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wi' you.

That I am guiltless of your father's death,

Laer. Thought, and aftliction, passion, hell itAnd am most sensible in grief for it,

She turns to favour, and to prettiness. (self, It shall as level to your judgement 'pear',

Oph. And will he not come again? As day does to your eye.

And will he not come again? Crowd, within. Let her come in.


No, no, he is dead, Laer. How now! what noise is that?

Go to thy death-bed, Enter Ophelia, fantastically dress’d with straws He never till come again. and flowers.

His beard was as white as snow,
O heat, dry up my brains ! tears, seven times salt,
Burn out the sense and virtue of inine eve!

All flaren was his poll:
By heaven,thy madness shall be pay'd with weight,

He is gone, he is gone, "l'ill our scale turn the beam. "O rose of May!

And we cast away man : Dear maid, kind sister, sweet Ophelia !

God a' mercy on his soul! O heavens! is 't possible, a young maid's wits And of all christian souls ! I pray God. God be Should be as inortal as an old man's lite?


[Erit Opht. Nature is fine in love: and, where 'tis fine,

Laer. Do you see this, O God? It sends some precious instance of itself

King. Laertes, I must commune with your grief, After the thing it loves .

Or you deny me right. Go but apart, Oph. They bore him bare-fac'd on the bier; Make choice of whom your wisest friends you will,

Hey no nonny, nonny hey nonny: 20 And they shall hear and judge'rwixt you and me:

And on his grate ruin'd many a ttar ;- If by direct or by collateral hand Fare you well, my dove!

[revenge, They tind us touch'd, we will our kingdom give, Laër. Hadst thou thy wits, and didst persuade Our crown, our life, and all that we call ours, It could not move thus.

To you in satisfaction; but, if not, Oph. You must sing, Down a-down, an you call|25 Be you content to lend your patience to us, him a-down-i.

(ard, And we shall jointly labour with your soul
0, how the wheel becomes it! It is the false stew- To give it due content.
That stole his master's daughter'.

Laer. Let this be so:
Laer. This nothing 's more than matter. His means of death, his obscure funeral,

Oph. There's rosemary', that's for remem- 30 No trophy, sword, nor batchment o'er his boncs, brance; pray you, love, remember: and there is No noble rite, nor formal ostentation,pansies', that's for thoughts.

Cry to be heard, as 'twere from heaven to earth, Laer. A document in madness; thoughts and That I must call’t in question. remembrance fitted.

King. So you shall; Oph. There's fennel for you, and columbines *. 35 And, where the otfence is, let the great ave fall. There's rue for you ;—and here's some for me; I pray you, go with me.

[Excunt. -we may call it, herb of grace oʻSundays :you inay wear your rue with a difference'.--There's

SCENE VI. daisy :-1 would give you some violets; but

Another Room. they wither'd all, when my father died :-They 10 Enter Horatio, with a Serrant. say, he made a good end,

Hor. What are they, that would speak with me? For bonny sweet Robin is all my joy", Serr. Sailors, sir;


I This is an elision of the verb to appear. 2 Dr. Johnson explains this passage thus: “ Lore (says Laertes) is the passion by which nature is most exalted and refined: and as substances, refined and subtilised, easily obey any impulse, or follow any attraction, some part of nature, so purified and refined, flies off after the attracting object, after the thing it loves."

