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Pago

The Resurrection,

SIR MATTHEW IIALE,

87

DR THOMAS SPRAT,

448 On Conversation,

507

View of the Divine Government afforded by Experimental John Locke,

508

Philosophy,

448 Causes of Weakness in Men's Understanding,

12

Cowley's Love of Retirement,

449 Practice and Habit,

$12

DR THOMAS BURNET,

450 Prejudices,

513

The final Conflagration of the Globe,

451 Injudicious IIaste in Study,

813

Rebuke of Human Pride,

451 Pleasure and Pain,

514

The Dry Bed of the Ocean,

452

Importance of Moral Education,

$15

DR HENRY MORE,

452 Pading of Ideas from the Mind;

515

The Soul and Body,

453 II istory,

515

Devout Contemplation of the Works of God,

453 Orthodoxy and Heresy,

516

Nature of the Evidence of the Existence of God,

Disputation,

516

RICHARD BAXTER,

454

Liberty,

516

Fruits of Experience of Iluman Character,

451 Opposition to New Doctrines, .

516

Baxter's Judgment of his Writings,

454 Duty of Preserving Ilealth,

516

Desire of Approbation,

455 Toleration of Other Men's Opinions,

316

Change in Baxter's Estimate of his own and other Men's The IONOURABLE ROBERT BOYLE,

516

Knowledge,

455 The Study of Natural Philosophy favourable to Religion, 517

On the Credit due to listory,

456 Reflection upon a Lantborn and Candle, carried by on

Character of Sir Matthew Vale,

456 a Windy Night,

518

Observance of the Sabbath in Baxter's Youth,

457 Upon the sight of Roses and Tulips growing near one

Theological Controversies,

457 another,

618

JOHN OWEN,

457 Marriage a Lottery,

5.9

EDMUND CALAMY,

458

Some Considerations Touching the Style of the Holy

JOHN FLAVEL,

458

Scriptures,

519

Against Repining in the Season of Want,

458 SIR ISAAC NEWTON,

520

MATTHEW II ENRY,

458 The Prophetic Language,

521

GEORGE Fox,

458 John Ray,

524

Fox's N-treatment at Ulverstone,

459 The Study of Nature Recommended,

Interview with Oliver Cromwell,

459 Proportionate Lengths of the Necks and Legs of Ani-

ROBERT BARCLAY,

461 mals,

523

Against Titles of Honour, .

462 God's Exhortation to Activity,

525

WILLIAN PENN,

463
All Things not Made for Man,

526

Against the Pride of Noble Birth,

463 THOMAS STANLEY-SIR WILLIAN DUGDALE-ANTHONY

Penn's Advice to his Children,

464

WOOD-ELIAS ASHNOLE-JOHN AUBREY-THOMAS

Thomas ELLWOOD,

465

RYNER,

527

Ellwood's Intercourse with Milton,

465

Tom D'URFEY AND TOM BROWN,

527

John BUNYAN,

466 Letter from Scarron in the Next World to Louis XIV., 528

Extracts from Bunyan's Autobiography,

467

An Exhortatory Letter to an Old Lady that Smoked

Christian in the Hands of Giant Despair,

471 Tobacco,

529

The Golden City,

473 An Indian's Account of a London Gaming-Ilouso, 529

LORD CLARENDON,

Laconics, or New Maxims of State and Conversation, 529

Reception of the Liturgy at Edinburgh in 1637,

477 Sir GEORGE MACKENZIE,

Character of Hampden,

477

Praise of a Country Life,

Character of Falkland,

478

Against Envy,

631

Character of Charles I.,

479

Fame,

531

Escape of Charles II. after the Battle of Worcester, 480

Bigotry,

531

Character of Oliver Cromwell,

485

Virtue more Pleasant than Vice,

BULSTRODE WHITELOCKE,

Avarice,

GILBERT BURNET,

486 The True Path to Esteem,

Death and Character of Edward VI.,

487 NEWSPAPERS IN ENGLAND,

833

Character of Leighton, Bishop of Dumblanc-His Death, 488

Character of Charles II.,

The Czar Peter in England in 1998,

490

Character of William III.,

491

John DRYDEN,

Fifth period.

