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Question IX.

Who advised the Attacking the Smyrna-Fleet before the War was Proclaimed? Duke's Anfwer.

It was my Lord Arlington's Advice, I was utterly against it, as careful of the Honour of the Nation, and incurred fome Anger by it. My Lord Arlington principally moved it, and. I might fay more.

Question X.

By whofe Advice was the fecond Treaty at Utretcht?

Duke's Answer:

My Lord Arlington and I were sent over, and I found in Holland the greatest Confternation imaginable, like the burning of the Rump in England, the People crying, God bless the King of England, and curfing the States; and had we then Landed, we might have conquer'd the Country. The Prince of Orange would have had the fame fhare in the Peace with France that we had, but tho' the King's Nephew, I thought he must be kind to his own Country; if we had made a Peace then, we had been in a worfe condition than before; and laftly, the Prince of Orange hoped for a good Peace with us upon that Treaty, but I would never confent that France must have all and we nothing. The Confequence would be that Holland muft intirely depend upon France, and I think it a wife Article, that the French were not to make Peace without us.

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Question XI.

By what Counfel was the War begun without the Parliament, and thereupon the Parliament Prorogued?

Duke's Anfwer.

My Lord Shaftsbury and I were for advifing with the Parliament, and averfe to the Prorogation. I can fay nothing, but I believe the Parliament will never be against a War for the good of England.

Then the Debate followed.

The Duke's Speech in the Houfe of Lords, Nov. 16. 1657. Upon Liberty of Confcience.

My Lords,

Here is a thing call'd Property, which (whatever fome Men may think) is that the People of England are fondeft of, it is that they will never part with, and it is that His Majefty, in his Speech, has promifed us to take a particular care of. This, My Lords, in my Opinion, can never be done without giving an Indulgence to all Proteftant Diffenters. It is certainly a very uneafy kind of Life to any Man, that has either Chriftian Charity, Humanity, or Good Nature, to fee his Fel

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SPEECHES in Parliament. 203.

low-Subjects daily abus'd, divefted of their Liberty and Birthrights, and miferably thrown out of their Poffeffions and Freeholds, only because they cannot agree with others in fome Niceties of Religion, which their Consciences will not give them leave to confent to; and which, even by the Confeflion of thofe, who would impofe them upon them, are no ways neceffary to Salvation. But, my Lords, befides this, and all that may be faid upon it, in order to the improvement of our Trade, and increase of the Wealth, Strength, and Greatness of this Nation, (which, under favour, I fhall prefume to difcourfe of fome other time) there is, methinks, in this Notion of Perfecution, a very grofs Mistake, both as to the Point of Government, and the Point of Religion. There is fo, as to the Point of Government, because it makes every Man's Satisfaction depend on the wrong place, not upon the Governour, or a Man's living well towards the Civil Government established by Law, but upon his being transported with Zeal for every Opinion that is held by thofe that have Power in the Church then in fafhion; and it is, I conceive, a Miftake in Religion, because it is pofitively againft the express Doctrine and Example of Jefus Chrift. Nay, my Lords, as to our Proteftant Religion, there is fomething in it yet worfe; for we Proteftants maintain, that none of thofe Opinions which Chriftians differ about are infallible; and there

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therefore in us it is a fomewhat inexcufable Conception, that Men ought to be deprived of their Inheritance and all the certain Confequences and Advantages of Life, because they will not agree with us in our uncertain Opinions of Religion. My humble Motion therefore to your Lordfhips, is, That you' would give me leave to bring in a Bill of Indulgence to all Diffenting Proteftants. I know very well, that every Peer of the Realm has a Right to bring one into Parliament, which he' conceives to be useful to this Nation; but I thought it more refpectful to your Lordships, to ask your leave for it before. I cannot think the doing of it will be of any prejudice to the Bill, because I am confident the Reafon, the. Prudence, and the Charitablenefs of it will be able to justify itself to this House and the whole World.

The Duke of Buckingham's Speech at a Conference, 1675.

Gentlemen of the House of Commons.

Am commanded by the Houfe of Peers to open to you the matter of the Conference; which is a Tafk I could with their Lordships had laid upon any body elfe, both for their

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own fakes and mine: Having obferved in the little experience I have made of the World, that there can be nothing of greater difficulty than to unite Men in their Opinions whose Intereft feems to difagree. This, Gentlemen, I fear is at present our Cafe; but yet I hope, when we have a little better confidered of it, we shall find, that a greater Intereft does oblige us at this time rather to join in the prefervation of both our Privileges, than differ about the Violation of either. We acknowledge it is our Intereft to defend the Right of the Cominons; for fhould we fuffer them to be oppreft, it would not be long before it might come to be our own Cafe; and I humbly conceive it will appear to be the Intereft of the Commons to uphold the Privilege of the Lords, that fo we may be in a condition to ftand by and fupport them. All that their Lordfhips defire of you on this occafion is, That you will proceed with them as ufually Friends do when they are in difpute one with another, that you will not be impatient of hearing Arguments urged againft your Opinions, but examine the weight of what is faid, and then impartially confider, which of us two are likelieft to be in the wrong. If we are in the wrong, we and our Predeceffors have been in the wrong thefe many Hundred Years; and not only our Predeceffors, but yours too: This being the firft time that ever an Appeal was made in point of Judicature, from the Lords House to the Houfe

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