3 Mr. Steevens says, the wheel may inean no more than the burthen of the song, which she had just repeated, and as such was formerly used.—Dr. Johnson says, “The story alluded to I do not know; but perhaps the lady stolen by the steward was reduced to spin." Rosemary was anciently supposed to strengthen the memory, and was not only carried at funerals, but worn at weddings. Pansies is for thoughts, because of its name, Pensies. • Mr. Steevens says, Greene, in his Quip for an Upstart Courtier, 1620, calls fennel women's reeds : “ fit generally for that sex, sith, while they are maidens, they wish wantonly.”—Mr. Steevens adds, that he knows not of what columbines were supposed to be emblematical; but that Gerard, and other herbalists, impute few, if any, virtues to them: and they may therefore be styled thankless, because they appear to make no grateful return for their creation. ? Dr. Warburton says, that herb of grace is the name the country-people give to rue; and the reason is, because that herb was a principal ingredient in the potion which the Romish priests used to force the possessed to swallow down when they exorcised them. Now, these exorcismis being performed generally on a Sunday, in the church before the whole congregation, is the reason why she says, we may call it herb of grace o Sundays.-Mr. Steevens believes there is a quibble meant in this passage; rue anciently signifying the same as Ruth, i. e. sorrow. Ophelia gives the queen some, and keeps a proportion of it for herself

. There may, however, he adds, be somewhat more implied here than is expressed. You, mudum, (says Ophelia to the queen,) may call your RUE by its Sunday name, HERB OF GRACE, and so wear it with a difference to distinguish it from mine, which can never be any thing but merely RUE, i.e. sorrow. • This is part of an old song.



They say, they have letters for you.

Work, like the spring that turneth wood to stone, Hor. Let them come in.

Convert his gyves to graces ; so that my arrows, I do not know from what part of the world Too slightly timber'd for so loud a wind, I should be greeted, if not from lord Ilamlet. Would have reverted to my bow again, Enter Sailors.

5 And not where I had aim'd them. Sail. God bless you, sir.

Laer. And so have I a noble father lost: Hor. Let him bless thee too.

A sister driven into desperate terms; Sail. He shall, sir, an 't please him. There's a Whose worth, if praises may go back again', letter for you, sir: it comes from the embassador Stood challenger on mount of all the age that was bound for England; if your name be 10 For her perfections:-But my revenge will come. Horatio, as I am let to know it is.

King. Break not your sleeps for that: you must Horatio reads the letter.

not think, HORATIO, when thou shalt hare overlook'd this, That we are made of stuff so flat and dull, gire these fellorus some means to the king; they have That we can let our beard be shook with danger, letters for him. Ere we were two days old at sea, 15 And think it pastime. You shortly shall hear more: a pirate of very tvarlike appointment gave us chace: I lov'd your father, and we love ourself; Finding ourseloes too slow of sail, we put on acom- And that, I hope, will teach you to imagine,pelled valour ; and in the grapple I boarded them: How now? what news? on the instant, they got clear of our ship; so I alone

Enter a Messenger. became their prisoner, They have dealt with me,


Mess. Letters, my lord, from Hamlet: like thieves of mercy; but they knew rehat they did;

This to your majesty; this to the queen, I am to do a good turn for them. Let the king have

King. From Hamlet! Who brought them? the letters I lure sent; and repair thou to me with Mess. Sailors, my lord, they say; I saw them not: as much haste as thou would'st fly death. I hate

They were given me by Claudio; he receiv'd words to speak in thine ear, will make thee dumb;25

Of him that brought them.

[thern yet are they much too light for the bore' of the matter.

King. Laertes, you shall hear them: These good fellows will bring thee where I am.

Leave us.

[Exit Mess. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern hold their course for

HIGH and mighty, you shall know, I am set England: of them I hare much to tell thee. Farewell. He that thou knowest thine, HAMLET.

naked on your kingdom. To-morrow shall I beg Come, I will make yon way for these your letters; asking your pardon thereunto, recount the occasion

leave to see your kingly eyes : when I shall, first And do't the speedier, that you may direct me To him from whom you brought them. (Exeunt. lof my sudden and more strange return. Hamlet.

What should this mean? Are all the rest come SCENE VII.

35 Or is it some abuse, and no such thing? [back? Another Room.

Laer. Know you the hand ?
Enter King, and Laertes.

King. 'Tis Hamlet's character. Naked,
King. Now must your conscience my acquit- And, in a postscript here, he says, alone :
tance seal,
Can you advise me?