492

Shakspeare,

493

Beaumont and Fletcher,

493 REIGNS OF WILLIAM III., ANNE, AND GEORGE I.

Ben Jonson,

493

(1689 to 1727.]

Improved Style of Dramatic Dialogue after the Restora-

tion,

494

POETS.

Translations of the Ancient Poets,

494

Spenser and Milton,

496 MATTHEW PRIOR,

Lampoon,

497 For my Own Monument,

136

Dryden's Translation of Virgil,

497 Epitaph Extempore,

536

Ilistory and Biography,

498 An Epitaph,

536

SIR WILLIAM TEMPLE,

800 The Garland,

536

Against Excessive Grief,

502 Abra's Love for Solomon,

537

Right of Private Judgment in Religion,

504 The Thief and the Cordelier- A Ballad,

538

Poetical Genius,

604 The Cameleon,

538

WILLIAM WOTTON,

506 Protogenes and Apelles,

439

Decline of Pedantry in England,

507 Richard's Theory of the Mind,

699

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JossPH ADDISON,

340 Picture of the Life of a Woman of Fashion,

598

From the Letter from Italy,

843

Fable,

598

Ode-How are thy servants blest, O Lord !)

343 GEORGE FARQUHÅR, .

596

OdeThe spacious firmament on high),

843

Humorous Scene at an Inn,

599

The Battle of Blenheim,

544 From the Recruiting Officer,

600

From the Tragedy of Cato,

844

JONATHAN SWIFT,

845

ESSAYISTS.

A Description of the Morning,

548

A Description of a City Shower,

848 SIR RICHARD STEELB-JOSEPH ADDISON,

Baucis and Philemon,

848 Agreeable Companions and Flatterers,

606

Verses on his own Denth,

649

Quack Advertisements,

607

The Grand Question Debated,

352 Story.Telling,

618

ALEXANDER Pope,

The Political Upholsterer,

619

The Messiah,

357

The Vision of Mirza,

610

The Toilet,

Sir Roger De Coverley's Visit to Westminster Abbey, 611

Description of Belinda and the Sylphs,

858 The Works of Creation,

612

From the Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard,

B59 EUSTACE BUDGELL,

614

Elegy on an Unfortunate Lady,

560 The Art of Growing Rich,

614

Ilappiness Depends not on Goods, but on Virtue, 361

John IIUGHES,

615

From the Prologue to the Satires, addressed to Arbuth Ambition,

615

not,

563

The Man of Ross,

564

The Dying Christian to his Soul,

665

MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS.

THOMAS TICKELL,

BG6

Colin and Lucy-a Ballad,

666 DANIEL Deros,

617

BIR SAMUEL GARTH,

567 A True Relation of the Apparition of one Mrs Veal, the

Bir RICHARD BLACKMORE,

next day after her Death, to one Mrs Bargrave, at

ANBROSE PHilirs,

369

Canterbury, the eight of September, 1705, which ap-

Epistle to the Earl of Dorset,

BE parition recommends the perusal of Drelincourt's Book

The First Pastoral,

of Consolations against the fears of Death,

618

JOHN GAY,

570 The Great Plague in London,

621

The Country Ballad Singer,

The Troubles of a Young Thief,

Walking the Streets of London,

573 Advice to a Youth of Rambling Disposition,

623

Song - Sweet woman is like the fair flower in its BERNARD MANDEVILLE,

624

lustre),

573 Flattery of the Great,

624

The Poet and the Rose,

573 Society Compared to a Bowl of Punch,

624

The Court of Death,

574 Pomp and Superfluity,

623

The Ilare and Many Friends,

874 ANDREW FLETCHER OF SALTOUN,

625

The Lion, the Tiger, and the Traveller,

574 JONATHAN SWIFT,

26

Sweet William's Farewell to Black Eyed Susan,

875 Inconveniences from a Proposed Abolition of Chris-

A Ballad,

575 tianity,

THOMAS PARNELL,

576 Arguments for the Abolition of Christianity Treated, 627

The llermit,

876

Ludicrous Image of Fanaticism,

62X

MATTHEW GREEN,

878 A Meditation upon a Broomstick, according to the

Cures for Melancholy,

578 style and mannor of the Ilon. Robert Boyle's Medi-
Contentment- A Wish,
879 tations,

