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wages and piece-wages (p. 161) should clear up a great many fallacies fondly cherished by some writers on the industrial situation. On the money question Mr. Bowker is explicit, but not as emphatic as we could wish in pointing out the evils attendant upon the continuance of the present silver-coinage policy of the United States. Perhaps, however, he did not feel justified in introducing too much polemical matter into an expository treatise. On p. 236 the author touches on a point which we believe to be of great importance, because it is an illusion which is very generally cherished ; that is, the mistaking unproductive consumption for productive consumption. Nine persons out of ten seem to think that the people in general are benefited when a millionnaire spends large sums of money in flowers, laces, and so forth, arguing that in such ways more money is put in circulation. Mr. Bowker says truly that "the wealth thus wasted would, more wisely used, furnish capital to many more people in creating more wealth." But he should have fully illustrated this point, using examples similar to those of Mill and Fawcett in treating this same topic. A chapter on this head would not have been out of place; and then a large supply of marked copies of the book might have been productively consumed' by mailing them to our national and state legislators, and to a select list of popular orators on economic subjects. We like particularly the final chapter in this book, entitled The end of the whole matter,' in which the author makes plain the truths that wealth is not an end in itself, and that economics is subordinate to ethics. The following passage, too, is very clear, and puts the question as to the limits of state interference on what we conceive to be the proper basis: "When the social machinery grinds out injustice, abuses men, makes the rich richer and the poor poorer, the community practically will not accept the extreme laissez faire theory; it will not let ill enough alone, but will apply factory acts to right wrongs. The evils that society has done, society must undo. On the other hand, the common sense also rejects not only the impossible communism which would reduce the industrious and the idle to a common level, but also the socialism which would put the greater portion of the social work under control of the state, instead of leaving it to individuals. Between the two lies the actual working social system, varying among different peoples and at different times, but persistently in accord with the underlying economic laws, and never for any considerable time, in any stable state, against them. This is controlled always by public opinion, the aggregate of individual intelligences, in its turn directed by education and
by the mastery of leadership. And thus the promotion of economic progress resolves itself into the work of political education" (pp. 262, 263).
It is well that Mr. Bowker has put in his subtitle, for use in business;' for it is a peculiar yet true fact that most business-men, though they use the terms 'capital,' 'price,' 'value,' 'money,' rent,' profits,' and so on, every hour of their working lives, have very confused ideas as to what they mean and imply.
A plain man's talk on the labor question. By SIMON NEWCOMB. New York, Harper, 1886. 16°.
Professor Newcomb's recently published talks also come under the head of economics for the people, though the subject treated is but one of the many touched on by Mr. Bowker. We should say that the chief fault to be found with this book is that the style is almost too conversational and too familiar for dignity. The talks were originally published in the Independent, and from their simplicity and directness attracted much attention. Advanced political economists and erudite writers on society and its phases may sneer at Professor Newcomb's bluntness and homely illustrations, but the ordinary reader will see their force. The illustration, for example, on pp. 44, 45, would be possibly unpleasant though profitable reading for 'walking delegates.' Chapter xv., entitled 'Another talk to a knight of labor,' is excellent, and can be safely recommended not only to members of that secret organization, but to others who find much to admire and little to criticise in its platform of principles. On p. 180 and the following pages Professor Newcomb disposes very neatly of the fallacy that waste creates wealth; but whether Mr. Powderly will break any fewer ginger-ale bottles in consequence of his perusal of it, remains to be seen.
CREMONA'S PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY.
PROFESSOR CREMONA's new work on projective geometry makes an attractive appearance in its English dress. The characteristically English additions of the translator, together with the fact that the author himself has striven to imitate the English models, for which he professes great admiration, have had the effect to make the book quite indistinguishable, were it not for the titlepage, from a book of purely English origin.
