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monument of Greek lexicography, we consider that it reflects the highest honor upon American scholarship. After a careful comparison of results obtained from the long-continued use of other Greek lexicons, we feel constrained to pronounce the present one a marvel of accuracy. In his modest preface the editor expresses a keen sense of the shortcomings of his work, and seeks to enlist the co-operation of fellow-laborers to help rid it of every remaining blemish. Surely all who profit by his labors must rejoice to be able to serve him in this way. We will accordingly make such few suggestions as have occurred to us in the course of our examination of the volume.
In the summary of the interminable discussion about the distinction between βούλομαι and θέλω, which is found upon p. 286, it may be advísable to quote also the opinion of such an eminent Hellenist as the late Professor Shilleto. He states in a
note to Demosthenes (De falsa legatione, 348, 14) that in Attic writers Bobhopal implies a positive wish, and 2w the merely negative idea of willingness, having no objection. This is the view also of Sauppe, on Demosthenes (24, 3), who cites to the same effect Gottfried Hermann (Zimmermann, 1835, p. 299).
The very unusual expression ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων, which is found in John viii. 44, may be illustrated by the example of the same idiom in Thucydides (ii. 42). where it is opposed in signification to Koviç. It occurs also upon a bronze tablet containing a decree of the senate and people of Assos, in honor of Germanicus, discovered in the course of the explorations made upon that site by the Archaeological institute of America (Clark's Report upon the investigations at Assos, p. 134). It is there translated, at their own expense;' but the rendering, in a private capacity,' would seem to be more in conformity with the other instances of its
In the text the statement is made that the word KaTapуw is found frequently in Paul's writings, who uses it twenty-five times; while elsewhere in the New Testament it occurs only twice; viz., in Luke xiii. 7 and in Hebrews ii. 14. We recollect that this exceptional use by Paul of one word is referred to by Rev. Robert Aris Wilmott, in his charming little volume on the pleasures of literature, as characteristic of his style. This would seem to make the word a proper candidate for a place among the words peculiar to Paul, contained in Appendix iv. 6, unless that term is intended by the editor to be restricted to words used by him alone among the New Testament writers.
Under the word náoyo we are told that it nowhere occurs in a good sense, unless either the adverb ei, or an accusative of the thing, is
IT is with genuine pleasure that the critic takes hold of a volume like the present, so daintily gotten up with illustrations made for the book, and evidently the work of a practised hand. Then the story is told in such a simple and attractive manner, that one unconsciously drifts into the places of the astronomers, and feels each mosquitobite as keenly as though he had actually experienced the bites in the flesh.
The journey was undertaken in 1860, before the days of railroads in that part of the continent, or, indeed, of steamboats - with the exception of the solitary stern-wheeler on the Red River, which broke down before our voyagers returned. The portion of the route lying beyond Fort Garry the site of the now live city of Winnipeg — was made in the North canoe, a giant of its kind, which had been constructed years before for the accommodation of Sir George Stimson. Delay after delay occurred, for in even such a big canoe one could not brave the waves of Winnipeg with impunity. Then the current of the Saskatchewan proved to be unusually swift. The result of this combination was, that on the day of the eclipse the observers had not reached their destination: nor. in fact, had they advanced much beyond the outskirts of the eclipse belt. However, there was nothing for it but to get out on the first bit of solid ground that showed itself above the everlasting flooded marsh. An alcohol can on top of four stakes served as a pedestal for one telescope, while a birch-tree with lopped-off branches did similar duty for the other. Then, while the naturalist carefully beat time with a screw-driver, the clouds obscured the sun so that the astronomers who had dared hunger and mosquitoes could only note the minor phenomena of the last phase. It was provoking, but nothing could be done. the time the instruments had been repacked, the river had risen higher and submerged the little island. A rest of one day, and then the homeward journey was begun. The delights of that portion of the trip can best be understood from the following: "Our long canoe-voyage of forty
The Winnipeg country; or, Roughing it with an eclipse party. By A ROCHESTER FELLOW. Boston, Cupples, Upham, & Co., 1886.
two days was over. We had been provisioned for thirty-five."
