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criminal, was appointed. Thorne de Sousa, who had been in the African and Indian wars, was honored with this high station.

Early in April, 1549, Sousa arrived at Bahia with three ships, two caravals, and one brigantine, in which were three hundred and twenty persons in the king's pay, four hundred banished men and colonists-in all a thousand. Joam III., the great benefactor of the Jesuits, who sent Francisco Xavier to the East, consented to part with his especial favorite Limam Rodriguez, who desired to go as a missionary to the Indians of Brazil, but who was afterward detained by the king on account of the death of S. Cruz. Thus Father Limam, who was formerly chosen as the companion of Xavier to the East, was also obliged to resign the hope of being the apostle of Brazil. Father Manuel de Nobrega in his stead was chosen chief of the mission: his companions were Father Juan de Aspilcueta, Father Antonio Pires, Father Leonardo Nunes, and the lay brethren Vincente Rodriguez and Diogo Jacome. Nobrega was a Portuguese of noble family, who being disappointed of some collegiate honor for which he was a candidate, and to which he thought he was entitled, renounced the world in a fit of disgust, not aware, however, that this renunciation would make him act a more important part in it. These Jesuits were the first who ever set foot in the new world.

De Sousa found old Caramuru quietly settled at a little distance from Coatinho's deserted residence. He conciliated the minds of the natives for the governor; and the Indians worked willingly in building a city, which was called, according to instructions, St. Salvador, and here the seat of government was established. The arms given to the new city were a white dove, with three olive leaves in her bill, in a field vert. Within four months a hundred houses were built, and sugar plantations laid out in the vicinity. Batteries were planted toward the sea and toward the land, and a cathedral, college, governor's residence, and a custom-house were commenced. This was the first royal settlement in Brazil, and every thing went on accordingly. About this time one of the Europeans was killed by a native, who, being manifestly the aggressor, was demanded by the governor. He was given up by his tribe to justice, and Sousa's first act of judicial authority was to have him tied to the mouth of a cannon, and blown to pieces. Next year supplies were sent them from the mother country; and the whole expense of both armaments was, in our money, about $120,000. On the third year came another fleet, on board of which were female orphans of noble family, who had been educated in the convent of orphans, and sent out by the queen, to be given in marriage to the officers, with dowries in kine and negroes, from the crown. Orphan boys also came out to be educated, and ships followed every year with reinforcements. By building St. Salvador a center was given to the colony, but to the Jesuits does the honor belong of settling, extending, and rendering it useful to the mother country.

Thorne de Sousa, having been governor four years, in 1553 requested to be recalled; and D. Duarte da Costa was sent out to succeed him, in company with seven Jesuits, among whom was Joseph de Anchieta, who was destined to be eelebrated in Jesuitical history as the thaumaturgos of the new world. At this time VOL. X.-April, 1839.


Brazil was erected into a Jesuit province, and Nobrega had new powers delegated to him, being appointed provincial. This was done by Loyala, who is called the patriarch of the company, and Lanez, whose master hand set the whole machine in motion.

Nobrega, upon his new accession of power, established a college in the plains of Piratininga, (now St. Paul's,) ten leagues from the sea, and thirteen from St. Vincente, and called it St. Paul's. Vasconcelles, in the chronicles of the company, speaks of it as a secluded and a delightful spot.*

Duarte was not so well disposed to co-operate with the clergy in their views as Sousa, his predecessor, had been; and a dispute arose between the governor and bishop, and the latter embarked for Portugal, meaning to lay the matter before the king. He was wrecked upon the shoals of St. Francisco, and all the crew reached land, but fell into the hands of the Cahetes; and men, women, and children, a hundred white persons in all, with their slaves, were massacred and devoured by these cannibals! Only two Indians and one Portuguese escaped. Joam III. died in 1557, and the queen regent, in 1558, sent out Mem da Sa to supersede Duarte. Mem da Sa was a man of enlightened mind and humane principles, and did much in restraining the colonists from acts of outrage upon the Indians.

From the time of its earliest discovery the French had frequented the coast of Brazil; and they were now (1558) attempting to establish themselves in Rio Janeiro, under Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon, a native of Provence, and knight of Malta. Villegagnon was bold and skilful; and he had the honor of securing the plans of the Scotch, by carrying Queen Mary into France when it was justly feared that the English might intercept her. He, through Coligny, represented to Henri II. that it was for the honor of the French to undertake an expedition to America; that it would distract the attention and weaken the strength of the Spaniards, who derived so large a portion of their wealth from thence; and that the natives groaned under their yoke. How could one of these reasons be drawn for Brazil, a country not possessed by Spaniards? This, however, was the plea; and what strengthened Coligny in the project was the secret assurances which Villegagnon had given that he would establish an asylum for the Protestants in this new colony.