And you must put me in your heart for friend; 40 Laer. I am lost in it, my lord. But let him
Sith you have heard, and with a knowing ear, It warms the very sickness in my heart,
That he, which hath your noble father slain, That I shall live and tell hinı to his teeth, .
Pursu'd my life.

Thus diddest thou. Laer. It well appears:-But tell me,

King. If it be so, Laertes,Why you proceeded not against these feats,

45 As how should it be so?-how otherwise? So crimeful and so capital in nature, selse, Will


be rul'd by me? As by your safety, greatness, wisdom, all things Laer. Ay, my lord; You mainly were stirr'd up?

So you will not o'er-rule me to a peace. King. O, for two special reasons ;

King. To thine own peace. ' If he be now Which may to you, perhaps,seem much unsinew'd, 50) return'd, And yet to me they are strong. The queen, his As checking at his voyage, and that he means mother,

No more to undertake it, -I will work him
Lives almost by his looks; and for myself, To an exploit, now ripe in my device,
(My virtue, or my plague, be it either which) Under the which he shall not choose but fall:
She is so conjunctive to my life and soul, 55 And for his death no wind of blame shall breathe;
That, as the star inoves not but in his sphere, But even his mother shall uncharge the practice,
I could not but by her. The other motive, And call it, accident,
Why to a public count I might not go,

Laer. My lord, I will be rul'd;
Is, the great love the general gender bear him: The rather, if you could devise it so,
Who, dipping all his faults in their affection, 160 That I might be the organ,

· The bore is the calibre of a gun, or the capacity of the barrel. —The matter (says Hamlet) zvould carry hearier words. ? i. e. The common race of the people. i.e. If I may praise what has been, but is now to be found no more. 3 U 4

King. o'er your

King. It falls right.

A kind of wick, or snuff, that will abate it: You have been talk'd of since your travel much, And nothing is at a like goodness still; And that in Hamlet's hearing, for a quality For goodness, growing to a pleurisy, Wherein, they say, you shine: your sum of parts Dies in his own too much: That we would do, Did not together pluck such envy from him, 5 We should do when we would; for this would As did that one; and that, in my regard,

changes, Of the unworthiest siege'.

And hath abatements and delays as many, Laer. What part is that, my lord?

As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents; King. A very ribband in the cap of youth, And then this should' is like a spendthrift sigh“ Yet needful too; for youth no less becomes 10 That hurts by easing. But, to the quick o'the ulcer: The light and careless livery that it wears, Hamlet comes back; What would you undertake, Than settled age his sables and his weeds, To shew yourself your father's son in deed Importing health, and graveness.---Two months More than in words? since,

Laer. To cut his throat i' the church. (tuarize; Here was a gentleman of Normandy,

15 King. No place, indeed, should murder sancI have seen myself, and serv’dagainst, the French, Revenge should havenobounds. But,good Laertes, And they can well on horseback: but this gallant Will you do this, keep close within yourchamber? Had witchcraft in 't; he grew unto his seat; Hamlet, return'd, shall know you are come home: And to such wondrous doing brought his horse, We'll put on those shall praise your excellence, As he had been incorps'd and demy-natur'd 20 And set a double varnish on the fame With the brave beast: so far he topp'd my thought, The Frenchman gave you; bring you, in fine, That I, in forgery of shapes and tricks,

together, Come short of what he did.


heads: he, being remiss', Laer. A Norman, was 't?

Most generous, and free from all contriving, King. A Norman.

25 Will not peruse the foils; so that, with ease, Laer. Upon my life, Lamond.

Or with a little shuflling, you may choose King. The very same.

A sword unbated ®, and, in a pass of practice', Laer. I know him well: he is the brooch, indeed, Requite him for your father. And gem of all the nation.