The volume before us has the common defect of not throwing sufficient illumination upon the great central points of the theory which it constructs, and of giving too much space (and too large type) to unimportant details. Another de
The elements of projective geometry. By LUIGI CREMONA. Tr. by Charles Leudesdorf. Oxford, Clarendon pr.,
fect is that there are hardly any examples left for the student to do by himself. Half the advantage of a course of mathematical study is lost if some facility in doing work of the same kind has not been acquired and facility cannot be acquired without long hours of practice, any more than one learns to play the piano by listening to another person's playing.
Professor Cremona objects to the rather more common name of 'modern geometry' for the subject he is treating, that it expresses merely a relative idea, and that although the methods may be regarded as modern, yet the matter is to a great extent old. Neither objection seems to us very forcible. The characteristic of the modern geometry is its method, and not its matter, and the distinction between an ancient and a modern world has not yet ceased to have a real signifi
In all essential respects the distinguished author has accomplished his self-appointed task in an admirable manner, and English-speaking students will be very grateful to him for his labors. The presentation of the subject is admirably lucid and clear, the order is well chosen, and there are many simplifications of the more laborious processes of Steiner and Von Staudt. It is a good plan to make use of M. Ed. Dewulf's proof of the proposition that lines joining corresponding points of two projective ranges envelop a conic, but it is a mistake to let the proof of the most important proposition in the whole book rest upon one of the few passages which are printed in smaller type. The extent to which the subject is developed may be gathered from the facts that the sheaf of conics through four points is not reached, and that the existence of sixty Pascal lines is only mentioned in a footnote.
ARROWSMITH'S EDITION OF KAEGI'S
SANSCRIT Scholars, and those who are familiar with the value of Professor Kaegi's Der Rigveda, die älteste literatur der Inder,' will be pleased at any attempt to throw the work into a form that will give it a larger circulation, and at the same time increase the interest in Vedic studies by bringing an introduction to them within the reach of general readers. As contributing to this end, Dr. Arrowsmith's translation of the German edition will be welcomed, since, to quote from the preface, it places "at the command of English readers interested in the study of the Veda a comprehensive and at the same time condensed manual of Vedic research."
The Rigveda: the oldest literature of the Indians. By ADOLF KAEGI. Authorized translation, with additions to the notes, by R. Arrowsmith, Ph.D. Boston, Ginn, 1886.
[VOL. VIII., No. 203
This is the end which the translation has in view; and it is from a popular stand-point, as appealing to English readers, that this new piece of work must be judged. In preparing the translation, Dr. Arrowsmith has chosen to follow the author throughout; and no claim is made to originality of thought or treatment, or to the contribution of any specially new material for the elucidation of the Veda. Bearing this in mind, it must be said that the translation, as a rule, is excellently made; and it would perhaps be hypercritical to pick out the few passages in which the English is not as finished as it might be, or where we have, perhaps, too close an imitation of the German idiom or word order.
In the metrical quotations from the hymns themselves, the translator, although having the Sanscrit text constantly before him, has generally adhered, as he says, closely to Dr. Kaegi's renderings; and the design seems to have been to give a readable version in popular form, rather than always a strictly scientific translation of the Sanscrit. Such being the case, we cannot look to these renderings for any thing original; but they carry out well enough the plan proposed.
The additions to the notes consist chiefly in a number of references to the more recent literature on the subject, thus bringing the book up to date; and though by no means complete, nor even professing to be so, they will prove very welcome and useful. The introduction of the Frog song,' on p. 81, is a good idea, and makes an acceptable addition to the book. It may be noted, in passing, that an improvement has been made by inserting at the end of each metrical translation the numerical reference to the mandala and sūkta from which the various verses are taken, instead of reserving such references for the notes. This will prove much more convenient in a general reading of the book.
The form in which the book is presented is attractive; but it is to be regretted that numerous mistakes should have crept in, not only in the Greek and Latin quotations and in the transliteration from the Sanscrit, but even in the English portions of the work. These we shall hope to see corrected in a future edition in order that they may not mar what is otherwise admirable in form.