To add to their miseries, upon their arrival at Fort Garry they learned that the steamer had broken down so the return journey was made overland in a Red River ox-cart. However, it must have had its pleasant side, or our author could not have looked back with so much evident pleasure to the experience. Not the least striking part of the volume is a set of views contrasting the state of things then at Fort Garry with the bustle and noise of a street of the present Winni peg. The old Selkirk settlement has disappeared. But is not something better in its place?
COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY. STUDENTS of vertebrate and invertebrate anatomy, both in this country and Great Britain, and other parts of the world where the English tongue is spoken, have much to be thankful for of late years; for during the last four or five of them have appeared in their language, either through original contribution or by translation, an exceptionally fine series of helpful handbooks of their science. Chief among these we notice upon our shelves the compact though useful little volume by Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell: the admirable manuals of Professors Martin and Mosle; the welcomed and invaluable translation of Claus's 'Text-book of zoology,' by Adam Sedgwick, in two volumes; the popular series contributed by Prof. A. S. Packard; a carefully revised third edition of Flower's excellent work on the osteology of the Mammalia; the favorite of all students of vertebrate anatomy, Mivart's 'Cat;' the best of little books, T. J. Parker's Zoötomy,' the work of the younger representative of a house the members of which now hold an unrivalled place in the science of modern times, which their extraordinarily fertile and brilliant contributions to vertebrate morphology have easily gained for them. And now comes a welcome volume from the pen of the senior son of this same family, an English translation of Wiedersheim's famous handbook of vertebrate anatomy.
It is to this last handsomely gotten up, and, almost without exception, exquisitely illustrated work, that we would here now devote a few words by way of comment and criticism. We find the book bound and printed with all that care for which the firm of Macmillan & Co. are so justly famous, and which they invariably bestow upon all their scientific publications. The work itself is divided into two parts, the first of which,
Elements of the comparative anatomy of vertebrates. Tr. by W. NEWTON PARKER, New York, Macmillan, 1886. 8°.
entitled the Introduction,' comprises fifteen pages only, while the second or 'Special part' claims the remainder of the volume.
One of the principal points open for criticism in the introduction lies in its extreme brevity, and it must stand to reason that much must be sacrificed when one attempts to present the structural characters in general, and the mode of development in so important a group as the Vertebrata, in so limited a space. The great wonder is, that, notwithstanding this, the subjects treated in this part have been rendered so clearly and so thoroughly comprehensible. Nine excellent figures illustrate it, and it is completed by a helpful 'Table showing the gradual development of the Vertebrata in time.'
We find the 'Special part' divided up into sections, leading off with A. Integument:' followed by B. Skeleton; then 'C. Muscular system; D. Electric organs;' E. Nervous system; F. Organs of nutrition;' 'G. Organs of respiration;' 'H. Organs of circulation; and, finally, I. Urinogenital organs.' These several sections are found appropriately subdivided into other parts; and this plan has been found to answer the purposes both of the student and anatomist most admirably. Following as a natural sequence to such an arrangement as this, it affords, so far as the make-up of a volume is concerned, an excellent opportunity to offer a concise and convenient table of contents. presenting us with the several headings and divisions of the treatise, which has been done in the present instance. And to one at all familiar with the subject, this table of contents, supplemented, as it here is, by a wonderfully well-arranged and complete index (which latter contains but few omissions), leaves but little to be desired on this score. One word, however; for students are critical, and all are not thoroughly informed upon anatomical synonymes: so in future editions of this work it would be better to have index and text agree in every particular, and such errors, for instance, as indexing 'adrenal, 161,' and on p. 161 find suprarenal' only referred to, removed.