Laer. I will do't: King. He made confession of you ;

30 And, for the purpose, I'll anoint my sword, And gave you such a masterly report,

I bought an unction of a mountebank, For art and exercise in your defence",

So mortal, that, but dip a knife in it, And for your rapier most especial,

Where it draws blood, no cataplasm so rare, That he cried out, 'Twould be a sight indeed, Collected from all simples that have virtue If one could match you: the scrimers' of their 35 Under the moon, can save the thing from death, nation,

That is but scratch'd withal: I'll touch my point He swore, had neither motion, guard, nor eye, With this contagion; that, if I gall him slightly, If you oppos'd them ; Sir, this report of his

It may be death. Did Hamlet so envenom with his enyy,

King. Let's further think of this; That he could nothing do, but wish and beg 40 Weigh,what convenience,both of time and means, Your sudden coming o'er, to play with him. May fit us to our shape 10: If this should fail, Now out of this,

And that our drift look through our bad perLaer. What out of this, my lord?

formance, King. Laertes, was your father dear to you? l'Twere better not assay’d; therefore, this project Or are you like the painting of a sorrow, 45 Should have a back, or second, that might hold, A face without a heart?

Ifthis should bļast in proof". Soft;,let mesee:Laer. Why ask you this?

We'll make a solemn wager on your cunnings,king. Not that I think, you did not love your

I ha't: father;

When in your motion you are hot and dry, But that I know, love is begun by time“; 30 (As make your bouts more violent to that end) And that I see, in passages of proof,

And that he calls for drink, I'll have prepar'd him Time qualifies the spark and fire of it.

A chalice for the nonce ; whereon but sipping, There lives within the very flame of love \If he by chance escape your venom’d tuck,

Ti. e. of the lowest rank.—Siege, for seat, place; Fr. ? That is, in the science of defence. 3 The fencers. * Dr. Johnson says, this is obscure; and adds, !The meaning may be, Love is not innate in us, and co-essential to our nature, but begins at a certain time from some external cause, and, being always subject to the operations of time, suffers change and diminution.” Si. e. in transactions of daily experience. • i. e. a sigh that makes an unnecessary waste of the vital flame. It is a notion very prevalent, that sighs impair the strength, and wear out the animal powers. 'i.e. not,vigilant or cautious. 8 i. e. not blunted as foils are. , Dr. Johnson observes, that practice is often by Shakspeare, and other writers, taken for an insidious stratagem, or priry treason; a sense not incongruous to this passage, where yet he rather believes, that nothing more is meant than a thrust for exercise. i.e. may enable us to assume proper characters, and to act our part.

1 This metaphor is taken from the trying orproving fire-arms or cannon, which often blast or burst in the proof.



Our purpose may hold there. But stay, wbat noise? Or like a creature native and indu'd
Enter Queen.

Unto that element: but long it could not be, How now, sweet queen?

'Till that her garments, heavy with their drink, Queen. One woe doth tread upon another's heel, Pull’d the poor wretch from her melodious lay So fast they follow :-Your sister's drown'd, La- 5 To muddy death. Laer. Drown'd! 0, where?

sertes. Laer. Alas, then, is she drown'd? Queen. There is awillow grows ascaunt'the brook, Queen. Drown'd, drown'd. That shews his hoar leaves in the glassy stream;

Laer. Too much of water hast thou,poorOphelia, Therewith fantastic garlands did she make, And therefore I forbid my tears: But yet Of crow-flowers, nettles, daisies, and long purples, 10 It is our trick; nature her custom holds, That liberal shepherds give a grosser name:

Let shame say what it will: when these are gone, Butourcold maidsdodead-men's fingerscall them: The woman will be out.— Adieu, my lord! There on the pendant boughs her coronet weeds I have a speech of fire; that fain would blaze, Clambering to hang, an envious sliver broke; But that this folly drowns it.

