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gravity, at existing temperatures, not reduced to a standard, shows the same distribution of values. But descending to thirty or more metres of depth,

- all depths being, in true German scholarly fashion, expressed in metres, an arm of distinctly dense, salt water (3.52+) is seen under-running the lighter water near the Norwegian coast, and approaching the Baltic. The horizontal and vertical variation of temperature is presented in numerous diagrams, and a table contains a condensed statement of the various physical results of soundings.

- Among recent devices patented in this country is a magazine fire-arm provided with a coolingchamber surrounding the rear portion of the barrel, connected by suitable pipes with a waterreservoir in the stock. At each discharge of the weapon, a pump forces a current of water from the reservoir through the cooling-chamber, thereby preventing the barrel from heating.

In strong contrast to this country, France is said to be almost entirely without free dispensaries, there being but three in the city of Paris.

Several sections of an embankment on the North-western state railway, India, were recently washed away, leaving the rails, with their iron sleepers, festooned in the air, like suspensionbridges, the ends of the rails being held together by the fish-plates. Until the floods subsided, so that the embankments could be rebuilt, the mails were carried over these sections of suspended track in hand-cars, the carriers walking on the sleepers, and pushing the cars up the steep inclines, and riding with the mail-bags on the down-grades, sometimes dashing through the torrent beneath.

Anhydrous aluminium chloride is now prepared by the following process: aluminium alloy is heated in a retort to between 200° and 300° C., hydrochloric-acid gas is then passed over the heated alloy, and the vaporized aluminium chloride thus obtained is condensed. The right to this process is owned by the Cowles electric smelting company of Cleveland, O., who use it in connection with the reduction of aluminium from clay in the electric furnace.

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The Index to the literature of explosives,' part i., by Charles E. Munroe (Baltimore, Friedenwald, 1886), is intended to embrace not only such articles as treat of the composition and of the chemical and physical properties of explosives, but also of their manufacture and use in the arts. This part contains the titles of papers appearing in such periodicals as the indexer has been able to review from the date of first issue. Four hundred and forty-two volumes have been thus reviewed for this part. Many other titles of papers have been collected, but the indexer has not yet had access to complete sets of the periodicals from which they have been gathered. A large number of titles of separate publications, treatises, text-books, and the like, have also been collected. It is hoped that it will be possible to eventually publish these, together with a subject' and 'author's' index to the entire list.

-During the spring of 1886, Ticknor & Co. began the publication of "Ye olden time series, or, Gleanings from the old newspapers, chiefly of Boston and Salem," with brief comments by Henry M. Brooks of Salem, Mass. In this series there are now ready, vol. i., Curiosities of the old lottery; vol. ii., Days of the spinning-wheel in New England;' vol. iii., New England Sunday ;' vol. iv., 'Quaint and curious advertisements;' and the present vol. v., Literary curiosities.' Among those to come are volumes on 'Some strange and curious punishments;' 'New England music in the latter part of the eighteenth and in the beginning of the nineteenth century; Travel in old times, with some account of stages, taverns, etc.;' and Curiosities of politics among the old federalists and republicans.'

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The forthcoming volume of the Encyclopaedia Britannica' will get down as far as sia, and will contain an unusual number of important articles. That on Shakspeare by the editor, with a bibliography supplied by Mr. H. R. Tedder, will attract most attention. Mr. Matthew Arnold writes upon Sainte-Beuve, Mr. James Sims on Schiller, Mr. Rossetti on Shelley, Professor Minto on Sir Walter Scott, Madame Villari on Savonarola, Mr. Saintsbury on Rousseau, and Mr. J. S. Reid on Ruhnken. Of the art articles, M. Hymans contributes that on Rubens, and Professor Middleton that on schools of painting. Russia fails to Prince Krapotkine and Mr. Morfill, and Scotland is treated by no fewer than five writers. Of the scientific articles, that on Rotifera is by Professor Bourne of Madras; that on series, by Professor Cayley; seal, by Professor Flower; and Schizomycetes, by Professor Marshall Ward.

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ment that the life of Charles Darwin, by his son, which will be published before Christmas, will contain an autobiographical chapter dealing chiefly with the great naturalist's religious opinions.

- Mr. William Saunders of London, Ontario, has been appointed chief director of the Dominion experimental farms of Canada, and has in consequence given up the editorship of the Canadian entomologist, a monthly journal which he has conducted for many years. The former editor, Rev. C. J. S. Bethune of Port Hope, will succeed him.

- An international railway exposition and congress will be held in Paris from May to October, 1887, when a railway jubilee of the fiftieth anniversary of railroads in France will be celebrated. John W. Weston, editor of the American engineer, Chicago, has been appointed coinmissioner-general for the United States.

