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to life ; and forthwith ate hay with the dam at the from Greenwich to London, and there with his host rack. At which marvel all the house was greatly rested him a while. astonished, and yielded thanking unto Almighty God, And so soon as Jack Cade had thus overcome the and to that holy bishop.
Staffords, he anon apparelled him with the knight's Upon the morrow, this holy bishop took with him apparel, and did on him his bryganders set with gilt the herdman, and yode unto the presence of the king, nails, and his salet and gilt spurs ; and after he had and axed of him in sharp wise, why that over-night refreshed his people, he returned again to Black he had denied to him lodging. Wherewith the king | Heath, and there pight again his field, as heretofore was so abashed, that he had no power to give unto he had done, and lay there from the 29th day of the holy man answer. Then, St Germain said to him : June, being St Peter's day, till the first day of I charge thee, in the name of the Lord God, that thou July. In which season came unto him the Archand thine depart from this palace, and resign it and bishop of Canterbury, and the Duke of Buckingham, the rule of thy land to him that is more worthy this with whom they had long communication, and found room than thou art. The which all thing by power him right discreet in his answers : how be it they divine was observed and done ; and the said herdman, could not cause him to lay down his people, and to by the holy bishop's alithority, was set into the same submit him unto the king's grace. dignity ; of whoin after descended all the kings of In this while, the king and the queen, hearing of Britain.
the increasing of his rebels, and also the lords fearing their own servants, lest they would take the Captain's
party, removed from London to Killingworth, leaving (Jack Cade's Insurrection.)
the city without aid, except only the Lord Scales,
which was left to keep the Tower, and with him a manly (Original Spelling. And in the moneth of Juny this yere, and warly man named Matthew Gowth. Then the the comons of Kent assemblyd them in grete multytude, and cliase to them a capitayne, and named hym Mortymer, and Captain of Kent thus hoving2 at Blackheath, to the ensyn to the Duke of Yorke; but of moste be was named end to blind the more the people, and to bring him in Jack Cade. This kepte the people wondrouslie togader, and fame that he kept good justice, beheaded there a petty made such ordenaunces amonge theym, that he brought a Captain of his, named Paris, for so much as he had grete nombre of people of theym ynto the Blak Heth, where he offended again' such ordinance as he had stablished deuysed a bylle of petycions to the kynge and his coun. in his host. And hearing that the king and all his sayll, &c.]
lords were thus departed, drew him near unto the city,
so that upon the first day of July he entered the burgh And in the month of June this year (1450), the of Southwark, being then Wednesday, and lodged him commons of Kent assembled them in great multitude, there that night, for he might not be suffered to enter and chase to them a Captain, and nained him Morti- that city. mer, and cousin to the Duke of York; but of most he And upon the same day the commons of Essex, in was named Jack Cade. This kept the people won- great number, pight them a field upon the plain at drously together, and made such ordinances among Miles End. Upon the second day of the said month, them, that he brought a great number of people of the mayor called a common council at the Guildhall, them unto the Black Heath, where he devised å bill for to purvey the withstanding of these rebels, and of petitions to the king and his council, and showed other matters, in which assembled were divers opinions, therein what injuries and oppressions the poor com so that some thought good that the said rebels should mons suffered by such as were about the king, a few be received into the city, and some otherwise ; among persons in number, and all under colour to come to the which, Robert Horne, stock-fishmonger, then being his above. The king's council, seeing this bill, dis- an alderman, spake sore again' them that would have allowed it, and counselled the king, which by the them enter. For the which sayings, the commons 7th day of June had gathered to him a strong host of were so amoved again' him, that they ceased not till people, to go again' his rebels, and to give unto them they had hiin communitted to ward. battle. Then the king, after the said rebels had And the same afternoon, about five of the clock, the holden their field upon Black leath seven days, Captain with his people entered by the bridge ; and made toward them. Whereof hearing, the Captain when he came upon the drawbridge, he hewed the drew back with his people to a village called Seven- ropes that drew the bridge in sunder with his sword, oaks, and there embattled.
