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We have only to add farther concerning this publication, that it any profit should arise from its fale, we are informed in a note, il will be applied solely to the use of the children for whom it was drawn up.' Art. 61. The Importance of Truth and the Danger of Moderation

, particularly with respect to the Doctrine of the T'rinity: Inveltigated in three Conferences between an orthodox Christian and a moderate Man. Inscribed to the Rev. Sir Harry Trelawny, Barti and occasioned by his late Sermon at the Exeter Assembly. 8vo.

Exeter, printed. London, fold by Buckland, &c. 1779 From the title of this work, which is we suppose intentionally ambiguous, the Reader may perhaps conclude that he is to find what is termed orthodoxy of sentiment warmly and highly exalted, while moderation is depressed and trampled under foot. But a perusal of the pamphlet will produce a conclusion intirely different. The work is liberal and candid, pleading for the rights of private judgment and the sole authority of Scripture in opposition to human explica. tions and decisions. While it has this direction, it does not, as haihi been too often the case, tend to destroy or weaken that piety which is the true source of other good difpofitions, and of good conduct.

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6 E R M O N S. 1. The Principles and Duty of Proteftant Disenters considered -At the Ordination of the Rey, John Prior Eflin, at Lewin's Mead, Brif

. tol, Aug. 5, 1778, by the Rev. William Enfield, LL. D. With an Address on the Design of Ordination, by the Rev Thomas Wright ; Mr. Eftlin's Answers to the Questions proposed to him ; and a Charge by the Rev. Nathaniel White. 8vo. 1 $. 6 d. Johnson.

Dr. Enfield shews that Proteftant Dissenters have two grand objects of attention, viz. the support of the right of private judgment, and the advancement of moral and religious knowledge in the world. Amidt all the diversity of their opinions on subjects of speculations thesc important objects, he says, ought to form an inseparable bond of union amongst them, and engage them to a zealous attention to their common interests, and a warm attachment to each other as breá thren. His sentiments on the fabject are candid and judicious;-the Address, the Answers to the Questions, and the Charge, breathe a liberal and manly Spirit. II. Unity and Charity recommended Before the Friendly Society at

Cockermouth; Cumberland; at their Anniversary Meeting, Jan. 1, 1779. By Joseph Gilbank, junior, Minister of the Gospel at Cockermouth. 4to. 6 d. Ware, &c. Whitehaven.

A plain, sensible discourse, from, * We are members one of another." After thewing in what respects we are members one of another, pointing out the duties which we owe to each other, as fellow-cream tures and fellow-christians, the Preacher concludes with an address to the Society-a Society instituted for the express purposes of bene. volence ;--benevolence in one of its most necessary and usefæi branches; the relief of the honest and industrious artificer, when las bouring under the double weight of poverty and sickness. 4

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III. The Doctrine of Toleration, applied to the present TimesPreached

in the Wynd Church of Glaigow, noch Dec. 1778. Being a public Fast, appointed by the Provincial Synod of Glasgow and Ayr. By William Porteous, one of the Ministers of Glasgow. 8vo. Printed at Glasgow.

In this fermon, from Luke ix. 55, 56, Mr, Porteous inquires into the extent of toleration, according to the religion of Jefus, and observes, that every religion which now exists, from the rifing to the setting

fun, is tolerated by the Christian religion, provided it teaches no Le opinions which are destructive to the state, or dangerous to the par

ticular members of it.--He proceeds to inquire, whether Popery ought to be tolerated in a Protestant state : -Popery, he says, may be confidered in three views, -as a false religion—as a faction in the ftate and as a system of immorality. He confines himself entirely

to the chird view of Popery, and endeavours to shew that, considered TI

as a system of immorality, it ought not to be tolerated.
IV. Popery a spiritual Tyranny-Preached Nov. 5, 1712, by the
late Rev. Mr. Matthew Henry. A new Edition.

12mo. 6 d. Buckland. 1779.