[Exit. When down her weedy trophies, and herself, 151 ning. Let's follow, Gertrude: Fell in the weeping brook. Her clothes spreadwide; How much I had to do to calm his rage! And, mermaid-like, a while they bore her up:

Now fear I, this will give it start again; Which time, she chaunted snatches of old tunes ;) Therefore, let's follow,

[Ercunt. As one incapable of her own distress,

[blocks in formation]


inore than their even christian. Come; my A Church-yard.

spade. There is no ancient gentlemen but gar

deners, ditchers, and grave-makers; they hold up Enter two Cloruns, with spades, &c. 30 Adam's profession. 2 Clown. Is she to be bury'd in christian burial,

2 Clown. Was he a gentleman? that wilfully seeks her own salvation? 1 Cloun. He was the first that ever bore arms. 2 Clown. I tell thee, she is; therefore, make 2 Cloun. Why, he had none. her grave straight?: the crowner hath sat on her, 1 Clown. What, art a heathen? How dost thou and finds it christian burial.

|35 understand the Scripture?-__-The Scripture says, 1 Clown. How can that be, unless she drown'd Adam digg’d: Could he dig without arms? I'lí herself in her own defence?

put another question to thee: if thou answer'st me 2 Clorun. Why, 'tis found so.

not to the purpose, confess thyself1 Clown. It must be se offendendo ; it cannot be

2 Clown. Go to. else. For here lies the point: If I drown myself 40 1 Clown. What is he, that builds stronger than wittingly, it argues an act: and an act hath three either the mason, the shipwright, or the carpenbranches }; it is, to act, to do, and to perform:- ter? Argal, she drown'd herself wittingly.

2 Clown. The gallows-maker: for that frame 2 Clown. Nay, but hear you, goodman delver.

out-lives a thousand tenants. I Clown. Give me leave. Here lies the water; 45 i Clown. I like thy wit well, in good faith ; the good: Here stands the man; good: If the man gallows does well: But how does it well ? it does go to this water, and drown himself, it is, will he, well to those that do ill: Now thou dost ill, to nill he, he goes; mark you that : But if the wa- say, the gallows is built stronger than the church: ter come to him, and drown him, he drowns not Argal, the gallows may do well to thee. To't himself: Argal, he, that is not guilty of his own 50 again; come. death, shortens not his own life.

2 Clown. Who builds stronger than a mason, a 2 Clown. But is this law ?

shipwright, or a carpenter? 1 Clown. Ay, marry is 't; crowner's-quest law. i Clown. Ay, tell me that, and unyoke'.

2 Clown. Will you ha’ the truth on 't? If this 2 Clown. Marry, now I can tell. had not been a gentlewoman, she should have 55 | Clown. To't. been bury'd out of christian burial.

2 Clown. Mass, I cannot tell. 1 Clown. Why, there thou say’st: And the Enter Hamlet and Horatio, at a distance. more pity, that great folk should have counte- 1 Clown. Cudgel thy brains no more about it; nance in this world to drown or hang themselves, for

your dull ass will not mend his pace with beat1 i.e. aside, sideways. ? i. e. make her grave immediately,

3 Ridicule on scholastic divisions without distinction; and of distinctions without difference. * This is an old English expression for fellow-christians. bi.e. When you have done that, I'll trouble you no more with these riddles. The phrase is taken from husbandry.

ing; and, when you are ask'd this question next, Ham. There's another; Why may not that be say, a grave-maker; the houses that he makes, the scullof a lawyer? Where be his quiddits' now, Jast 'till doomsday. Go, get thcc to Youghan, and his quillets, his cases, his tenures, and his tricksi fetch me a stoop of liquor. [Exit 2 Clown. why does he suffer this rude knave now to knock He digs, and sings',

5 him about the sconce' with a dirty shovel, and will

not tell him of his action of battery? Hum! This In youth when I did love, did love,

fellow might be in 's time a great buyer of lansi, Mlethought, it was very sweet,

with his statutes, his recognizances, his fines, his To contract, O, the time, for, ah, my behove, double vouchers, his recoreries: Is this the fine 0, methought there was nothing meet.