In conclusion, we may say that by others beside the student of Sanscrit this book will be found interesting and instructive; and, with the exception of the notes, even the general reader will be interested in its perusal. It will also, it is hoped, render somewhat more general a knowledge of the Veda, and at the same time increase the interest now taken in oriental studies.
A. V. WILLIAMS JACKSON.
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 31, 1886.
COMMENT AND CRITICISM.
MR. EDWARD ATKINSON of Boston has for years ranked as one of the first statisticians in the world. To be a statistician implies a great deal. It implies more than a prodigious memory in retaining figures, and more than an untiring energy in gathering them together. The statistician must add to these qualities a graphic power of presentation and an insight into the real meaning of figures, which amount almost, if not quite, to genius. All of these qualities Mr. Atkinson possesses in a marked degree, and his two articles on The relative strength and weakness of nations,' contributed to the Century magazine, the first of which is published to-day, show them at their best. These articles are certain to be widely read and discussed, not only by the general reader, but by the economist, who will pay particular attention to Mr. Atkinson's methods and his interpretation of his results. Much of this first article reads like a chapter from Triumphant democracy,' and the ingenious illustrations used by the author add greatly to its force. Since 1865 we find that our population has increased 69 per cent; our haycrop, 106 per cent; our cotton-crop, 194 per cent ; our grain-crop, 256 per cent; our railway mileage, 280 per cent; our insurance against fire, 310 per cent; and our production of pig-iron, 386 per cent.
Mr. Atkinson's warning to the military powers of Europe is, Disarm or starve.' He holds that the annual product of a country is the source of wages, profits, and taxes. If one secure a larger proportion than now exists, the other two must supply it. Furthermore, Mr. Atkinson believes that wages, earnings. salaries, and the income of the small farm, are not the measure of the cost of production, but the results of the conditions, both material and mental, under which the work is ⚫done. From this it follows that the wages or earnings will be higher in that country which is not weighted down by the cost of a large standing army or the burden of a heavy war debt, and in which the work is done by the most intelligent
people, under the most favorable conditions. The mental, material, and political influence of such a country will become the most potent factor in the world's commerce. This is the future Mr. Atkinson sees for the United States. The keynote of the argument for democracy against dynasties is commerce. Mr. Atkinson estimates the world's population at 1,400,000,000, of whom 400,000,000, are classed as machine-using. The other 1,000,000,000, being non-machine using, must depend almost wholly on the work of their hands for production. The control of the commerce of the world lies in the answer to the question, Which of the machine-using nations shall supply the need of the non-machine using nations? Mr. Atkinson sees that the nations of Europe cannot sustain themselves under their present conditions without commerce; but, if they hold to their present conditions, the United States, by virtue of its high wages and low cost of production, will take their commerce away from them. Therefore he says to the dynastic countries, Disarm or starve.'
The reasons for the vast gain in the conditions of material welfare in the United States, Mr. Atkinson finds to be seven. The first is the free purchase and sale of land, and the stability resulting from the large number of land-owners. The second is the absolute freedom of exchange between the states. The third is the extension of the common-school system. The fourth is the right of suffrage, with the consequent feeling of independence every voter possesses. The fifth is the conservation of local self-government in its strictest sense. The sixth is the existence of general state laws which preclude the possibility of any monopoly of the mechanism of exchange. The seventh is our habit of organization and selfgovernment, which is so far developed, that "if any thousand persons were suddenly removed to some far-distant place, away from their fellowmen, the men of adult age would immediately organize an open meeting, choose a moderator, supervisor, or mayor, elect a board of selectmen, of assessors of taxes, and a school committee, appoint one or two cor stables, and then, adopting the principle of the English common law, would at once undertake their customary gainful occupa
tions." These seven reasons may not be distinct, and we are inclined to believe that they are reducible to fewer; but, at all events, they form a comprehensive summary the value of which is not impaired by elaboration. Mr. Atkinson also negatives that foolish fallacy, now so widely held, that the "rich are growing richer, and the poor poorer." Its main force lies in the euphony of its expression.