- Lieut.-Col. W. T. McLeod sends us a brief account of the weather of two summers as observed by him at Nassau on the Bahamas. It would seem from the frequency of heavy rains, thunderstorms, and tropical cyclones, to be quite unlike the mild winter climate of the islands that invalids seek to enjoy. The following description of a passing cyclone reveals the characteristic reversal of its central winds: 'On Thursday, Aug. 19, 1886, at 9 A.M., the barometer began to fall, and continued to do so gradually up to 12 o'clock noon on Sunday, Aug. 22. From this hour it fell rapidly up to 4 A.M. on Monday, to the extent of 7-10 of an inch. The barometer remained steady for half an hour, and then rose as rapidly to its previous height. During this depression a severe gale raged. At about 6 P.M. the sun went down in a yellowish patch, with a purple haze. The cloud-masses were blown out into rain-film. The rain fell and the wind blew in gusts from the east, and continued to blow from east to south-south-east, up to 3.45 A.M. on Aug. 23, with increasing force. A lull occurred, and, as the barometer shot upwards, the wind shifted and blew furiously from west-south-west from 4.30 A.M. up to 7.30 A M. During this gale several lives were lost and schooners wrecked. Lightning accompanied the gale.

- At a meeting on Oct. 19, of the committee of the subscribers to the British school of archeology at Athens, according to Nature, Professor Jebb said the school had been erected and paid for, Mr. F. C. Penrose had been appointed director, and a provisional income of £400 a year for three years had been raised, but additional funds were required. Prof. C. T. Newton, in urging the im

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**Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is in all cases required as proof of good faith.

The deepest fresh-water lake in America. In the issue of your journal of the 27th of August are contained some remarks on Crater Lake in Oregon, and its remarkable depth. The perusal of these remarks leads me to say a few words with regard to another lake in the extreme eastern portion of the continent, which, though far from approaching that mentioned, has nevertheless a depth, as well as some other features, which are quite exceptional. I refer to Lake Temisconata in the Province of Quebec.

This lake is situated very near the axis of the divide between the waters of the St. Lawrence and those of the St. John, its outlet by the Madawaska River forming one of the main tributaries of the latter stream. Its total length is twenty-eight miles, about eighteen of this having a general direction a little east of south; while the remainder, forming the more northerly position, trends to the north-east nearly at a right angle with the former. The breadth varies from one to three miles. Throughout its length and on both sides, the land is usually high, forming numerous ridges and promontories projecting into the lake, but just at the angle referred to one of these, known as Mount Wissick or Mount Essex, rises almost precipitously to a height of 550 feet, while the opposite shore is here quite low. The height of the lake above tide-water is, by aneroid, about 400 feet; the distance of the upper end from the St. Lawrence being thirty miles, while the length of its actual discharge, by way of the Madawaska and St. John to the Bay of Fundy, is 288 miles.

Having had occasion to spend some time about the lake during the last summer in connection with the work of the Canadian geological survey, and having heard incredible stories as to its depth, means were taken to ascertain the truth by a number of soundings at points which seemed to promise the best results. Of these, three, taken near the foot of the lake, gave a depth varying from 215 'to 225 feet; farther north a depth of 410 feet was reached; and midway between Mount Wissick and old Fort Ingalls, 500 feet. It seems probable, however, from the statements of reliable parties, that even this depth is at some places considerably exceeded.

In the case of Crater Lake, if one may judge from its name, its depth is no more than one might expect from the conditions of its origin; but in the case of Lake Temisconata there is absolutely nothing of a volcanic character, and the whole depression is evidently the result of simple erosion. That that erosion

should have occurred to a depth fully 100 feet below tide-level, and that, too, directly along the line of the great Appalachian axis, is certainly remarkable. It is further singular, that while the ledges along the shores of the lake are covered with glacial striae, corresponding generally with the course of the depression at the point where they occur, the transportation of bowlders has been largely to the north, blocks of fossiliferous limestone from the beds of Mount Wissick being abundantly scattered about the upper end of the lake, but not to the southward. The country between the head of the lake and the St. Lawrence has not yet been examined, but along certain lines is believed to be low. The Madawaska, on the other hand, flowing almost due south, occupies a drift-filled valley, bordered by high and steep hills similar to those of the lake, and probably marks its former extension in this direction. It would seem as if lake and river formed together a great transverse channel of erosion, the result of sub-aerial action, from the St. Lawrence to the St. John, at a time when the entire region stood several hundred feet higher than now, and that the movement of the ice was in the direction of the former. The fact that the direct northward extension of this depression is coincident with the famous gorge of the Saguenay gives additional interest to the observations mentioned. L. W. BAILEY.

