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face on meeting a man, is characteristic, as well as the court dress and robe of the groom.
Pedlers on the road (fig. 8). - Pedlers are common throughout Corea. In our sketch are represented the methods of carrying loads and children, and the costume, hat, and shoes of the lower classes.
Each one of the paintings is as graphic and instructive as those presented. It is very difficult to impress upon the mind of ordinary travellers that it is just the information conveyed in such pictures that the anthropologists need. To write the life-history of our practical arts, it is absolutely necessary to understand the minutiae of industry in every stage. O. T. MASON.
IN December, 1885, the American ornithologists' union committee on bird - protection began its work in behalf of the birds. After one or two conferences the committee became convinced that nothing would tend more to check the lamentable wholesale slaughter of our birds for millinery and other purposes than the proper enlightenment of the public respecting the extent of the annual sacrifice of bird-life, its causes, and its effects; that the almost universal use of birds for decorative purposes was due to thoughtlessness, and to ignorance of its baneful results; that in order to stem the tide of destruction it was simply necessary to make known the facts in the case, and thus create an intelligent public sentiment in favor of the birds. Accordingly the committee prepared a series of articles on the subject, which was published as a sixteen-page supplement to Science, in the issue of Feb. 26, 1886. This supplement was subsequently republished in pamphlet form as 'Bulletin No. 1' of the committee, and sent broadcast throughout the country.
The result far exceeded the most sanguine hopes of the committee: the press of the country took up the subject vigorously, there being scarcely a newspaper, magazine, or journal of any sort, technical, literary, educational, religious, or scientific, that did not publish copious extracts from the Science supplement, usually with editorial comment highly favorable to the movement thus started. This was often followed by letters from correspondents in further support of the cause, while not a few of the leading newspapers became earnest champions of the birds. At the same time various societies of natural history, in Canada as well as in the United States, appointed committees on the subject of bird-protection, which presented reports to their respective societies, embodying further evidence regarding the extent of
the destruction of birds for millinery and other reprehensible purposes, frequently accompanied by resolutions indorsing most fully the conclusions and recommendations of the American or
nithologists' union committee, and urging the most energetic measures possible to check the destruction of bird-life.
The Audubon society was speedily organized in New York City, under the auspices of the Forest and stream newspaper, for the express purpose of co-operating with the American ornithologists' union committee in its work of protecting the birds. Branches of this society have sprung up in various and widely distant parts of the country, till the membership already exceeds ten thousand. Anti-bird wearing leagues and juvenile 'bands of mercy' were formed in many towns and cities throughout the land, having the same objects in view, the members of which respectively pledge themselves not to use birds for decorative purposes, and not only not to destroy birds or their nests or eggs, but to exercise all their influence in checking their needless destruction.
Until recently the only discordant notes heard from any quarter were the subdued mutterings of a few reprehensible taxidermists, caterers of the milliners, whose pockets were affected by the movement in favor of the birds. Many of the dealers in birds for decorative purposes, particularly for hat ornamentation, expressed themselves as heartily in sympathy with the movement, as have the better class of taxidermists,- those legitimately entitled to the name, who are often men of scientific tastes, and too high-principled to lend themselves to the indiscriminate slaughter of birds simply for purposes of gain.
It was left, therefore, for a single ornithologist of some supposed standing as a man of sense and culture to make the first and thus far the only public protest against the movement, which he is pleased to term 'sentimental bosh.' Whatever his object, whether a freak of the moment, an attempt to see what could be said on the other side,' a strike for notoriety, or the result of personal pique, his statements were of a sufficiently sensational character to be eagerly seized upon by newspaper editors ignorant of or indifferent to the facts in the case, or unscrupulous in regard to what they put in their papers, provided it is 'interesting' or 'startling;' and the address' of the 'learned doctor' has consequently received more or less attention; and extracts from it, or editorials based upon it, have been published in two of the New York dailies, and possibly elsewhere, in addition to the paper in which it originally appeared.
The person who has thus attained unenviable
notoriety is Dr. J. W. Langdon of Cincinnati, and his address' originated in the following manner : Some time since, the Cincinnati society of natural history appointed a committee of three of its ornithological members to investigate and report on the destruction of native birds." This committee duly made its report, in the form of a series of papers, prepared by the different members of the committee, in which were summarized most of the facts and statements given in the Science supplement on bird-protection, with, in addition, much original matter of like character. This report was followed by a paper by Dr. Langdon, in which he ridiculed the idea that there had been any perceptible decrease of song-birds in consequence of their destruction for millinery purposes, or from any human influence whatever, while he furthermore claimed that it would be impossible for man to destroy enough small birds to make their absence appreciable. His conclusions were based, ostensibly at least, on an estimate of the bird population of America, and an assumed rate of natural increase, both mere guesses, and the latter and his conclusions therefrom palpably absurd. Like some of our astute congressmen, he took the precaution to 'revise his paper before it was printed, removing many of its grossest absurdities; leaving, however, enough to disgust intelligent ornithologists throughout the country, yet presenting so plausible an aspect as to be misleading to the general reader, unable to detect the false premises, misstatements, and misrepresentations of which it is mainly composed. The better part of the paper was later given to the readers of a New York daily newspaper; and its main points are summarized in a recent number of Science (viii. No. 178), and therefore need not be dwelt upon here.
