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Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon;Godwin's Moses and Aaron; Owen's Exercitations on the Hebrews; the Latin translation of several treatises of Maimonides, which are mentioned where they are used; Buxtorff De Synagoga Judaicâ ; and Basnage's History and Religion of the Jews.

The account of the synagogue and its service has been carefully collected from the works of Lightfoot, Buxtorff, and others.

On the laws of the Jews, the author derived much information from the large and learned work of Spencer “ De Legibus Hebræorum ritualibus ;” and on the wide field of Jewish customs, climate, productions, &c. besides his own collection of facts, which are given to these authors in their proper places; it would be injustice done to Harmer and Parkhurst, not to acknowledge the many facts and illustrations, with which they have enriched his volumes, although they have not been always distinctly acknowledged.

The ground plans of the temple and its courts have been constructed from the descriptions of these places with the strictest accuracy; and in part ii. sect. 13, it is attempted to be shown (contrary to what is commonly understood) that the descriptions of Josephus and the Talmud are not only not at variance, but that they perfectly agree.

Perhaps it may be thought by some that the Hebrew words and phrases which appear in the following pages might have been better omitted; but those who are conversant with the Hebrew language, and know the uncertainty of its pro

nunciation, will not only pardon their insertion, but be gratified by them. It gives a certainty and satisfaction to the Hebrew scholar, which the mere spelling them in English can never produce.

Should any take the trouble to compare this publication with Godwin's Moses and Aaron, and Dr. Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, (the books which are usually consulted,) they will find the line of research widely different. For while the plan of Godwin, which is very systematic and condensed, did not allow of that diversity of subject and illustration, and Dr. Jennings, who commented on a part only of Godwin's plan, professes to despise Rabbinical learning; the author of the present publication has taken a wider range; he has accepted, with gratitude, the labours of the Talmudical writers, in the absence of more authentic information; and has endeavoured to make the discoveries of science, and the information of travellers, subservient to the elucidation of his subject.

It is more than probable, that amidst such a variety of materials, he may have sometimes been mistaken as to the use he has made of them; but he can honestly say, that no pains have been spared to ascertain the truth, and to render the subject generally interesting to the Christian inquirer. Nay, he even indulges the hope, that it may be an acceptable present to the posterity of Abraham, to whom the religion and usages of their fathers must ever be an interesting subject of inquiry.

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Zion to the temple, Calvary, the holy sepulchre, the rock that was rent, Ab-

salom's pillar:-a particular description of all these


SECT. II. The Court of the Gentiles. The chambers at the gates, and their

uses; sheepfolds at the east gate ; chests for the half shekel at the east gate ;

manner of collecting and disposing of it. The size of the Court; the

beautiful pavement; the cloisters or piazzas round about; their grandeur.

The royal porch. Solomon's Porch.


SECT. III. The Hil, or Sacred Fence.--Its width ; the wall that divided it from

the Court of the Gentiles ; doors in that wall; inscriptions at these doors ;

height of the Hil above the Court of the Gentiles; Josephus's account of it;

the different elevations between the Court of the Gentiles and the threshold

of the porch of the temple

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SECT. IV. The Court of the Women.-Its different names in Scripture; height

above the Sacred Fence; its east gate, commonly called the Beautiful Gate

of the Temple, and why; the height of the wall between the Sacred Fence

and the Court of the Women; the size of the Court, its beautiful pavement,

its other gates. The smaller squares in each corner of the Court, their

dimensions and uses ; the Nazarites' chamber, account of Nazaritism; the

wood chamber and persons employed in it; times of the year when the wood

was brought to the Temple; way it was disposed of afterwards; the lepers

chamber, and manner of their purification ; the oil chamber, the cloisters, or

piazzas round the Court; the treasury chest, their number, uses, and places ;

the widow's mite explained ; the Pharisee and publican. Several other par-


SECT. V. The Court of Israel.Height of the wall between it and the Court

of the Women ; relative heights of the two courts; steps which led from the

one into the other; for what they were remarkable; Psalms of Degrees ex-

plained; chamber under them for the musical instruments. The gate Nica.