Impressed, as we well may be, with the phenomenal development of the United States and the magnificent possibilities that lie before it, yet we must study development elsewhere as often as we can find it. That Great Britain has not been standing still for the past decade, Mr. Mulhall conclusively proves in the Contemporary review. Since 1875 the population of the United Kingdom has increased 12 per cent; wealth, 22 per cent; trade, 29 per cent; shipping, 67 per cent; and instruction, 68 per cent. During the ten years the natural increase of the population has been 1,200 daily, and the outflow to the United States and the colonies has averaged 600 daily. Besides this natural increase, there has been an immigration of 1,317,000 persons, consisting of returned colonists and foreign settlers: 65 per cent of the emigration came to the United States. Mr. Mulhall wants the medical association to investigate the fact, that, while the marriages have declined only 1.5 per cent. the births have fallen off 5.5 per cent. He considers that this furnishes ground for grave apprehensions of physical decadence. The condition of the people at large has materially improved in the ten years. Pauperism has declined (the rate per thousand of population being 27 in 1885, as against 41 in 1870, and 48 in 1850), sav. ings-bank deposits have increased, and there has been increased consumption per capita of tea, sugar, meat, and grain. The criminal statistics show a large decrease in the number of committals, and the average number of children attending primary schools has risen 68 per cent in ten years. The bankruptcies are fewer than in 1875, and the consumption of alcoholic drinks has decreased.
Mr. Mulhall's conclusions from his study of the figures are very gratifying, the only two unfavorable items being the decline in the ratio of the number of births per marriage, and the lamentable condition of Ireland. The fall in the death-rate is ascribed to sanitary improvements and the in
creased consumption of wholesome food. The 24-per-cent decline in the consumption of liquor is especially to be noted, and considered in connection with the 82-per-cent increase in the savings of the working-classes, the larger amount of wheat and meat consumed, and the decrease of 36 per cent in crime and of 33 per cent in pauperism. Mr. Mulhall's figures are confirmatory of Mr. Atkinson's argument; for Great Britain is virtually a democracy, and, while subjected to a large annual expense for her army and navy, this is nothing like the drain upon her resources that the cost of their military establishments is to the great continental powers. Mr. Atkinson's further contributions to this discussion will be awaited with interest, and we shall expect some criticism of his fundamental tenets from economists.
Meanwhile Mr. Atkinson's position, that "high wages, either in money or in what money will buy, are the correlative or reflex of a low cost of production measured by labor or effort," receives an indorsement in some statistics that the United States consul at Tunstall has communicated to the department of state. He says in regard to silk, that, in a Macclesfield mill, 144 hands are employed in throwing 500 pounds of Canton silk, with average earnings of $2.25 a week; while in an American mill 80 hands throw from 1,000 to 1,200 pounds of Canton silk at an average wage of $5.50 per week. So American average earnings of $5.50 give far better results than the English average earnings of $2.25. This instance from the silk industry is supplemented by one from the boot and shoe industry; Frankfort-on-the-Main, and Lynn, Mass., furnishing the data. The price paid at a factory near Frankfort-on-the-Main for making uppers for ladies' high-top button gaiters is 21 cents a pair; while the cost of the same labor in Lynn, Mass., is 11 cents, or nearly 50 per cent less than in Germany. The whole boot, solid and finished, and laid in boxes, costs 33 cents in Lynn, which is far below what it is in Germany. The actual earnings in Germany, taken from the work accounts, are, on the average per hand employed, $3.38, while in Lynn they are not less than $9 per week.