To answer Dr. Langdon's paper in detail is not the purpose of this article. While it would be easy to refute its many absurd conclusions, and expose its misrepresentations, it would take much space to do so. For ornithologists no refutation is necessary; and it would not be entitled to serious consideration were it not so perniciously misleading to those who know little of the subject. It has, however, been already ably answered by the Cincinnati committee, at a meeting of the Cincinnati society of natural history held June 16, at which the consideration of Dr. Langdon's paper was made the special subject of the evening.
As a sufficient answer in the present connection, I subjoin the final report of the committee of the Cincinnati society on the destruction of native birds, adopted by the society at its meeting held July 6, premising merely that it was adopted
with only one dissenting vote, and that Dr. Langdon's.
Your committee report as follows in the matter submitted to them, and state that they have fully investigated the subject of the destruction of our native birds, and several papers have been prepared and read at three meetings of the society. They find :
First, That native birds of many species have greatly decreased in numbers over large areas of the country. This is particularly true of those water and game birds about which it is comparatively easy to obtain statistics.
Second, That the chief cause of such decrease, in addition to climatic changes, natural enemies, clearing up the country, etc., are,
(a) The direct destruction of birds for their skins and feathers for decorative and millinery uses;
(b) The trapping of birds for cage purposes;
(c) The destruction of eggs and nests by men and boys ; (d) And the introduction of the European sparrows, which occupy the nesting-places of many native species. Three of these causes are preventable, and the evils resulting can be greatly lessened:
First, If no birds be used for decoration.
Second, If none of the song-birds and insectivorous species be used for food.
Third, If the laws protecting certain species be backed by a much stronger public opinion, and more rigidly enforced.
Fourth, If thoughtless men and boys could be shown the great economic value of birds, and taught the desirability of protecting them and their eggs.
Your committee find that a wide-spread discussion of the bird question shows more interest in our feathered friends than they had hoped for; and they trust that Cuvier clubs, Audubon societies, and other clubs of like aims, will continue to flourish on all sides until public sentiment is entirely opposed to the destruction of our native birds.
Yucatan. The indefatigable Charnay, who has just closed another season of exploration in Yucatan, reports that he had been engaged only about six months. His object was to get moulds of the bas-reliefs on the walls of the ancient ruins. These sculptures proved to be much rarer than is generally supposed. Arrived at Izamal, he excavated the north side of the pyramid, which he hoped to find entire, but it proved to have been destroyed so that only about eight square metres of carving remained, which were not the less interesting on that account. However, in uncovering the base of the pyramid ancient mural paintings were revealed. A sort of chronic insurrection between the Indians of Maya stock and the SpanishAmericans has been going on for many years, and will probably end only with the extermination of one or the other party. In thirty years it is said 300,000 people have fallen victims to this conflict. A visite to Koba was prevented by a new incursion of the Mayas, and in taking a new direction Charnay came upon an old town, quite unknown,
called Ek Balam, or the city of the black tiger. He was obliged to get away very soon, but now that the place is known it can be revisited. On an island about eight leagues north of Campeche he found a Maya burial ground which has never been investigated by a man of science. He lived here about fifteen days, the Indians gradually abandoning the camp for fear of the dead men's retaliation, owing to the death of one of their number. He then returned to Ek Balam, where he remained eighteen days. He is now busy on his report, which will be ready in a few months.
Greenland. The information derived from the Danish newspapers in regard to Lieutenant Ryder's expedition to Greenland is enlarged and corrected on the authority of that officer. The party should have left Copenhagen on May 9, and did not expect to return before the autumn of 1887. The commission, besides Messrs. Ryder and Bloch, will comprise the geologist Ussing. The object of the exploration to be made is the little-known coast between Melville Bay and Upernivik, which has never been scientifically surveyed. It is hoped that suitable charts can be prepared when the commission has finished its researches, which will include soundings as well as geographical and geological surveys.