and so passed into the city, and made in sundry places Then it was agreed by the king's council, that Sir thereof proclamations in the king's name, that no man, Humphrey Stafforol
, knight, with William his brother, upon pain of death, should rob or take anything per and other certain gentlemen should follow the chase, force without paying therefor. By reason whereof he and the king with his lords should return unto Green- won many bearts of the commons of the city ; but all wich, weening to them that the rebels were fled and was done to beguile the people, as after shall evidently gone. But, as before I have showed, when Sir Hum- appear. He rode through divers streets of the city, phrey with his company drew near unto Sevenoaks, and as he came by London Stone, he strake it with he was warned of the Captain, that there abode with his sword and said, “Now is Mortimer lord of this his people. And when he had counselled with the city.' And when he had thus showed himself in other gentlemen, he, like a manful knight, set upon divers places of the city, and showed his mind to the the rebels and fought with them long; but in the mayor for the ordering of his people, he returned into end the Captain slew him and his brother, with many Southwark, and there abode as he before had done, other, and caused the rest to give back. All which his people coming and going at lawful hours when season, the king's host lay still upon Black Heath, they would. Then upon the morn, being the third being among them sundry opinions ; so that some and day of July and Friday, the said Captain entered again many faroured the Captain. But, finally, when word the city, and caused the Lord Saye to be fette3 from came of the overthrow of the Staffords, they said the Tower, and led into the Guildhall, where he was plainly and boldly, that, except the Lord Saye and arraigned before the mayor and other of the king's other before rehearsed were committed to ward, they justices. In which pastime he intended to have would take the Captain's party. For the appeasing of brought before the said justices the foresaid Robert which rumour the Lord Saye was put into the Tower ; Horne ; but his wife and friends made to him such but that other as then were not at hand. Then the instant labour, that finally, for five hundred marks, he king having knowledge of the scomfiture of his men und also of the rumour of his hosting people, removed
was set at his liberty. Then the Lord Saye, being as Then upon the 5th day of July, the Captain being before is said, at Guildhall, desired that he might be in Southwark, caused a man to be beheaded, for cause judged by his peers. Whereof hearing, the Captain of displeasure to him done, as the fame went ; and so sent a company of his unto the hall, the which per he kept him in Southwark all that day ; how be it he force took him from his officers, and so brought him might have entered the city if lie had wold. unto the standard in Cheap, where, orl he were half And when night was coming, the mayor and citizens, shriren, they strake off his head ; and that done, with Matthew Gowth, like to their former appointpight it upon a long pole, and so bare it about with ment, kept the passage of the bridge, being Sunday, them.
and defended the Kentishmen, which made great In this time and season had the Captain caused a force to re-enter the city. Then the Captain, seeing gentleman to be taken, named William Crowmer, this bickering begun, yode to harness, and called which before had been sheriff of Kent, and used, as his people about him, and set so fiercely upon the they said, some extortions. For which cause, or for citizens, that he drave them back from the stulpes be had favoured the Lord Saye, by reason that he had in Southwark, or bridge foot, unto the drawbridge. married his daughter, he was hurried to Miles End, Then the Kentishmen set fire upon the drawbridge. In and there, in the Captain's presence, beheaded. And defending whereof many a man was drowned and the same time was there also beheaded another man, slain, among the which, of men of name was John called Baillie, the cause of whose death was this, as I Sutton, alderman, Matthew Gowth, gentleman, and bare beard some men report. This Baillie was of the Roger Heysand, citizen. And thus continued this familiar and old acquaintance of Jack Cade, where- skirmish all night, till 9 of the clock upon the morn; fore, so soon as he espied him coming to him-ward, he so that sometime the citizens had the better, and thus cast in his mind that he would discover his living and soon the Kentishmen were upon the better side ; but old manners, and show off his vile kin and lineage. ever they kept them upon the bridge, so that the Wherefore, knowing that the said Baillie used to bear citizens passed never much the bulwark at the bridge scrows, and prophesy about him, showing to his com- foot, nor the Kentishmen much farther than the drawpany that he was an enchanter and of ill disposition, bridge. Thus continuing this cruel fight, to the de and that they should well know by such books as he struction of much people on both sides; lastly, after bare upon him, and bade them search, and if they the Kentishmen were put to the worse, a trewl was found not as he said, that then they should put him agreed for certain hours ; during the which trew, the to death, which all was done according to his com- Archbishop of Canterbury, then chancellor of England, mandment.
sent a general pardon to the Captain for himself, and When they had thus beheaded these two men, they another for his people : reason whereof he and his took the head of Crowmer and pight it upon a pole, company departed the same night out of Southwark, and so entered again the city with the heads of the and so returned every man to his own. Lords Saye and of Crowmer; and as they passed the But it was not long after that the Captain with his streets, joined the poles together, and caused either company was thus departed, that proclamations were dead mouth to kiss other diverse and many times. made in divers places of Kent, of Sussex, and Sow
And the Captain the self-same day went unto the therey, that who might take the foresaid Jack Cade, bouse of Philip Malpas, draper and alderman, and either alive or dead, should have a thousand mark for robbed and spoiled his house, and took thence a great his travail. After which proclamation thus published, substance ; but he was before warned, and thereby a gentleman of Kent, named Alexander Iden, awaited conveyed much of his money and plate, or else he had so his time, that he took him in a garden in Sussex, been undone. At which spoiling were present many where in the taking of him the said Jack was slain : poor men of the city, which at such times been ever and so being dead, was brought into Southwark the ready in all places to do harm, when such riots been day of the month of September, and then left in the done.