623

ANNE, COUNTESS OF WINCHELSEA,

380 Adventures of Gulliver in Brobdingnag,

629

A Xocturnal Reverie,

380 Satire on Pretended Philosophers and Projectors,

Life's Progress,

880 Thoughts on Various Subjects,

634

WILLIAN SOMERVILLE,

380 Overstrained Politeness, or Vulgar IIospitality,

ALLAN RAMSAY,

581 ALEXANDER Pore, .

Ode from Horace,

584 On Sickness and Death,

Bong- At setting day and rising mora),

685 Pope to Swift-On his Retirement,

6336

The Last Time I came o'er the Moor,

585 Pope in Oxford,

636

Lochaber no More, .

885 Pope to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu on the Conti-

Rustic Courtship,

nent,

637

Dialogue on Marriage,

586 Death of Two Lovers by Lightning,

637

Description of an Ancient English Country Seat,

Pope to Gay-On his Recovery,

DRAMATISTS.

Sketch of Autumn Scenery,

THOMAS SOUTHERNE,

388 Pope to Bishop Atterbury, in the Tower,

640

Return of Biron,

888 Party Zeal,

640

NICHOLAS Rowe,

500 Acknowledgment of Error,

640

Penitence and Denth of Jane Shore,

Disputation,

640

Calista's Passion for Lothario,

891 Censorious People,

640

WILLIAM LILLO,

591 Growing Virtuous in Old Age,

640

Patal Curiosity,

892 Lying,

640

WILLIAN CONGREVE,

693 Hostile Critics,

640

Gay Young Men upon Town,

594

Sectarian Differences,

640

A Swaggering Bully and Boaster,

894 How to be Reputed a Wise Man,

640

Scandal and Literature in Iligh Life,

595 Avarice,

640

From Love for Love,

696 Minister Acquiring and Losing Office,

641

Sir Joux VANBRUCH,

697 Receipt to make an Epic Poem,

69

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Page DR JOHN ARBUTHNOT,

642 Prejudices and Opinions, The History of John Bull, . 642 From Maxims Concerning Patriotism,

659 Usefulness of Mathematical Learning,

646 LORD BOLINGBROKE,

646

HISTORICAL, CRITICAL, AND THEOLOGICAL National Partiality and Prejudice,

647

WRITERS. Absurdity of Useless Learning,

648 Unreasonableness of Complaints of tho Shortness of LAWRENCE ECHARD,

669 Human Life, 648 JOHN STRYPE,

659 Pleasures of a Patriot, 649 PORTER AND KENNETT,

660 Wiso, Distinguished from Cunning Ministers, 650 | RICHARD BENTLEY,

660 LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU,

Authority of Reason in Religious Matter,

660 To E. W. Montagu, Esq.-In prospect of Marriage, 651 DR FRANCIS ATTERBURY,

661 To the Same-On Matrimonial Happiness, 651 Usefulness of Church Music,

661 To Mr Pope-Eastern Manners and Language, 651 DR SAMUEL CLARKE,

602 To Mrs S. C.-Inoculation for the Small-pox, 652 Natural and Essential Difference of Right and Wrong,

664 To Lady Rich-France in 1718, 653 DR WILLIAM LOWTH,

665 To the Countess of Bute-Consoling her in Affliotian, 653 DR BENJAMIN HOADLY,

665 To the Same-On Female Education, 653 The Kingdom of Christ not of this World,

665 Ironical View of Protestant Infallibility,

606 CHARLES LESLIE,

667 METAPHYSICIANS. WILLIAM WHiston,

609

Anecdote of the Discovery of the Newtonian Philo. EARL OF SHAFTESBURY,

694 sophy, Platonio Representation of the scale of Beauty and DR Philip DODDRIDOE,