The editor of this sermon apprehends that there are Papists in this kingdom, who, ' sensible of the want of argument to support their fyftem of civil and religious tyranny, would fain perfuade us, that the principles of their religion are altered, and that the spirit of Popery, which heretofore made such dreadful havock, is now totally evaporated :-It is easy, says he, to see what has caused their pri.

tended change of sentiments, namely, a real change of circumstances ; TE: they have no power to propagate their religion in the manner their

ancestors had; they must therefore try other methods : but let us
never forget that, Nature' chained, is not Nature changed." The
most refined fophiftry in the world cannot perfuade us, that the real
principles of Popery are in the least altered.' On these and other
confiderations, this discourse, preached so many years ago, is repub-
lihed. The name of its author, even at this distance of time, will
recommend it to numbers. The sermon is well worthy of regard.
It breathes that good fpirit for which its author was eminent: and
while it gives, in a small compass, a view of the errors of the church
of Rome, the preacher, in a very sensible manner, urges it on Pro-
testants to be constantly on their guard left they indulge any thing of
a bigotted, uncharitable disposition toward those who may differ from
themselves in matters of faith and opinion.
V. An old Disciple-Occasioned by the Death of the late Mr. John

Mudge; who departed this Life, Jan, 6, 1779, in the 70th Year of his Age. By N. Hill. 8vo. 6d, Buckland.

This is a plain, sensible exhortation to a pious life ; but the title does not express where this fermon was delivered, whether in England, Scotland, or Ireland; nor does this publication either in the sermon or notes give us any personal account of the deceased party, who he was, or where he lived: we only learn that his name was John Mudge.--We were the racher led to remark these deficiencies, as we imagined that this old Disciple might have been brother to the ingenious Mr. Mudge the watchmaker, and a furgeon at Ply

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inouth. Posibly this may be a mistake ; but it is usual, in a funesal fermon, to identify the party commemorated. VI. Preached at St. George's, Bloomsbury, March 28, for the Be

nefit of the Humane Society, instituted for the Recovery of Per. fons apparently dead by drowning. By Thomas Francklin, D.D. Chaplain to his Majesty, and Rector of Brailed, Kent. 4to. 1 s. Cadell, &c. 1779.

The benevolent and laudable endeavours of che Humane Society are here recommended to the public attention and assistance in an elegant, pathetic, and sensible discourse. The Preacher has been happy in the choice of his text, which is from i Sam. xx. 3. There is but a step between me and death. This sentiment, truly applicable to human life in general, is peculiarly so to our Author's immediate fubject, which he prosecutes with a pious and charitable zeal tha: does honour to himself, while it demands the best attention of his Readers. VII. At the Anniversary Meeting of the Sons of the Clergy, in the · Cathedral Church of St. Paul, May 14, 1778. By John Warren,

D. D. Prebendary of Ely, and Chaplain in Ordinary to his Ma. jelly. 4to. Is. Bathurst, &c.

To this sermon, as usual, are annexed, the lists of stewards for the fease of the fons of the clergy, and of the preachers; together with the annual sums collected since the institution of the charity in 1721. VIII. At the Visitation held in the Cathedral Church of Lincoln, · Aug. 24, 1778. By Roger Watkins, M. A. late Fellow of Ba..

liol College, Oxon. 6d. Crowder, &c.

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SERMONS preached on the late GenerALFAST, Feb. 10, continued :

See our last Month's Review. IX. Preached at Reading, Berks, by Edward Armstrong, M.A.

8vo. 6 d. Buckland.. A rational and judicious exposition of the nature and obligations of a General national Falt; with a proper application, &c. X. A Sermon on the late Fall, Feb. 10, 1779. Wherein the National

Calamities are manifested, and a Remedy prescribed. 8vo. 6 d. Exeter printed ; fold by Dilly in London.

Our national calamities are here derived, as in other Fast Sermons, from our national sins; and che' remedy prescribed is the eltabliihe remedy, as it ftands in the Church Dispensatory, repentance and amendment.– Though this discourse is nothing out of the common road, in point of doctrine, the arguments are juftly enforced, and the language is animaied.-Neither the name of the preacher, nor of the place where the sermon was delivered, are mentioned..