King's Bench for that night. And upon the morrow Then toward night he returned into Southwark, and the dead corpse was drawn through the high streets of upon the morn re-entered the city, and dined that day the city unto Newgate, and there headed and quarat a place in St Margaret Patyn parish, called Gherstis tered, whose head was then sent to London Bridge, House ; and when he had dined, like an uncurteous and his four quarters were sent to four sundry towns guest, robbed him, as the day before he had Malpas. of Kent. For which two robberies, albeit that the porail and needy And this done, the king sent his commissions into people drew unto him, and were partners of that ill, Kent, and rode after himself, and caused enquiry to the honest and thrifty commoners cast in their minds be made of this riot in Canterbury ; wherefore the the sequel of this matter, and feared lest they should same eight men were judged and put to death ; and in be dealt with in like manner, by means whereof he other good towns of Kent and Sussex, divers other lost the people's favour and hearts. For it was to be were put in execution for the same riot. thought, if he had not executed that robbery, he might have gone fair and brought his purpose to good effect, Hall, who was a lawyer and a judge in the sheriff's if be had intended well ; but it is to deem and pre- court of London, and died at an advanced age in suppose that the intent of him was not good, where- 1547, compiled a copious chronicle of English hisfore it might not come to any good conclusion. Then tory during the reigns of the houses of Lancaster the mayor and aldermen, with assistance of the wor- and York, and those of Henry VII. and Henry VIII., shipful commoners, seeing this misdemeanour of the which was first printed by Grafton in 1548, under Captain, in safeguarding of themself and of the city, the title of The Union of the two Noble and Illustre took their counsels, how they might drive the Captain Families of Lancastre and Yorke, with all the Actes done and his adherents from the city, wherein their fear in both the tymes of the Princes both of the one linage and was the more, for so much as the king and his lords the other, &c. Hall is very minute in his notices of with their powers were far from them. But yet in the fashions of the time : altogether, his work is of a svojding of apparent peril, they condescended that superior character to that of Fabian, as might perthey would withstand his any more entry into the haps be expected from his better education and condicity. For the performance whereof, the mayor sent tion in life. Considered as the only compilations of unto the Lord Scales and Matthew Gowth, then having English history at the command of the wits of Elizathe Tower in guiding, and had of them assent to per- beth's reign, and as furnishing the foundations of for the same.
many scenes and even whole plays by one of the 1 Ere. 2 Scrolls of paper.
most illustrious of these, the Chronicles have a value theless, the Lord Hastings, which froin the death of in our eyes beyond that which properly belongs to King Edward kept Shore’s wife, his heart somewhat them. In the following extract, the matter of a re- grudged to have her whom he loved so highly acmarkable scene in Richard III. is found, and it is cused, and that as he knew well untruly; therewortlıy of notice, how well the prose narration reads fore he answered and said, ' Certainly, my Lord, beside the poetical one.
if they have so done, they be worthy of heinous
punishment.' 'What ! quoth the Protector, thou [Scene in the Council-Room of the Protector Gloucester.) thee, they have done it, and that will I make good
servest me, I ween, with if and with and; I tell The Lord Protector caused a council to be set at on thy body, traitor!' And therewith, as in a great the Tower, on Friday the thirteen day of June, anger, he clapped his fist on the board a great rap, where there was much communing for the honourable at which token given, one cried treason without the solemnity of the coronation, of the which the time chamber, and therewith a door clapped, and in came appointed approached so near, that the pagcants were rushing men in harness, as many as the chamber could a making day and night at Westminster, and victual hold. And anon the Protector said to the Lord killed, which afterward was cast away.