Fredericton, N.B., Oct. 23.

Coloring geological maps.

Professor Branner has issued a neat little card containing a colored geological map of the state of Indiana, on a scale of 1:4,878,720, or 77 miles to the inch! In a letter, which, from its having been written in French, is probably designed to be widely distributed in Europe as well as this country, he complains, 1°, that, with the scale of colors provisionally adopted by the International congress, it is not possible to employ a color which shall indicate the Devonian without specifying whether the area be upper, middle, or lower. Professor Branner will be convinced that he is mistaken if he will look at the report of the committee on the geological map of Europe (Amer. com. rep., p. 43, b), where in such a case it was suggested (and later approved by the congress) to use the medium shade of color accompanied by the characteristic letter of the system (in this case, d), but without any one of the indices 1, 2, or 3 (see Amer. com. rep., p. 103, for the conclusions of the map committee, arrived at after the meeting of the congress).

Professor Branner complains also that the difficulty of indicating four or five divisions in the carboniferous is greater still. This is not surprising on a map-scale of closely one-five-millionth. The congress never contemplated such a problem, though even here the individual geologist is expressly left free to employ his ingenuity to differentiate by means of tints and symbols, the only restriction laid upon him being that the base of the tint used shall be gray. This certainly opens the way to any method of differentiation which he may desire to try.

Professor Branner misunderstands the object of the congress if he supposes that the color-scale was adopted only for the geological map of Europe, and not for the use of all the geologists of the world. The fact is, that the geological map of Europe was simply selected as a lay figure on which to display the pres

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ent provisional system.' If it be found that this system is bad, another will be substituted for it; but it will require more proof than Professor Branner furnishes to convince geologists of this.

If the carbonic' of Europe can be adequately represented by the proposed system, there is good ground to hope that the carboniferous of Indiana will not present insuperable difficulty; but not while the human eye remains what it is can any one succeed in displaying geological details at a scale of onefive-millionth and on a paper surface already onethird covered with printer's ink, representing names of towns and counties and railroad lines.

It is only fair to add that the system proposed by the congress will come as near to satisfying this impossible demand as any other. PERSIFOR FRAZER.

Air from a cave for house-cooling.

I wish your opinion upon a matter in which I am much interested. Grand Avenue cave, situated four miles from Mammoth cave, contains some nine miles of avenues filled with delightfully cool, pure, dry air; temperature 55°. I propose to erect a house immediately over this cave; make the outside walls and partitions all hollow, so that they may communicate with a cellar, which shall be connected with the cave by a large shaft, say, eight feet square. The question is, will the air between the house and cave take the temperature of the cave by diffusion or otherwise, or will it be necessary to use mechanical means to get the air into the building? I have seen and spoken to several scientific men on the subject, who agree with me that an interchange of air will take place. and continue until equilibrium is restored by making the temperatures the same.

It is proposed to erect a hotel for a cool-air summer resort, and also for a sanitarium. If you think proper, I would like you to put this before the readers of your valuable periodical, and get the benefit of their opinions. It is a matter of some scientific interest, in which physicists, geologists, and sanitarians may be interested. M. H. CRUMP.

Ogden college, Ky., Oct. 26.

Zinc in Moresnet.

In your issue of this date, on p. 383, you speak of tin ore being found at Moresnet. This is a mistake. The county contains, however, some of the most importaut zinc-mines of Europe. Almost every collection of minerals contains some specimens of zinc taken from these very interesting and important mines. THOS. EGLESTON.

New York, Oct. 29.

Ely's Labor movement in America.

A newspaper discussion in criticism of any particular article or review is rarely profitable, but it seems necessary to make a brief reply to the communication of Professor Ely published in Science for Oct.


Professor Ely charges that his reviewer, while apparently neither an untruthful nor malevolent person, failed to read the book in question before noticing it. Inasmuch as every statement of Professor Ely's which is mentioned in the review is accredited to the page on which it occurs, his allegation is of

course groundless. As a matter of fact, the present writer read Professor Ely's book with more than usual care, not only because it dealt with a question in which he feels a deep personal interest, but because of its general attractiveness of style. When, therefore Professor Ely denies that his reviewer read the book, he evidently is writing in a Pickwickian or else he must mean that his reviewer did not read the book with the author's eyes, which is not beyond the bounds of possibility.