*** A BRITON's Favour is received ; and the hints so obligingly offered by the Writer will be duly attended to.

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Arr. I. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS of the Royal Society of

London. Vol. LXVIII. For the Year 1778. Part 1. 4to. 10 s. 6 d. fewed. Davis.

1779

PAPER Ś relating to AIR. Article 13. Experiments upon Air, and the Effects of different kinds of Effluvia upon it; made at York. By w. White, M. D.

F.S. A. THESE experiments, which contain several very remarkable

particulars, highly interesting both to the philosopher and the physician, were undertaken with a view to ascertain how far the air which we breathe is affected, with respect to its salubrity, by the vapours or effluvia that arise from various substances to which it is exposed. In ascertaining the purity or falubrity of the different specimens of air which he examined, the Author appears to have depended solely on the indications furnished by nitrous air, or the quantity of diminution attending its admixture with the common air under examination.

The apparatus which he employed for this purpose confisted of a barometer tube, graduated by inches and decimals, and of such a bore that an ounce vial of the air intended co be examirred being thrown up into it, through a small glais funnel (after it had been filled with water, and inverted into a vessel of the same fluid) occupied about 134 decimal parts of an inch, or 131 inches nearly. On adding half an ounce of nitrous air, the mixture is said, at first, to have generally occupied about 205 of the abovementioned decimal parts. At the end of half an hour, when the whole diminution may be supposed to have taken place, he notes the space, or the number of decimal parts, then occupied by the two airs; and, subftracting it from 205, considers the remainder as the number indicating the state of purity in the particular air that he has examined. VOL. LX,

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Thus, for example, on mixing the air in his garden, with jo nitrous air, in the proportion above indicated; the space occu eg pied by the mixture, at the end of half an hour, was found to be only 145, which being deducted from 205, gives 60, forta the state of the common atmospherical air that day. On the other hand, had he, instead of the air in his garden, uled the fame quantity of perfectly noxious air, as there would have hz been no diminution, or, in other words, as the mixture would a still have stood at 205, o would express the state or condition of that particular air. The extent of his scale is accordingly pro from o, which indicates the most noxious or mortal air, up to 60° or 610 ; which was found to be the mean state of the atmosphere in upwards of 200 experiments: though he has, at lui two different times, found the latter to rise to 64°; and, in three instances only, to 63 (in the Article, erroneously printed dig 68). In the worst state, he observed it as low as 580.-An account of some of the Author's observations will probably be acceptable to our philosophical readers; to whose and the Arthor's consideration we shall submit a few reflections that have occurred to us on this subject.

fa Dr. White found a difference, that was perceptibly enough he indicated by this apparatus, between the air in the city of York, and that of the country, at a small distance from the city walls, PI When the former was 59', the latter was 62°;~ The air too of his bed which, on entering it at night, was 62°, was, in numerous trials, found to be reduced the next morning to 58; though the bed-curtains were always open, except on one side, and the room large and airy. This experiment leads to another which exhibits a more considerable difference, proceeding from the same cause. He breathed the same air as long as he could without manifest inconvenience; and it was thereby reduced from 620 to 40°~Further, the air contained in an 8 ounce vial, in which a small piece of fresh veal was included 48 hours, was reduced from 649 to 10°: and yet the flesh was not putrid, but only smelled somewhat faint and musty.

The results of the next fet of experiments will appear very extraordinary. They were made on the dead Aowers and leaves of vegetables, each put into common air contained in an 8 ounce vial, immediately after they had been gathered out of his garden. Considering 60° or 61° as indicating the state of the wholesome or respirable air originally contained in the vial; it was reduced to 9o, when some leaves of fage had remained in it 16 hours. In the vial in which Aowers of ulmaria had been included, during the same time, it was diminithed to 2°; and in that containing fome ten-weeks stocks, the diminution was only 18.-In other words, the air was indicated to be almost perfectly nox

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