The section devoted to the treatment of the integument, though very brief, is excellent, and has been fully brought up to our present knowledge of the morphology of this structure and its appendages, in the several groups of the Vertebrata.
As we might expect, a considerable share of the work (pp. 30-111) is devoted to the Skeleton,' and it is ably dealt with under two beadings; viz., (I.) Dermal skeleton (pp. 30-33), and (II.) The endoskeleton. Under the latter we are presented with a capital discussion of the Theory of the segmentation of the skull,' a fitting introduc
tion to the consideration of that part of the osseous system. Notwithstanding the generosity of the authors in allotting such a goodly share of their space to the treatment of this part of their subject, it has materially suffered, in common with the other systems of the economy, by the too extensive condensation of matter which characterizes the entire volume. Space will not permit us here to show the numerous instances wherein this is evident, and an example or two must suffice. As an instance, we fail to discover even a mention of such structures as are presented us in the vestiges of a pelvis in the whales and other marine mammals; and a similar omission applies to the limbless Reptilia, as in Ophisaurus, for example. Nor (were these well-known facts alluded to) would the absence of external limbs imply that pectoral and pelvic arches are also wanting,' as our authors would have us believe (p. 87). And in regard to these vestiges of organs, and rudiments of the same, we are, in view of the fact of the highly important part they play in general morphology, compelled to deplore the exceedingly slight attention they have had bestowed upon them throughout the book.
Without the assistance of some such handbook as Parker's Zoötomy,' we are quite certain that the special student would find but little to serve him in the chapter devoted to the musculature of the trunk and its appendages, for the subject has been generalized to the last degree; nor is this section entirely free from error, as, to instance, we are told that no trace of a transversalis can be distinguished' in birds, — a statement that is by no means true, for a well-developed one is found in Apteryx, and this muscle is also found in some of the higher groups.
It will be out of the question to even enumerate the many slips that have been allowed to creep into the section devoted to the Nervous system,' certain portions of which must be read with great caution by the student, who perhaps may have to rely upon this manual as final authority.
So far as the defects among the figures are concerned, one of the principal ones to be noted is the inaccurate representation of the lancelet on p. 247, as compared with the far more correct drawing of the same animal on p. 114. A side from these strictures, however, and many others that could be made, this work, with its long list of brilliant, and for the most part accurate, woodcuts, some of which are even colored, greatly enhancing their usefulness, its excellent bibliographical references at the end of each section, and its list of general works following the preface, and finally its admirable arrangement and clearness of diction, will be sure to commend itself to Eng
lish students and readers of the subject of which it, as a whole, so ably treats. R. W. S.
THE LIFE OF HAMILTON. EARLY in the third volume of Science, at p. 23, we left Hamilton at the age of twenty-seven, young in years, but with the foundation of that superstructure, which is and always will be the marvel of mankind, well and deeply laid. Nothing can be of profounder interest than, in this second volume of his life, to watch the completion and growth to maturity of that imposing intellectual edifice so ably delineated by the accomplished author, whom Hamilton had nominated as his literary executor.
Mr. Graves finds enough in a year of Hamilton's life for a single sizable chapter, if not for more. So important an event to Hamilton as his marriage is given the prominence it ought to have in fact, subsequent events justify his biographer in terming it a crisis of his life.' As might be surmised, the period of his courtship of Miss Bayly was no less a period of his courtship of the Muse; but it was not with Hamilton as it would have been with a mere poet, a period devoid of intellectual activity in other directions. His head was full of the mathematics of conical refraction, while his heart craved the satisfaction of that complete consent, long delayed, which he prized above every thing else.
On the whole, this book, as well as its companion volume, is a most diffuse one at least, it so seems; but its compiler might well have made it even more so without undergoing in the longrun any charge of error in judgment; for every scrap of even meagre information becomes of importance, no one can tell how great, when related to a man like Hamilton, of whom it may more truly be said than of any other man of the present century, that his highest fame is still of the future. While the slow progress of the quaternion method is not a little remarkable, Hamilton appears to have been himself conscious that this might be the case, and to some extent foreshadowed it, somewhere speaking of the mathematicians of a thousand years hence, and their gratitude to him for the discovery of the new calculus.