Professor Ely's attention is called to the fact that it is not usually considered candid to eliminate from a quotation any word or clause that distinctly modifies its import. When, therefore, his reviewer wrote, that "while not over-clear on this point, yet he [Professor Ely] seems to uphold the extremists in their contention that all the evils of the present state of society are due to private property and the lack of proper co-operation in production and distribution," he expressed an opinion which the freedom of the press will probably permit him to continue to hold. Professor Ely should have read and quoted it in full. Professor Ely dissents from that opinion, but his reviewer repeats it just as it was first stated. An honest difference of opinion is often serviceable rather than otherwise.

As a further instance of what his reviewer intended by the modest statement that Professor Ely seemed to him to have "committed the not uncommon scientific error of reading his theory into the facts, instead of deducing it from them," may be cited Professor Ely's majestic waving away of one or two wellknown facts regarding workmen without grievances striking because of the interference of some walking delegate or other, with some rather eloquent references to a knowledge of human nature.

In fact, it is altogether to be regretted that Professor Ely should consider one of the most favorable notices of his book, that has appeared in any journal of authority, to be 'grossly careless.' Such an attitude seems to ascribe, perhaps, more honor than is their due, to the reviewers for the Nation, and for that organ of the socialistic party of which Professor Ely speaks. So we feel doubtful as to just what opinion Professor Ely entertains regarding his book. The general tone of his communication to Science would seem to indicate that all criticism of the book, to be just, must be laudatory: the 'grossly careless' phrase inclines us to the belief that the reviewers of the Nation and of the organ of the socialistic labor party may have most accurately reflected the judgment of the author. In either case, the present writer must crave Professor Ely's permission to disagree with him.

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The published expression of the train of ethical thought to which the same notice of Professor Ely's book gave rise in the mind of One of the agitators,' at least calls for the recognition of the honor done your reviewer in coupling his humble initials with the great name of Aristotle. N. M. B.

A manual of lithology.

A critic should carefully inform himself concerning the contents of a book before he attempts to review it, and should criticise the stand-point taken, or adapt his review to that stand-point. This is my excuse for noticing the prodigious mauling of so small a corpse as my 'Lithology.' It is allowable to object to the plane from which a subject is viewed;

but, if it be premised that a certain method is to be followed, a criticism of the faults imposed by that method show that the critic failed to familiarize himself with the necessary facts. Had he acquired such a familiarity, he would have seen that it was designed, not for specialists, but for the very classes to whom he says it may be of value; that a knowledge of mineralogy was presupposed (see preface), and that the treatment of that science was in the shape of a brief review of a few of the more common minerals; that the discarding of the microscope swept away all facts dependent upon that instrument for verification, required the use of old-fashioned terms existing before that instrument changed the nomenclature, and opened the doors for many blunders' as viewed by the microscopist. While it may be debated whether it be worth while to attempt to impart so brief an idea of the commoner rocks, it is a fact that such a method has been employed here for a score of years in the regular technical and scientific courses, and that the work is to be covered in twenty exercises. Looking at the criticism from this stand-point, it has overshot its mark, and shows that the writer has mistaken the book for a pretentious claimant for recognition on the score of novelty or advanced method of treatment, while, in fact, it is designed for those who would acquire, in the shortest possible time, an idea of the rocks most commonly met with in the field. EDWARD H. WILLIAMS, Jr.

Bethlehem, Penn., Oct. 30.

The abuse of dispensaries.

Your editorial on 'The abuse of dispensaries' (Science, viii. 380) gives occasion to call attention to the charity organization societies and their function. Such societies exist in the cities you mention, at least in London, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. These societies are clearing-houses of information in relation to the people who beg or accept gratuitous relief. They keep registries, both alphabetic and geographic (at least, this is the case in New York and in Washington), of such persons, and make it their business to ascertain the condition and needs of all persons about whom inquiry is properly made. The principle upon which they work is the following: every church, institution, or person dispensing relief is invited to report to the society the name and residence of and pertinent information about persons aided; they are advised to dispense no relief before ascertaining from the society what it already knows about these persons. If report is made that relief has been extended to any person who is known by the society to be receiving aid from other sources, all parties giving aid are informed of the duplication. If it is known that any person is not receiving adequate relief, the society directs the attention of some appropriate relief-giving agency to the need, or directs the needy to the appropriate agency. This is the application of scientific methods to the solution of the social problems of pauperism and fraudulent and unnecessary solicitation of alms, and is destined to succeed. The dispensaries could well afford, as could all other relief giving agencies, to apply a large percentage of their funds to the support of the charity organization societies, for the sake of the economy which would therefrom result in their other expenditures. B: PICKMAN MANN.

Washington, D.C., Oct. 29.

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