608 Love,

The Dangerous Illness of a Daughter,

670 Bisnor BERKELEY, 656 Happy Devotional Feelings of Doddridge,

671 Verses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in Vindication of Religious Opinions,

671 America,

637 DR WILLIAM NICOLSON - DR MATTHEW TIXDAL- De Industry,

HUMPHREY PRIDEAUX,

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age presents us with historical chronicles, theologiANGLO-SAXON WRITERS.

cal treatises, religious, political, and narrative poetry,

in great abundance, written both in Latin and in the HE ENGLISH native tongue.* LANGUAGE is The earliest name in the list of Anglo-Saxon essentially a writers is that of Gildas, generally described as a branch of the missionary of British parentage, living in the first Teutonic, the half of the sixth century, and the author of a Latin language spo-tract on early British history. Owing to the ob

ken by the scurity of this portion of our annals, it has been the inhabitants of somewhat extraordinary fate of Gildas to be reprecentral Eu- sented, first as flourishing at two periods more than a rope immedi- century distant from each other, then as two differately before ent men of the same name, living at different times ;

the dawn of and finally as no man at all, for his very existence

history, and is now doubted. Nennius is another name of this which constitutes the foun- age, which, after being long connected with a small dation of the modern Ger- historical work, written, like that of Gildas, in Latin, man, Danish, and Dutch. has latterly been pronounced supposititious. The Introduced by the Anglo- first unquestionably real author of distinction is Saxons in the fifth century, ST COLUMBANUS, a native of Ireland, and a man it gradually spread, with the of vigorous ability, who contributed greatly to people who spoke it, over the advancement of Christianity in various parts of nearly the whole of England, Western Europe, and died in 615. He wrote reli

the Celtic, which had been gious treatises and Latin poetry. As yet, no eduthe language of the aboriginal people, shrinking cated writer composed in his vernacular tongue: it before it into Wales, Cornwall, and other remote was generally despised by the literary class, as was parts of the island, as the Indian tongues are now the case at some later periods of our history, and retiring before the advance of the British settlers Latin was held to be the only language fit for reguin North America.*

lar composition. From its first establishment, the Anglo-Saxon The first Anglo-Saxon writer of note, who comtongue experienced little change for five centuries, posed in his own language, and of whom there are the chief accessions which it received being Latin any remains, is CÆDMON, a monk of Whitby, who terms introduced by Christian missionaries. Dur- died about 680. Cædmon was a genius of the class ing this period, literature flourished to a much headed by Burns, a poet of nature's making, sprung greater extent than might be expected, when we from the bosom of the common people, and little consider the generally rude condition of the people. indebted to education. It appears that he at one It was chiefly cultivated by individuals of the reli- time acted in the capacity of a cow-herd. The cir. gions orders, a few of whom can easily be discerned, cumstances under which his talents were first dethrough their obscure biography, to have been men veloped, are narrated by Bede with a strong cast of of no mean genius. During the eighth century, the marvellous, under which it is possible, however, books were multiplied immensely by the labours of to trace a basis of natural truth. We are told that these men, and through their efforts learning de- he was so much less instructed than most of his scended into the upper classes of lay society. This equals, that he had not even learnt any poetry ; 80

that he was frequently obliged to retire, in order to It is now believed that the British language was not so hide his shame, when the harp was moved towards immediately or entirely extinguished by the Saxons as was him in the hall, where at supper it was customary generally stated by our historians down to the last age. But certainly it is true in the main, that the Saxon succeeded the for each person to sing in turn. On one of these British language in all parts of England, except Wales, Corn * Biographia Britannica Literaria : Anglo-Saxon Period. By wall, and some other districts of less note.

Thomas Wright, M.A.

1

[graphic]

1

99

occasions, it happened to be Cædmon's turn to keep Then spake he words :
guard at the stable during the night, and, overcome “This narrow place is most unlike
with vexation, he quitted the table and retired to that other that we formerly knew,
his post of duty, where, laying himself down, he fell high in heaven's kingdom,
into a sound slumber. In the midst of his sleep, a which my master bestowed on me,
stranger appeared to him, and, saluting him by his though we it, for the All-powerful,
name, said, “ Cædmon, sing me something." Cæd may not possess.
mon answered, “I know nothing to sing ; for my We must cede our realm ;
incapacity in this respect was the cause of my leav yet hath he not done rightly,
ing the hall to come hither." Nay," said the that he hath struck us down
stranger, “but thou hast something to sing.” “What to the fiery abyss
must I sing ?” said Cædmon. Sing the Creation,"

