible?

Des. I have none: Do not talk to me, Æmilia;
I cannot weep; nor answer have I none,
But what should go by water. Pr'ythee, to-night
Lay on my bed my wedding sheets,remein-
And call thy husband hither.


Des. O, heaven forgive us!
Oth. I cry you mercy then;

I took you for that cunning whore of Venice,
That married with Othello.-You, mistress,
Enter Emilia.

Des. Alas, what ignorant sin have I committed?
Oth. Was this fair paper, this most goodly book,
Made to write whore upon? What committed!
Committed 2-0 thou public commoner!
I should make very forges of my cheeks,
That would to cinders burn up modesty,
Did I but speak thy deed.-What committed!
Heaven stops the nose at it, and the moon winks; 25
The bawdy wind, that kisses all it meets,
Is hush'd within the hollow mine of earth,
And will not hear it: What committed!-Im-
pudent strumpet!

Des. By heaven, you do me wrong!
Oth. Are not you a strumpet?
Des. No, as I am a Christian:
If to preserve this vessel for my lord,
From any other foul unlawful touch,
Be-not to be a strumpet, I am none.

Oth. What, not a whore?

Emil. With my lord, madam.

Des. Who is thy lord?

Emil. He that is yours, sweet lady.


Emil. Here is a change indeed.

Des. 'Tis meet I should be used so, very meet.
How have I been behav'd, that he might stick
The small'st opinion on my great'st abuse?
Enter Iago, with Æmilia.

Lago. What is your pleasure, madam? How is
it with you?
Des. I cannot tell. Those, that do teach young
Do it with gentle means, and easy tasks:
He might have chid me so; for, in good faith,
I am a child to chiding.


Iago. What is the matter, lady?


Amil. Alas, lago, my lord hath so bewhor'd Thrown such despight and heavy terms upon her, As true hearts cannot bear.


Des. Am I that name, Iago?

Iago. What name, fair lady?

Des. Such as, she says, my lord did say I was.
Emil. He call'd her, whore; a beggar, in his

Could not have laid such terms upon his callet".
Iugo. Why did he so ?


Des. I do not know; I am sure, I am none such.
Iago. Do not weep, do not weep; alas, the day!
Emil. Hath she forsook so many noble matches,
Her father, and her country, and her friends,
To be call'd-whore? would it not make one


Des. It is my wretched fortune.
Iago. Beshrew him for it!


How comes this trick upon him?

Des. Nay, heaven doth know.

Amil. I will be hang'd, if some eternal villain,
Some busy and insinuating rogue,
40 Some cogging, cozening slave, to get some office,
Has not devis'd this slander; I'll be hang'd else.

lago. Fie, there is no such man; it is impossible.
Des. If any such there be, heaven pardon him!
Amil. A halter pardon him! and hell gnaw his
What should he call her, whore? who keeps hes
What place? what time? what form? what like-

That have the office opposite to Saint Peter,
And keep the gate of hell; You! you! ay, you!
We have done our course; there's money for
your pains;


I pray you, turn the key, and keep our counsel.
Emil. Alas, what does this gentleman conceive?-50
How do you, madam? how do you, my good
Des. 'Faith, half asleep.
Emil. Good madam, what's the matter with
my lord?

Des. With who?

The Moor's abus'd by some most villainous knave,
Some base notorious knave, some scurvy fellow :-
O, heaven, that such companions' thou 'dst un-
And put in every honest hand a whip, [fold;
To lash the rascal naked through the world,
Even from the east to the west!


Iago. Speak within door".


Amil. O, fie upon him! some such squire he That turn'd your wit the seamy side without', And made you to suspect me with the Moor.

1i. e. treasured up my heart. 2 This word in Shakspeare's time, besides its general signification, seems to have been applied particularly to unlawful acts of love. Hence perhaps it is so often repeated by Othello. 3 Callet is a lewd woman. * Notorious, for gross, not in its proper meaning for knban. Companions, i. e. fellows. i. e. do not clamour so as to be heard beyond the house. That is, inside out.