We have nothing but the highest praise for Mr. Graves's delicate and trustworthy descriptions of Hamilton's character, and the incidents of his life. We have also to thank him for the charming glimpses he gives us of other distinguished names, in the space allowed their letters: what we see of
Life of Sir William Rowan Hamilton. Vol. ii. By ROBERT PERCEVAL GRAVES. London, Longmans, Green & Co. 8°.
Sedgwick, De Morgan, Maria Edgeworth, and a number of others, leads us to the strong wish that their correspondence might have been presented in even greater fulness. We have, indeed, the promise of an extended correspondence between Hamilton and De Morgan in the appendix to the succeeding volume of Hamilton's life. Mr. Graves has considerately provided indexes to both these volumes with a minuteness to suit the most exacting librarian: their thoroughness, in fact, nearly doubles the value of his work. The possibility of a collection of the strictly scientific and technical correspondence of Hamilton has already been hinted at, and will, on the completion of the present work, supplement this literary biography in a most important direction. Still beyond that, are the abounding mathematical remains of Hamilton, to edit and publish which in proper form would require the work of a genius little inferior to that of Hamilton himself. Mr. Graves promises to complete his biography in the next succeeding volume let us hope that his promise is not well grounded, and that he will give us a fourth.
THE Young-Helmholtz theory of color-sensation has recently been put to the test of direct experimental proof by Herr Frithiof Holmgren (Verhandlungen der physiolog. gesellschaft zu Berlin, 1886, No. 18). As is well known, the theory is that the retina contains three sets of nerveelements, each set capable of responding to the stimulus of a single color alone; and that the three colors which correspond to three sets of nerve-elements are green, red, and violet. These are the primary colors, and our sensation of all others is due to the simultaneous excitation of
nerve-elements of different sets. Now, it is possible to produce a point of light so minute that its image on the retina shall have no greater dimensions than those of a single nerve-element or If such a point of light in any color of the spectrum be examined in such a way that its image falls in turn upon different parts of the retina, it will, if the Young-Helmholtz theory be true, be seen only as red, green, or violet. If one of these primary colors be chosen for examination, it will appear in its own shade or not at all; but, if any other shade is employed, it will be resolved into its primary elements, and seem red, green, or violet, according to its composition and the particular cone on which it falls. The results of Holmgren's investigation were in entire accordance with the theory; red, green, and violet (indigo-violet) were unchanged; yellow appeared red, green, or colorless, in no part of the field distinctly yellow; blue was resolved similarly into green and violet. Further experiments, with
a view to determining how many cones must receive simultaneous stimulus to produce the sensation of a particular color, show that yellow is seen as red or green even when the retinal image is considerably smaller than the section of a cone; while, to be seen as yellow, the image must be large enough to cover two or three cones.
— In a paper read before the chemical section of the fifty-ninth versammlung deutsch. naturforscher zu Berlin on the 23d of September, Herr Liebreich calls attention to the curious fact that certain chemical reactions, which proceed readily enough under ordinary conditions, are delayed or fail altogether when the liquid reagents are in the meniscus of a narrow tube. Herr Liebreich is inclined to regard this phenomenon as due to cohesion, and to conclude that certain reactions may be delayed, or permanently prevented from taking place, by the action of this force. Whether this be the true explanation or not, the fact is a very interesting one, and likely to be of the highest importance in its bearing on physiologico-chemical processes, which go on in the capillaries of the body. Many reactions which are readily effected in the laboratory may be altogether impossible in the living organism; and, since the character of the capillary walls may be of considerable influence, reactions which give normal results in the healthy organ, may yield quite different products or be entirely suppressed when the organ is diseased.