Hastings, 'I arrest thee, traitor! What ! me!
my These lords thus sitting, communing of this matter, Lord,' quoth he. Yes, the traitor,' quoth the Prothe Protector came in among them, about nine of the tector. And one let fly at the Lord Stanley, which clock, saluting them courteously, excusing himself that shrunk at the stroke, and fell under the table, or else he had been from them so long, saying merrily that his head had been cleft to the teeth ; for as shortly he had been a sleeper that day. And after a little as he shrunk, yet ran the blood about his cars. Then talking with him, he said to the Bishop of Ely, “My was the Archbishop of York, and Doctor Morton, Lorid, you have very good strawberries in your garden Bishop of Ely, and the Lord Stanley taken, and divers as Holborn ; I require you let us have a mess of them.' others which were bestowed in divers chambers, sare
Giadly, my Lord,' quoth he; 'I would I had some the Lord Hastings, whom the Protector commanded
Passing over Fortescue, the first prose-writer who liarity that was between them, thought he might be mingled just and striking thought with his language, boldest with him, answered and said, that they were
and was entitled to the appellation of a man of worthy to be punished as heinous traitors, whatsoever genius, was unquestionably the celebrated chancellor they were ; and all the other affirmed the same. That of Henry VIII., Sir Thomas MORE (1480--1535). is, quoth he, “yonder sorceress, my brother's wife, Born the son of a judge of the King's Bench, and and other with her; meaning the queen. Many of educated at Oxford, More entered life with all exthe lords were sore abashed which favoured her ; but ternal advantages, and soon reached a distinguished the Lord Hastings was better content in his mind, situation in the law and in state employments. that it was moved by her than by any other that he
' He was appointed Lord Chancellor in 1529, being loved better ; albeit his heart grudged that he was
the first layman who ever held the office. At all not afore made of counsel of this matter, as well as periods of his life, he was a zealous professor of the he was of the taking of her kindred, and of their put. Catholic faith, insomuch that he was at one time ting to death, which were by his assent before devised with difficulty restrained from becoming a monk. to be beheaded at Pomfret, this self same day; in the When Henry wished to divorce Catherine, he was which he was not ware, that it was by other devised opposed by the conscientious More, who accordingly that he himself should'the same day be beheaded at incurred his displeasure, and perished on the scaffold. London. “Then,' said the Protector, in what wise The cheerful, or rather mirthful, disposition of the that sorceress and other of her counsel, as Shore's wife, learned chancellor forsook him not at the last, and with her affinity, have by their sorcery and witchcraft he jested even when about to lay his head upon the thus wasted my body! and therewith plucked up block. The character of More was most benignant. his doublet sleeve to his elbow, on his left arm, where as the letter to his wife, who was ill-tempered, he showed a very withered arm, and small, as it was written after the burning of some of his property, never other.' And thereupon every man's mind mis- expressively shows, at the same time that it is a gave them, well perceiving that this matter was but good specimen of his English prose. The domestic à quarrel ; for well they wist that the queen was circle at his house in Chelsea, where the profoundly both too wise to go about any such folly, and also, if learned statesman at once paid reverence to his she would, yet would she of all folk make Shore's wife parents and sported with his children, has been least of her counsel, whom of all women she most made the subject of an interesting picture by the hated, as that concubine whom the king, her husband, great artist of that age, Holbein. most loved.
The literary productions of More are partly in Also, there was no man there, but knew that his Latin and partly in English: he adopted the former arm was ever such, sith the day of his birth. Never- language probably from taste, the latter for the pur
SIR THOMAS MORE.
hatred report above the truth, or else that nature [Letter to Lady More.]
changed her course in his beginning, which, in the [Returning from the negotiations at Cambray, Sir Thomas course of his life, many things uunaturally comMore heard that his barns and some of those of his neighbours mitted.) had been burnt down; he consequently wrote the following None evil captain was he in the war, as to which letter to his wife. Its gentleness to a sour-tempered woman, his disposition was more meetly than for peace. and the benevolent feelings expressed about the property of his Sundry victories had he, and sometime overthrows, neighbours, have been much admired.]