of the hot hell, was the reply, and thereupon Cadmon began to sing

bereft us of heaven's kingdom, verses " which he had never heard before,” and

hath decreed which are said to have been as follows:

to people it

with mankind. Nu we sceolan herian* Now we shall praise

That is to me of sorrows the greatest, heofon-ríces weard, the guardian of heaven,

that Adam, metodes mihte, the might of the creator,

who was wrought of earth, and his mod-ge-thonc, and his counsel,

shall possess wera wuldor fæder ! the glory-father of men !

my strong seat; swa he wundra ge-hwes, how he of all wonders,

that it shall be to him in delight, ece dryhten, the eternal lord,

and we endure this torment, oord onstealde. formed the beginning.

misery in this hell. He ærest ge-scéop He first created

Oh! had I the power of my hands * * ylda bearnum for the children of men

then with this host Iheofon to hrófe, heaven as a roof,

But around me lie halig scyppend ! the holy creator !

iron bonds ; tha middan-geard then the world

presseth this cord of chain ; mon-cynnes weard, the guardian of mankind,

I am powerless ! ece dryhten, the eternal lord,

me have so hard æfter teode, produced afterwards,

the clasps of hell firum foldan, the earth for men,

so firmly grasped ! frea ælmihtig ! the almighty master !

Here is a vast fire Cædmon then awoke ; and he was not only able to above and underneath ;

never did I see repeat the lines which he had made in his sleep, but he continued them in a strain of admirable versifica.

a loathlier landskip ; tion. In the morning, he hastened to the town

the flame abateth not,

hot over hell. reeve, or bailiff, of Whitby, who carried him before the Abbess Hilda ; and there, in the presence of

Me hath the clasping of these rings, some of the learned men of the place, he told his

this hard polished band,

impeded in my course, story, and they were all of opinion that he had re

debarred me from my way. ceived the gift of song from heaven. They then expounded to him in his mother tongue a portion

My feet are bound, of Scripture, which he was required to repeat in

my hands manacled ;

of these hell doors are Cædmon went home with his task, and the next morning he produced a poem which excelled

the ways obstructed ; in beauty all that they were accustomed to hear.

so that with aught I cannot

from these limb-bonds escape. He afterwards yielded to the earnest solicitations of

About me lie the Abbess Hilda, and became a monk of her house;

huge gratings aud she ordered him to transfer into verse the whole

of hard iron, of the sacred history. We are told that he was continually occupied in repeating to himself what he

forged with heat,

with which me God heard, and, " like a clean animal, ruminating it, he

hath fastened by the neck. turned it into most sweet verse."' + Cadmon thus

Thus perceive I that he knoweth my mind, composed many poems on the Bible histories, and

and that he knew also, on miscellaneous religious subjects, and some of

the Lord of hosts, these have been preserved. His account of the Fall

that should us through Adam of Man is somewhat like that given in Paradise Lost,

evil befall, and one passage in it might almost be supposed to

about the realm of heaven, have been the foundation of a corresponding one in

where I had power of my hands.'* Milton's sublime epic. It is that in which Satan is described as reviving from the consternation of his The specimen of Cædmon above given in the overthrow. A modern translation into English fol- original language may serve as a general one of lows:

Anglo-Saxon poetry. It will be observed that it is

neither in measured feet, like Latin verse, nor [Satan's Speech.]

rhymed, but that the sole peculiarity which distinBoiled within him

guishes it from prose is what Mr Wright calls a very his thought about his heart;

regular alliteration, so arranged, that in every couplet Hot was without him

there should be two principal words in the line behis dire punishment.

ginning with the same letter, which letter must also

be the initial of the first word on which the stress * In our specimens of the Anglo-Saxon, modern letters are of the voice falls in the second line. substituted for those peculiar characters employed in that lan

A few names of inferior note-Aldhelm, abbot of guage to express th, dh, and u. | Wright.

* Thorpe's edition of Cædmon, 1832.

verse.

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