A thesis on the geology and vein-structure of south-western Colorado, by Prof. T. B. Comstock of Champaign, Ill., lately published in the Transactions of the American institute of mining engineers, is one of the few detailed geological studies of a western locality, not the work of a government surveyor. It contains a general account of the geology of the region, in greatest part from original observations, and examines with especial care the succession of the volcanic rocks and the phenomena of mineral veins. The division of the paper that will perhaps excite most comment is the one that contains the author's views on the relation between the direction and the minerals of the veins in the Redpeak district. Six zdes of mineral veins radiate from the peak as a centre, as follows: N. 38° E., arsenical; N. 79 E., bismuth; S. 34 E., galena-gray copper ; S. 35 W., antimonial; S. 76 W., argentiferous galena; N. 36 W., silver sulphuret. Between these mineral zones there are wedge-shaped barren areas, which begin to be particularly noticeable along the course of the Animas River, skirting around the peak. Reference is made to the criticisms of Professor Ihlseng, who does not accept Mr. Comstock's views.
INDEX TO VOLUME VIII.
Names of contributors are printed in small capitals.
Trenton natural history
Abnormal embryos of trout and sal-
Acarina as an index to date of death,
Acclimatization in New Zealand, 426.
ADAMS, H. C. Economic laws and
Addison's disease, 629.
Adelaide exposition in 1887, 142.
Adriance's Laboratory calculations, 98.
Adulterations, food, 296, 322; food and
Advertising for professors, 575.
Agricultural chemistry, 159; chemists'
Agriculture in Michigan, 574.
Air, compressed, distribution of power
Aldrich and Meyer's Geological survey
Algebra, multiple, 180.
ALLEN, J. A.
ALLEN, H. T. Copper River, Alaska,
Almiqui, the, 282.
Alpine glaciers, 585.
Aluminium, reduction of, 321; chloride,
Amblystomas, larval, 367.
AMES, C. H. Brilliant meteor, 168;
Anatomy in ancient Egypt, 262.
Anderson's Conversion of heat into
Anemometer exposure, 458.
Aniline-oil as an anaesthetic, 32.
Animal and steam power, 88.
Animals, are they happy? 255.
Anthropological research in Russia,
505; section of American association,
Anthropometrical tests, 376.
Appalachia, first number of, 452.
Archeology at Athens, 412; at Johns
Architecture, instruction in, 577.
Aristotelian society of London, 482.
Arrowsmith's Kaegi's Rigveda, 618.
Art, society of decorative, 472.
Arthur, Barnes, and Coulter's Plant-
Aurora, brilliant, 124.
Australia, gold discoveries in, 141.
AYRES, W. O. Carnivorous prairie
Bacilli and inoculation, 430.
Bacteriological researches, 410.
Bahamas, alligators in the, 369; weather
BAILEY, L. W. A deep lake, 412.
Beetles, Brazilian, 433.
Benjamin's Age of electricity, 397.
Bert's First steps in scientific knowl-
Bethune, C. J. C., 412.
Bibliography, 501, 588; of education,
Bichloride of mercury as a disinfectant,
BILLINGS, J. S. Medicine in the United
Binet's Psychology of reasoning, 265.
Birds of Berwickshire, 364; of Kansas,
Bishop's muscle-reading, 506.
Blood stains, determination of, 454.
Bolivia, trade-route to, 27.
Book, a dull, 320; exportations, 513.
Boracic acid for fish-curing, 584.
BOSTWICK, A. E. The limits of vision,
Botanical club of the American associa-
BOWDITCH, H. P. Nerve-force, 196.
Bowker's Economics for the people, 616.
BRACKETT, C. F. Electromotive force,
BRACKETT, S. H. A bright meteor, 58.
BRANNER, J. C. Coloring geological
Branner's glaciation in the Lacka-
wanna and Wyoming valleys, 422.
Breathing in high altitudes, 365; laws
BREWER, F. P. What was the rose of