but never in default for his own person, either of Mistress Alice, in my most heartywise I recommend hardiness or politic order. Free was he called of disme to you. And whereas I am informed by my son pense, and somewhat above his power liberal. With Heron of the loss of our barns and our neighbours large gifts he get him unstcadfast friendship, for also, with all the corn that was therein ; albeit (sav- which he was fain to pil and spoil in other places, and ing God's pleasure) it is great pity of so much good get him stedfast hatred. He was close and secret ; corn lost ; yet since it has liked him to send us such a deep dissimuler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of a chance, we must and are bounden, not only to be heart; outwardly coumpinable where he inwardly content, but also to be glad of his visitation. He sent hated, not letting to kiss whom he thought to kill; us all that we have lost ; and since he hath by such a dispitious and cruel, not for evil will alway, but chance taken it away again, his pleasure be fulfilled ! oftener for ambition, and either for the surety and Let us never grudge thereat, but take it in good increase of his estate. Friend and foe was indifferworth, and heartily thank him, as well for adversity ent, where his advantage grew; he spared no man's as for prosperity. And peradventure we have more death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with cause to thank him for our loss than for our winning, his own hands king Henry VI., being prisoner in the for his wisdom better seeth what is good for us than Tower. we do ourselves. Therefore, I pray you be of good cheer, and take all the household with you to church,
[The Utopian Idea of Pleasure.] and there thank God, both for that he has given us, and for that he has taken from us, and for that he (From Bishop Burnet's translation of the Utopia.) hath left us ; which, if it please him, he can increase when he will, and if it please him to leave us yet less,
They think it is an evidence of true wisdom for a at his pleasure be it!
man to pursue his own advantages as far as the laws I pray you to make some good onsearch what my allow it. They account it piety to prefer the public poor neighbours have lost, and bid them take no good to one's private concerns. But they think it thought therefore ; for, if I should not leave myself a unjust for a man to seek for his own pleasure, by spoon, there shall no poor neighbour of mine bear no snatching another man's pleasures from him. And, loss by my chance, happened in my house. I pray on the contrary, they think it a sign of a gentle and you be, with my children and your household, merry good soul, for a man to dispense with his own advanin God; and devise somewhat with your friends what tage for the good of others; and that, by so doing, a way were best to take, for provision to be made for good man finds as much pleasure one way as he parts corn for our household, and for seed this year coming, with another ; for, as he may expect the like from if we think it good that we keep the ground still in others when he may come to need it, so, if that should our hands. And whether we think it good that we fail him, yet the sense of a good action, and the re80 shall do or not, yet I think it were not best sud- flections that one makes on the love and gratitude of denly thus to leave it all up, and to put away our those whom he has so obliged, gives the mind more folk from our farm, till we have somewhat advised us pleasure than the body could have found in that from thereon. Howbeit, if we have more now than ye shall which it had restrained itself. They are also perneed, aud which can get them other masters, ye may suaded that God will make up the loss of those small then discharge us of them. But I would not that any pleasures with a rast and endless joy, of which reliman were suddenly sent away, he wot not whither. gion does easily convince a good soul. Thus, upon an
At my coming hither, I perceived none other but inquiry into the whole matter, they reckon that all that I should tarry still with the king's grace. But our actions, and even all our virtues, terminate in now I shall, I think, because of this chance, get leave pleasure, as in our chief end and greatest happiness ; this next week to come home and see you, and then and they call every motion or state, either of body or shall we farther devise together upon all things, what mind, in which nature teaches us to delight, a pleaorder shall be best to take.
sure. And thus they cautiously limit pleasure only And thus as heartily fare you well, with all our to those appetites to which nature leads us ; for they children, as ye can wish. At Woodstock, the third reckon that nature leads us only to those delights to day of September, by the hand of THOMAS MORE. which reason as well as sense carries us, and by which
we neither injure any other personi, nor let go greater [Character of Richard III.]
pleasures for it, and which do not draw troubles on us
after them ; but they look upon those delights which [Sir Thomas's account of Richard III. has been followed by men, by a foolish though common mistake, call pleaShakspeare.)
sure, as if they could change the nature of things, as Richard, the third son, of whom we now entreat, not advance our happiness, but do rather obstruct it
well as the use of words, as things that not only do was in wit and courage egall with either of them; in very much, because they do so entirely possess the body and prowess, far under them both ; little of minds of those that once go into them with a false stature, ill-featured of limbs, crook-backed, his left notion of pleasure, that there is no room left for truer shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favoured of visage. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and
and purer pleasures. from afore his birth ever froward. It is for truth
There are many things that in themselves have reported, that the duchess his mother had so much nothing that is truly delighting : on the contrary, ado in her travail, that she could not be delivered of they have a good deal of bitterness in them; and yet him uncut; and that he came into the world with the by our perverse appetites after forbidden objects, are feet forward, as men be borne outward ; and (as the not only ranked among the pleasures, but are made fame runneth) also not untoothed (whether men of even the greatest designs of life. Among those who
pursue these sophisticated pleasures, they reckon those whom I mentioned before, who think themselves