10 of his fines, and the recovery of his recoreries, to Hamn. Has this fellow no feeling of his business? have his fine pate full of fine dirt? will his vouchhe sings at grave-making.

ers vouch him no more of his purchases, and douHor. Custom hath made it in him a property

ble ones too, than the length and breath of a par of easiness.

of indentures? The very conveyances of his lands Ham. 'Tis e'en so: the hand of little employ-15 will hardly lie in this box; and must the inneritor ment hath the daintier sense.

himself have no more? ha? Clown sings.

Hor. Not a jot more, my lord. But age, with his stealing steps,

Ham. Is not parchment made of sheep-skins ? Hath claw'd me in his clutch,

Hor. Ay, my lord, and of calves-skins too. And hath shipped me into the land,

20 Ham, They are sheep, and calves, which seek As if I had never been such.

out assurance in that. I will speak to this fellow : [Throws up a scull.

Whose grave's this, sirrah?

Clown. Mine, sir.-Ham. That scull had a tongue in it, and could sing once: How the knave jowls it to the groun:1,25

0, a pit of clay for to be made as if it were Cain's jaw-bone, that did the first murder! This might be the pate of a politician,

For such a guest is meet. which this ass now o'er-reaches; one that would Ham. I think it be thine indeed; for thou lyst circumvent God, might it not?

in 't: Hor. It might, my lord.

30 Cloron. You lie out on't, sir, and therefore it is Ham. Or of a courtier, which could say, 'Good

not yours: for my part, I do not lie in 't, yet it is morrow, sweet lord ! How dost thou, good lord?'

mine, This might be my lord such-o-one, that prais’d Ham. Thou dost lie in't, to be in't, and say it my lord such-a-one's horse, when he meant to

is thine: 'tis for the dead, not for the quick; beg it; might it not?

35 therefore thou ly'st. Hor. Ay, my lord.

Clozen. 'Tis a quick lye, sir; 'twill away again, Ham. Why, e'en so: and now my lady worm's?;

from me to you. chapless, and knock'd about the mazzárd with al

Ham. What man dost thou dig it for ?
sexton's spade: Here's fine revolution, an we had Clown. For no man, sir.
the trick to see 't, Did these bones cost no more 40 Ham. What woman, then?
the breeding, but to play at loggats 'with them? Clown. For none neither.
mine ache to think on't.

Ham. Who is to be buried in't?
Clown sings.

Clown. One that was a woman, sir; but, rest A pick-are, and a spade, a spade,

her soul, she's dead, For--and a shrozeding sheet :

Ham. How absolute the knave is! we must 0, a pit of clay for to be made

speak by the card', or equivocation will undo us. For such a guest is meet.

By the Lord, Iloratio, these three years I have · The three stanzas, sung here by the grave-digger, are extracted, with a slight variation, from a little poem, called The aged Lover renounceth Lore, written by Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, who flourished in the reign of King Henry VIII. and who was beheaded in 1547, on a strained acci.sation of treason. The entire song is published by Dr. Percy, in the first volume of his Reliques of Antient English Poetry. ? i.e. The scull that was my lord Such-a-one's, is now my lady Worm's. * Dr. Johnson says, this is a play, in which pins are set up to be beaten down with a bowl. We have been informed, however, that the reverse is true; that the bowl is the mark, and the pins are pitched at it; and that the game is well known in the neighbourhood of Norwich. -Mr. Steevens observes, that “this is a game played in several parts of England even at this time.-A stake is fixed into the ground; those who play, throw loggats at it; and he that is nearest the stake, wins : -I have seen it played in different counties at their sheep-shearing feasts, where the winner was entitled to a black Heece, which he afterwards presented to the farmer's maid to spin for the purpose of making a petticoat, and on condition that she knelt down on the fleece to be kissed by all the rustics present.” * i. e. subtilties. Si. e. the head, • A quibble is intended.-Deeds, which are usually written on parchment, are called the common assurances of the kingdom. ? The card is the paper on which the different points of the coinpass were described. To do any thing by the card, is, to do it with nice obsercution.


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