nor; its height, beauty, the names it has in Scripture; various things ap-

pointed to be done in it (the three remarkable things that happened forty

years before the destruction of Jerusalem.) Size of the Court of Israel, Ob.

jects on the east side of it :-a room for the Council of Twenty-three. The

place where Solomon's brazen scaffold stood; the king's pillar; the Levites'

ward; the chamber of Phineas ; pastry-man's chamber; the place where the

stationary men stood. Objects on the south side :-the chamber of lots ; Ge-

zith, where the Sanhedrin sat; their number, qualifications for office, manner

of sitting, hours of attendance, causes that came before them, punishments

they inflicted. The names of their presidents, and places to which they re-

moved on leaving Gezith. The draw-well chamber; the Water gate; the

chamber of incense; receipt for making and using it; the room where the

high priest first bathed on the day of expiation ; the wood room; Peredrin,

or the vestry of the temple; the Levites' ward; the Gate of Firstlings; ano-

ther Levites' ward; the Gate of Kindling; the common-hall of the Levites

while on guard; the distance of the gates on this side of the Court from

each other. Objects on the west side ; none. Objects on the north side :-the

relative situation of the gates. Bithmuked, containing the chamber for the

lambs used in the daily sacrifice; a bathing room for the priests; the com-

mon-hall for the priests on guard; the chamber where the shew bread was

prepared, and the place where the Maccabees deposited the stones of the

altar that was polluted by Antiochus. The gate Muked; the treasure cham-

ber for the poll-tax; another Levites' ward; chamber for the money that

was devoted to repair the temple; the gate Corban, or of the Women; the

salt chamber; chamber for the hides; chamber for washing the entrails; the

other chamber where the high priest bathed on the day of expiation; the

Gate of Sparkling, or of Song; Levites' and priests' wards; the chamber of

stone vessels

SECT. VI. The Court of the Priests.-Its situation, dimensions, and height

above the Court of Israel. The portion of it appointed for the musicians and

unofficiating priests. The times when the Israelites might enter the Court of

the Priests, with the manner of their entry and return. The brazen altar;

its size under the tabernacle; first and second temples, and the temple by

Herod ; its position and figure, the manner of sprinkling the blood; times

when washed. The Cebesh, or ascent to the altar; its form and dimensions.

The use of the red line round the altar. The sanctity of the altar-why

steps were forbidden ; the altars of earth-why groves and pillars were

forbidden. Objects on the north side of the altar:- This side accounted

the most holy; the place of rings; the tables, pillars, and hooks: the

Molten Sea ; difficulties as to its capacity considered. Objects on the south

side of the altar:-The silver and marble tables ; the station of the priests

who blew the silver trumpets; more rings, tables, and hooks. The kinds of

sacrifices that were killed 'on the south side of the altar. Space between

the altar and the porch ; things for which it was remarkable. The Me-

grupitba, or bell, supposed to be a gurry or gong: an account of both these.

The laver ; one only during the tabernacle; ten in Solomon's temple, and one

only in the second temple ; how filled; method of washing at it.. 114

SECT. VII. The Temple of Solomon.-Its dimensions ; side-chambers; appear-

ance in perspective; the number of hands employed; its time in building; its

continuance; the quantity of precious metals used in it; their value in ster-

ling money


SECT. VII. The Temple after the Captivity. When begun; its dimensions

different from that of Solomon; the obstructions it met with ; the time when

finished; its continuance


SECT. IX. Origin and external Appearance of the Temple by Herod.-Reason of

Herod's proposal; the artificers employed; its length in building; dimen-

sions larger than the former; beauty of the workmanship; its appearance in

front, and at the sides. Inquiry into the composition that formed the root:

terraces in Barbary and India.


SECT, X. The Porch of the Temple.-The steps that led up to it: the height

of the threshold above each of the inferior Courts. The length, breadth,

and height of the Porch. The door of the Porch_its size, and the ornamento



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