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afforded him so much assistance in going out. They expected him, and many were collected from different surrounding tribes to see and hear him. They received him with marks of great kindness, and manifested much interest in the object of his mission among them. He had several interesting meetings with them. A number of Nez Perce Indians had come to meet him at this place, with whom he went two days' journey, to the place of their residence. The meeting of the parties was an interesting one, every way calculated to comfort and encourage a minister of the gospel employed on an errand of mercy to a destitute and grateful people.
On the 23d he left Walla-walla for Fort Colville, a post of the Fur Company far in the interior, a little east of north from Walla-walla. From this he proceeded to Fort Okanagan, another post on the north branch of the Columbia, west of the former place. Thence he returned down the river in a bateau, and arrived at Walla-walla on the 3d of June. He remained there but a few days, and then returned to Fort Vancouver.
On the 18th of June, Mr. P., according to previous arrangements, took passage in the steamboat Beaver for Fort George, to join the bark Columbia for the Sandwich Islands. Here he was detained until December, not finding an earlier opportunity to return to the United States. On the 17th of December he embarked on board the ship Phenix, A. Allyn, for New-London, and came by way of the Society Islands; and on the 18th of May he arrived in New-London, whence he proceeded to Ithaca, which he reached on the 23d of the same month, having been absent more than two years and two months, and traveled more than twenty-eight thousand miles.
Of the disposition of the Indians to receive instruction from Christian missionaries, on both sides of the mountains, Mr. P. gives the most favorable account. He divides the Indians west of the Rocky Mountains into two classes, viz., those of the lower country between the shores of the Pacific and the falls of Columbia; and those of the upper country, between the latter place and the Rocky Mountains.
The principal nations of the lower country are the Chenooks, the Klicatats, the Callapooahs, and the Umbaquas. The Chenooks reside along upon the Columbia river, from the Cascades to the ocean. They number fifteen hundred or two thousand. The Klicatats reside north of the cascades, and are said to be numerous. The Collapooahs are south of the Chenooks on the Willamette river and its branches. They consist of seventeen tribes, numbering in all about eight thousand persons. The Methodist missionary establishment, of which Rev. J. Lee is superintendent, is located among these Indians. The Umba. quas reside south of these, in the same valley. Of these there are six tribes, the Scontas, Chalulas, Palakahus, Quattamyas, and Chostas, VOL. X.-Jan., 1839. 11
numbering about seven thousand. The Kinclas, a very powerful nation, reside still south, between the Umbaquas and California.
Near the mouth of the Columbia, along the coast, are the Killamooks, who are numerous; but their numbers are not known. South of these are the Saliutla and two other tribes, supposed to number a little over two thousand. These estimates of the Indians in the lower country, make the whole number of those known to be about twenty-five thousand.
From gentlemen of the Hudson Bay Company, Mr. P. obtained in. formation of the number of Indians north of Puget's Sound. At Millbank Sound there are three tribes, numbering two thousand one hundred and eighty-six. At Hygana Harbor, five tribes or bands, amounting to two thousand and ninety-two. At Queen Charlotte's island, eleven tribes, numbering eight thousand six hundred. And about Hagana and Chatham Straits, nine tribes, containing six thousand one hundred and sixty persons. In all, nineteen thousand and thirty-eight.
From Mr. Parker's account of the Indians of the upper country, we gather the following particulars. The Shoshones, or Snake Indians, are in the south part of the Oregon Territory, adjoining Upper California; their country is barren, and they are poor. South-east of these, on the head waters of the Colorado, are the Utaws, nearly four thousand in number, a peaceable and well-disposed people. North of these are the Nez Perces, of whom frequent mention has been made. These number about two thousand five hundred. The Cayuses are situated west of the Nez Perces, and very much resemble them in person, dress, habits, and morals. They number more than two thousand. Their anxiety to be instructed in the way of salvation is represented to be equal to that of the Nez Perces and Flat-heads. The Walla-walla Indians inhabit the country about the river of that name, and range along below on the Columbia river. They number only about five hundred, and much resemble, in their habits and morals, the last-mentioned tribes. The Paloose tribe, a part of the Nez Perces, and very much like them, are situated on the Nez Perce river, and up the Pavilion, There are about three hundred of them. The Spokein nation are north-east of the Palooses. They number about eight hundred. East of these are the Cœur d'Alene Indians, number. ing about seven hundred, who are characterized by civility, honesty, and kindness, The country of the Flat-heads is still farther east and south-east, extending to the Rocky Mountains, They number about eight hundred, and live a wandering life. They have suffered much from the Blackfeet Indians, who have been mentioned as proverbial for their natural hostility and characteristic perfidiousness. The Pon. deras, who very much resemble the Flat-heads in person and charac.
ter, are on the north of Clarke's river, and on a lake which takes its name from the tribe. They number about two thousand. The Cootanies are north of the Ponderas along M'Gillivray's river. Their number is not known; probably it does not exceed a thousand. North of the Cootanies are the Carriers, who are estimated at four thousand; and south of these are the Lake Indians, living about the Arrow lakes, from which they take their name. Their number is about five hundred. At the south, and about Colville, are the Kettle Fall Indians, who number five hundred and sixty. West of these are the Sinpauelish, one thousand in number; and below these are the Shooshops, five hundred and seventy-five. At the west and north-west, next in order, are the Okanagans, numbering one thousand and fifty. Between Okanagan and the Long Rapids are detachments of Indians, who appear poor and wanting in that manly and active spirit which characterizes the tribes above named. South of the Long Rapids, and to the confluence of Lewis's river with the Columbia, are the Yookoomans, a more active people, numbering about seven hundred. The whole number of the above-named Indians is thirty-two thousand five hundred and eighty-five. Connecting these with those before mentioned, we have, in the upper and lower country together, seventy-six thousand six hundred and twenty-three.