* Vasconcelles thus describes a road to it, made a century afterward: "The greater part of the way you have not to travel, but to get on with hands and feet, by the roots of trees; and this among such crags and precipices, that I confess, the first time I went there, my flesh trembled when I looked down. The depth of the valleys is tremendous; and the number of mountains one above another, seem to leave no hope of reaching the end. When you fancy yourself at the summit of one, you find yourself at the foot of another of no less magnitude; and this in the beaten and chosen way! True it is that, from time to time, the labor of the ascent is recompensed; for when I seated my self upon one of those rocks, and cast my eyes below, it seemed as though I were looking down from the heaven of the moon, and that the whole globe of earth lay beneath my feet. This ascent, broken with shelves of level, continues till you reach the plains of Piratininga, in the second region of the air, where it is so thin, that it seems as if they who newly arrive there could never breathe their fill."

Henri II. gave him two vessels of two hundred tons, and a store ship of half that burden. Artificers, soldiers, and noble adventurers were raised; and they sailed from Havre de Grace, then called Franciscople, in honor of Francis I. Villegagnon's ship sprung aleak in a gale, and was obliged to put into Dieppe. By this time many of the ship's company became sick of the sea, and abandoned the expedition. After a long and miserable voyage, Villegagnon entered Rio Janeiro: his expedition was wisely planned -the place well chosen-the natives friendly to the French, and enemies to the Portuguese.

Rio de Janeiro, Pimentello thinks, was formerly a great freshwater lake, which has broken down its barrier. The whole bay is surrounded by high and rugged rocks, and its entrance is between two high rocks through a strait half a mile wide. A short distance from this entrance is a rock, about a hundred feet long, and sixty wide, of which Villegagnon took possession, and erected a fort. The waves drove him away, and he removed to an island farther in. This he named Fort Coligny, in honor of his patron. The French looked upon the whole continent as already their own, and gave it the name of Antarctic France, (France Antarctique.) When they thus in imagination took possession of South America, their force consisted of eighty men, and their territory not half a mile in circumference!

Coligny was indefatigable in providing supplies for all the wants of his colony. Calvin himself, with his elders in convocation, appointed Pierre Richier and Guillaume Chartier to this mission. Many respectable adventurers accompanied these ministers; and among them Jean De Lery Bois le Conte, nephew of Villegagnon, commanded the expedition. They plundered all ships they met with on the way, if strong enough, whether belonging to friend or foe. "Off Teneriffe," De Lery says, "they took a Portuguese vessel, and promised the captain to restore it to him if he would contrive to put them in possession of another. The man, with selfishness more to be expected than accused, put himself into a boat, with twenty of these pirates, and captured a Spanish ship, laden with salt. The French then turned all the prisoners, Spanish and Portuguese, into the first prize, out of which they had taken the boat and all the provisions of every kind, tore their sails in pieces, and in this manner exposed them to the mercy of the sea."


"Villegagnon had deceived Coligny.

The zeal which he

had manifested for the reformed religion was feigned for the purpose of obtaining the admiral's influence and his money. Having effected this, and thinking it more for his own interest to take the other side, won over, as is believed, by Cardinal Guise, he threw off the mask, quarrelled with the Genevan ministers, and demeaned himself so tyrannically and intolerantly, that they who had gone to Antarctic France to enjoy liberty of conscience, found themselves under a worse yoke than that from which they had fled. They Villegagnon had previously made a voyage to Brazil, had chosen a spot for his settlement, and established an intercourse with the natives.

It is now called Villegagnon.

therefore demanded leave to return, and he gave written permission to the master of a ship to carry them to France. When they got on board, the vessel was found to be in such a state that five of the party went again on shore rather than put to sea in her; De Lery was one of the others who thought death better than this man's cruelty, and pursued their voyage. After having endured the utmost misery of famine, they reached Hennebonne. Villegagnon had given them a box of letters, wrapped in sere-cloth, as was then the custom; among them was one directed to the chief magistrate of whatever port they might arrive at, in which this worthy friend of the Guises denounced the men whom he had invited out to Brazil to enjoy the peaceable exercise of the reformed religion as heretics worthy of the stake. The magistrates of Hennebonne happened to favor the reformation, and thus the fiend-like malignity of Villegagnon was frustrated, and his treachery exposed. Of the five who had feared to trust themselves in a vessel so badly stored and so unfit for the voyage, three were put to death by this persecutor. Others of the Huguenots fled from him to the Portuguese, where they were compelled to apostatize, and profess a religion which they despised as much as they hated."