Iugo. You are a fool; go to.
Des. O good lago,

What shall I do to win my lord again ?
Good friend, go to him; for, by this light of heaven,
I know not how I lost him. Here I kneel :—
If e'er my will did trespass 'gainst his love,
Either in discourse, or thought, or actual deed;
Or that mine eyes, mine ears, or any sense,
Delighted them in any other form;
Or that I do not yet, and ever did,
And ever will, though he do shake me off
To beggarly divorcement,-love him dearly,
Comfort forswear me ! Unkindness may do much;
And his unkindness may defeat my life,
But never taint my love. I cannot say, whore;
It does abhor me, now I speak the word;
To do the act that might the addition earn,
Not the world's mass of vanity could make me.
Iago. I pray you, be content; 'tis but his hu-


The business of the state does him offence, And he does chide with you.

Des. If 'twere no other,

and even from this instant do build on thee a better opinion than ever before. Give me thy hand, Roderigo: Thou hast taken against me a most just exception; but yet, I protest, I have dealt most 5 directly in thy affair.

Rod. It hath not appear'd.

Jago. I grant, indeed, it hath not appear'd; and your suspicion is not without wit and judgement. But, Roderigo, if then hast that within thee in10deed, which I have greater reason to believe now than ever,-I mean, purpose, courage, and valour, this night shew it: If thou the next night following enjoyest not Desdemona, take me from this world with treachery, and devise engines for 15 my life.

Rod. Well, what is it? is it within reason and compass?

Iago. Sir, there is especial commission come from Venice, to depute Cassio in Othello's place. 20 Rod. Is that true? why, then Othello a I Desdemona return again to Venice.

lago. O, no; he goes into Mauritania, and taketh away with him the fair Desdemona, unless his abode be linger'd here by some accident; wherein none can be so determinate, as the removing of Cassio.

Rod. How do you mean-removing of him? Iago. Why, by making him uncapable of Othello's place; knocking out his brains.


Rod. And that you would have me to do? Iago. Ay; if you dare do yourself a profit, and right. He sups to-night with a harlot, and thither will I go to him; he knows not yet of his honourable fortune: if you will watch his going thence, (which I will fashion to fall out between twelve and one) you may take him at your plea sure; I will be near to second your attempt, and he shall fall between us. Come, stand not amaz'd at it, but go along with me; I will shew you such a necessity in his death, that you shall think yourself bound to put it on him. It is now high supper-time, and the night grows to waste: about lit.


Iago. It is but so, I warrant you. [Trumpets.
Hark, how these instruments summon to supper! 25
And the great messengers of Venice stay:
Go in, and weep not; all things shall be well.
[Exeunt Desdemona, and Emilia.
Enter Roderigo. ・

How now, Roderigo?

Eme. 30 Rod. I do not find, that thou deal'st justly with Jago. What in the contrary?

Rod. Every day thou doff'st me with some device, Iago; and rather (as it seems to me now) keep'st from me all conveniency, than suppliest 35 me with the least advantage of hope. I will, indeed, no longer endure it: Nor am I yet persuaded, to put up in peace what already I have foolishly suffered.

Iago. Will you hear me, Roderigo? Rod. Faith, I have heard too much; for your words and performances are no kin together. lago. You charge me most unjustly.

Rod. With nought but truth. I have wasted myself out of my means. The jewels you have 45 had from me, to deliver to Desdemona, would half have corrupted a votarist: You have told me -she hath receiv'd them, and return'd me expectations and comforts of sudden respect and acquaintance; but I find none.


Iago. Well; go to; very well.

Rod. Very well! go to! I cannot go to, man; nor 'tis not very well: By this hand, I say, it is very scurvy; and begin to find myself fobb'd in it. Lago. Very well.


Rod. I tell you, 'tis not very well. I will make myself known to Desdemona: if she will return me my jewels, I will give over my suit, and repent my unlawful solicitation; if not, assure yourself, I will seek satisfaction of you.

Iago. You have said now.


Rod. Ay, and I have said nothing but what protest intendment of doing. Iago. Why, now I see there's mettle in thee;


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Des. Your honour is most welcome.
Oth. Will you walk, sir?-O, Desdemona!
Des. My lord?

Oth. Get you to bed on the instant; I will be return'd forthwith: dismiss your attendant there;

look it be done.

[Brit. Des. I will, my lord. [he did. Amil. How goes it now? he looks gentler than Des. He says, he will return incontinent:


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