It is to be remarked, however, that the accounts given by the Indians, of their numbers, cannot always be relied on as precise and certain.
Mr. Parker's observations upon the general character of the various sections of country through which he traveled-the soil, climate, and productions-natural curiosities-geology-ornithology, &c., as well as upon the character, customs, and condition of the various tribes of Indians, and various other topics, furnish a rich fund for entertainment and instruction. But we must draw our remarks to a close, and refer the reader, who may desire to be gratified in these respects, to the work itself.
In conclusion, it will be borne in mind, that Mr. P. was sent out to explore the country, in view of ascertaining the practicability of establishing missions among the natives. This object he seems to have kept constantly in view. He designates several places where he thinks missionary establishments might be formed with every prospect of success.
Oregon opens a vast field for Christian benevolence and enterprise. The fertility of the soil--the mildness of the climate, annihilating the rigor of winter-the facilities afforded to men of small capitals to settle in the country and improve it, and for speculators to make investments one way or other to augment their wealth—these, and many other things which might be named, place it beyond a doubt,
that adventurers will soon be drawn to that portion of our continent, who will care little for the natives other than to corrupt their morals, and wrest from them their possessions. Happy is it for the Indians, that benevolence has taken the lead in seeking them out. Let the gospel be carried to them; let missionaries and teachers in whom they will confide be planted at all suitable places among them, whose influence will exert a moral control over them, and throw a restraint around the licentious and vicious who may settle among them; let them by all possible means be led to Christ, and taught to labor, working with their own hands, that they may secure both a spiritual and temporal sustenance; in this way, and in this only, they may be prepared to elude the artifices and frauds which in their present condition will be likely to be practiced upon them, and rescued from extermination, which, without such a preventive, seems inevitable.
The American Gentleman. By CHARLES BUTLER, ESQ. Published by Hogan and Thompson, Philadelphia, 1836.
THE hineteenth century has been termed, with characteristic fitness, the "age of locomotion.' What, in the days of our venerated forefathers, it took years to accomplish, we, their more enterprising children, perform in a few months, nay, often in a much shorter time. This would be very well, did it not, in too many instances, give a practical demonstration of the common-place adage, "haste makes waste." It might be made a subject of learned discussion and sober investigation, whether the sum-total of the advantages derived from the improvements in time and labor-saving machines, of this precarious generation, be not a negative, rather than a positive quantity. How. ever this may be, we shall not trouble ourselves to argue the question on either side, but leave it to those who have more time and a dispo sition for such abstruse speculations than we have. But certain it is, that, however advantageous and useful steam propulsion may be in promoting the progress of the traveler, and the facilities of the manufacturer, it is not adapted to set in motion the intricate machinery of mind.
It should be cause of mortification and self-reproach to the age, that, although the press teems with books, and every day produces the literary offspring of some learned head, so few can be culled from the heterogeneous mass, which are not only altogether useless, but decidedly deleterious in their influence on society. It would seem that men act, but never think; and the reading community encourage this by making the works of those authors most profitable, and the authors themselves most popular, who write the least sense in the shortest space of time, and who will furnish them books which they may peruse with the least exercise of thought.
Let us ask the question-Will the works of a Bulwer, a Marryatt, and others of the same class, the acknowledged lions of the day,
outlive a century, or at farthest two centuries? If not, what is our boasted age of enlightenment? since, through every difficulty and disadvantage, the authors who flourished two thousand years ago now live, in their writings, and are likely to survive, when the names of many of the scribblers of this generation shall have been forgotten of men.
If, then, it be conceded that the majority of publications are thus worthless, as no doubt it will be, by every candid person who reflects upon the subject, it certainly becomes the imperative duty of every good man, and every philanthropic citizen, to discountenance them, and to encourage those which are worthy. And to this latter class, the "American Gentleman" seems eminently to belong. In the author's own words, his object has been, the "furnishing some useful hints and directions toward the formation of the character of a true American gentleman, and the general diffusion of correct and manly principles in the conduct of life." This is certainly a laudable object; and, in his attempt to carry it out, the author has, we think, been most happily successful. This work might, with much propriety, have been entitled the multum in parvo, for there are few other books, of its size, which contain the same amount of valuable matter in so few words. At least we have never seen one. The advice to young men, adapted to almost every pursuit in life, is of inestimable value, and would, if read and followed out, elevate the standard of virtue, and give an altogether new aspect to society. All the subjects are good, and the remarks on them should be read and treasured up in the mind of every young man. He will find that, by giving heed to the instructions and precepts which he may find in this little book, he will live better and happier, and be much better prepared to die. It not only teaches honesty and uprightness among men, and the benefits derived therefrom in this life, but it keeps constantly in view the rewards in another world, for those who act uprightly in this.
As it regards the style of the work, we can only say, that those persons who look for highly-wrought figures and richly-painted flowers in it, will be disappointed; but they will find, what is much preferable, a simple, easy, affectionate style of advice and moni. tion, such as we would conceive a tender parent to use in addressing a child who is about to embark upon the busy sea of life. And it is in this that the writer exhibits his tact and judgment, and shows himself intimately acquainted with human nature. His appeals to the young are strikingly affectionate, and display a sincere solicitude for their welfare, calculated to arrest the attention and secure respect. What young man, whose sympathies are not blunted or extinguished by vicious habits, can read the following, and not feel disposed to follow the advice given in so kind and paternal a manner? Speaking of the first entrance of a young man into life, after briefly remarking on the peculiar propriety of addressing moral precepts to the young, he says:
"I will, then, address myself to a young man who has passed through the forms of a liberal education at school, and who is just entering on the stage of life, to act his part according to his own judgment. I will address him with all the affection and sincerity of a parent, in the following manner :