THE FALLACY CONTAINED in the common saying that numbers cannot lie, is well shown in the recent discussion of the statistics of insanity by Dr. D. Hack Tuke. The statistics may be all right,
but they must be taken in a certain way to warrant definite conclusions. From the facts that more cases of insanity are now treated, that we have more asylums, and that our age is called a neurotic one, the mournful conclusion is drawn that a greater proportion of civilized humanity is succumbing to the stringent requirements of modern life, and losing its mental equilibrium. Dr. Tuke shows, that, by such statistics, the insane of the past thirty years or so, whose lives our improved methods of treatment have succeeded in prolonging, are pushed upon our shoulders. The real test of the prevalence of insanity is the proportion of first attacks occurring within certain periods. On this basis, Dr. Tuke shows that since 1878 (the earliest date from which adequate statistics exist) there is no increase in occurring insanity in Great Britain. On the whole, there is a slight tendency to decrease; and this, too, though cases are now more apt than ever to be brought to notice. Of course, this should not lessen our vigilance in the matter, nor remove our attention from that large class on the borderland of insanity which is not recorded, and from which any sudden crisis chooses its victims.
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION has been so thoroughly investigated of late years, that it would seem that there could be very little opportunity for difference of opinion on most of its leading principles, and yet we find that authorities are on some points very much at variance. We are told that nothing can be more prejudicial than the habit of chewing gum, supposed to be so common among school-children. The salivary glands are unnaturally excited, and pour forth so much saliva in the act, that when food is masticated they are not able to respond as fully as is necessary for the proper insalivation of the food. We are also informed that food should not be eaten just before retiring; that thoroughly refreshing sleep requires perfect repose of all the organs; and that, if we go to sleep with a more or less full stomach, sleep will be disturbed and unsatisfactory. The authorities of Amherst college evidently do not agree with these views. In the instructions which they give to their students to guide them in their gymnastic exercises, after specifying the kind and amount of physical exercise, they recommend sleeping for half an hour after dinner and supper if possible, and, if sleepless at night from brain-work, to eat a few graham crackers before retiring, to draw the excess of
blood from the brain to the stomach. In reference to the practice of chewing gum, this statement is made chewing gum daily before eating and between meals increases the flow of saliva, and so aids the digestion of fat-making foods. It also indirectly stimulates the secretion of the digestive juices of the stomach. We have no means of knowing, but we presume that Professor Hitchcock of Amherst, who is himself a physician, is largely responsible for this advice, and have no doubt that he has given it after mature consideration. We fully agree with what is said in the instructions about the usefulness of food in cases of sleeplessness, and believe that many a person has been kept awake at night from a mistaken idea of the necessity of abstemiousness before retiring. This, of course, does not mean that late suppers are under all circumstances to be recommended; but a few graham crackers can never do harm, and will often do good. In regard to the chewinggum, we do not feel so sure. Besides being a practice which is from an aesthetic point of view not to be encouraged, it is very doubtful whether, under the most favorable circumstances, it is really a benefit to digestion; and, until there is some guaranty as to the composition of what is called chewing-gum, we should hesitate before recommending it in such unqualified terms.
A FULL ACCOUNT of the Union Pacific railroad weather-service has been furnished to the newspapers in the west by Lieutenant Powell of the signal service, who is in charge of the new enterprise, and now engaged in bringing it into shape for practical work. There will be thirty-three stations in all. It is proposed to issue predictions twice a day, announcing the expected weather changes from twenty-four to forty-eight hours beforehand. This will give the railroad officials ample time before the trains start in the afternoon and morning to make any changes which the predicted weather may necessitate. The predictions will be couched in specific language, and not in meaningless general terms. For instance: one indication will predict in a certain division cold weather with snow, the wind being from the north and blowing at the rate of thirty miles an hour, followed by warmer weather, the wind changing to a southerly direction. Study of the road will determine where the worst snow-drifts most frequently occur, and from this it will be possible to tell pretty nearly where snow blockades are liable to form. An accu