Though the Portuguese were jealous of the Brazilian trade, yet they permitted this French colony to remain four years unmolested; and had it not been for the treachery of Villegagnon, Rio Janeiro would probably have been the capital of a French colony at this day. A large body of Flemish adventurers and ten thousand Frenchmen were ready to emigrate, waiting only for the report of the ship-captain who carried De Lery home. The Jesuits became apprized of their danger, and Nobrega roused the court of Lisbon. Mem da Sa was instructed to attack and expel the French. He took the command in person, accompanied by Nobrega, succeeded in his undertaking, demolished the works of the French, carried off their artillery and stores, and sailed to the port of Santos.

Villegagnon was at this time in France, where he had gone with the avowed intention of bringing back a squadron of seven ships to intercept the Indian fleet, and take or destroy all the Portuguese

* One of the persons thus describes the sufferings they endured: "After having devoured all the leather in our vessel, even to the covering of the trunks, we thought ourselves approaching to the last moment of our life; but necessity suggested to some one the idea of pursuing the rats and mice; and we had the greater hope of taking them easily, because, having no more crumbs, nor any thing to devour, they ran in great numbers, dying for hunger, through the vessel. We pursued them so carefully, and by so many kinds of snares, that very few remained. Even in the night we sought them, with our eyes open, like rats. A rat was more valued than an ox on land. The price rose so high as four crowns. We boiled them in water, with all the intestines, which were eaten as well as the body. The paws were not omitted, nor the other bones, which we found means to soften. The extremity was such that nothing remained but Brazil-wood, the driest of all woods, which many, however, in their despair, attempted to chew. Carguilleray du Pont, our leader, holding out one day a piece in his mouth, said to me, with a deep sigh, Alas, my friend, I have due to me in France the sum of four thousand livres; and would to God that, after giving a discharge for the whole, I held in my hand a pennyworth of bread, and a single glass of wine!' Several died of hunger; and they had begun to form the resolution of devouring each other when land appeared in view,"

settlements in Brazil. The Catholics would not attend to his representations, and he had betrayed the Huguenots, who else would have assisted him.

From Santos the governor returned to St. Salvador, and the occasion was celebrated with bull-feasts, the favorite sport of the Portuguese and Spaniards. He was not permitted, however, to have a long respite from war. New enemies, the Aymore Indians, were troubling him. He, having quieted these, was compelled to direct his attention to Rio Janeiro. He had done but half his work here. The French, whom he had driven from Villegagnon' island, had escaped to the main land; and the Yamoyas, assisted by them, and disciplined by them, were now inflicting cruel retaliation upon the Portuguese for the wrongs they had endured at their hands. The Portuguese raised all the force they could to attack them, but were miserably defeated. Other tribes jo ned the Yamoyas, and the Portuguese came well nigh being cut off. At length Nobrega and Anchieta agreed to put themselves in the hands of the savages. A more perilous embassy was never undertaken. It terminated in insuring a temporary quiet to the colonists.

The queen regent and her council were not pleased that Mem da Sa had not retained possession of Villegagnon's island; and when intelligence arrived of the peace with the Yamoyas, they resolved to embrace the opportunity of establishing themselves at Rio Janeiro, and finally excluding the French. Estacio da Sa, the governor's nephew, was sent out with two galleons to Bahia, and carried with him orders to his uncle to supply him with the force of the colony for his service. Mem da Sa did as instructed, and Estacio reached Rio Janeiro in February. Ships were sent to the captaincies along the coast, offering to transport all persons gratuitously who might desire to form a colony at Rio. A large armament was soon procured. Mem da Sa himself arrived at Rio; and on St. Sebastian's day, 1567, Uracumri, the stronghold of the French, was stormed: not one of the Yamoyas escaped; two Frenchmen were killed, and five prisoners were immediately hung. This victory was followed by another immediately afterward, of Parana-pucuy, in Cat island, the other stronghold of the French. Estacio da Sa in the first engagement received an arrow in his face, lingered a month, and died. Few of the French fell: they had four ships in the harbor, and in these they sailed to Pernambuco, and were expelled thence by the commander of the settlement.*

* Thus the hopes of the Protestants of Europe were crushed in seeing the Reformation established in this part of the new world.

Had Villegagnon been worthy of his trust, it would have been peopled by a race of men who would have distinguished it by the enterprise and activity supposed to be connected with the Reformation. If Villegagnon's attempt had succeeded, and this country had been blessed with a population like that of England and North America, this magnificent empire and bay, instead of being sealed up for two hundred and fifty years from all the world, would now be the receptacle of the wealth and enterprise of all nations. Then this country would have been, indeed,

"A seat where gods might dwell,
Or wander with delight;"

and the millenial morn nigher its dawn. Then, with intense love burning in

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