A newly discovered lake on the Spanish frontier. Schrader has for some years been engaged upon surveys among the higher Pyrenees, and recently presented the third leaf of his proposed six-leaved chart of the central Pyrenees to the Paris geographical society. On this occasion he called attention to several points of interest. This third leaf represents the Aran valley on the north slope, but which being Spanish territory has not been included in the map of the French general staff. Part of it has been represented as draining into the Mediterranean, while it really is tributary to the Garonne. In the second place, Schrader's triangulations, made with difficulty amid the fogs and wind-storms of the higher peaks, showed a gap unfilled between two chains of peaks which, approached from opposite sides, he had supposed to form a single range. The explorations of Dr. Jaubernat of the Alpine club, of Toulouse, a zealous botanist and photographer, showed that this gap was filled by a lake, the largest on the whole northern slope of the Pyrenees. No one else had ever seen it. So it appears that it is only since the summer of 1883, when Jaubernat took his photographs, that any one has known of the existence of the largest lake on the Spanish frontier. M. Schrader adds that on the south and south-east of the Aran valley, several ranges are to be found, nearly ten thousand feet in height, which as yet have no
place on any geographical map. It would seem that explorers may still find congenial work, even in Europe.
It is probably known to many readers of Science that a trial has lately taken place in London, the result of which, if not reversed by appeal, will seriously affect the future of electric lighting in this country, so far as incandescence lamps are concerned. Nobody but Messrs. Edison and Swan may now use the carbonaceous filament.' The use of such filaments is decided to be an infringement of the patent granted to Mr. T. A. Edison (Nov. 10, 1879; No. 4576), for the use of a 'lightgiving body of carbon wire or sheets.' It has just been pointed out by Mr. Mattieu Williams, who himself assisted in the experiments more than forty years ago, that the real inventor of the process for obtaining light by the incandescence of a strip or wire of carbon was a young American, Mr. Starr, whose patent for it (taken out by Mr. King) was enrolled on May 4, 1846. At the end of a barometer-tube a bulb was blown, into which a platinum wire was fused, and to one end of this a stick of gas-retort carbon was fastened, the other wire being carried through the mercury, the whole tube being 33 inches long. Mr. Starr tried platinum, and platino-irridium alloys, in wires and sheets, carbonized threads, cane, etc., before he hit upon gas-retort carbon. The lamp was repeatedly exhibited in. action, at the town hall, and the Midland institute in Birmingham, by Mr. Williams. The carbon stick was 0.1 inch in diameter and 0.5 inch long; and the platinum wire had the same sectional area as the rod. The light was eminently and brilliantly successful; but funds were exhausted, and none concerned in it were adepts in getting up companies. Moreover, Mr. Starr was engaged in improving the magnetoelectric machine then in use for electroplating, etc., by Messrs. Elkington of Birmingham; hence the matter was not followed up.
A very ingenious primary battery has just been brought into public notice by Messrs. Woodhouse & Rawson, the invention of M. René Upward. An outer cell, sealed at the top, holds fragments of carbon, slightly moistened with water; an inner porous cell contains zinc immersed in water. Chlorine gas is passed through the outer cells, each of which is of course provided with an inlet and outlet pipe, and a vacuum of about 0.5 inch water is maintained in the whole series of outer cells. The electromotive force per cell is 2.4 volts. The battery is entirely free from local action' and polarization,' and has been specially designed for small electric-light installations. For
this purpose, it is well to connect it with some form (preferably that known as E. P. S.) of storage battery or accumulator. The chlorine is disengaged very simply from hydrochloric acid and manganese, and a necessary part of the apparatus is a small gas-holder, conveniently constructed of drain-pipes covered with pitch. All the gas apparatus is worked on the displacement principle, chlorine being nearly 24 times as heavy as air. The apparatus necessary to establish a small installation of 15 to 18 ten-candle power lamps costs about $250. The commonest sheet zinc may be used, and the corrosive action is very slow, and remarkably regular.
At a recent conference at the Colonial exhibition, a paper was read by Mr. Sievwright on Colonial telegraphs, in which warm tributes were paid to the early labors, 12, of Dr. (now Sir Wm.) O'Shaughnessy in India, who in 1839 and following years carried out experiments on the transmission of telegraphic signals by galvanism ;' and 20, of Mr. T. R. Crampton, the engineer who in 1851 laid the first submarine cable across the English Channel, and whose pluck and energy found, in addition, nearly the whole of the money necessary for the undertaking. Mr. Crampton was present, and made an interesting speech in the discussion which followed, in the course of which, also, the need of a submarine cable from the American to the Australian continent was alluded to.
The newly organized gunpowder factory at Chilworth was recently inspected by a party of scientific men, where, under Herr Hiedamann's direction, the new brown or cocoa powder is being produced. Wood charcoal is replaced by another form, and the proportions of sulphur and nitre have been so changed that but little smoke is produced. Except in a gun-chamber, the firing of the powder is very slow, and a new departure in the history of artillery has taken place.
Dr. C. R. Drysdale, senior physician of the Metropolitan free hospital, is one of the most recent distinguished converts to Pasteurism. Having visited Paris, and investigated 740 cases treated in the Rue Vauquelin, in which there was no doubt of the madness of the dog, he gives the death-rate as 0.75 per cent, while under other treatments, the death-rate is 16 per cent. Hence he considers that the value of M. Pasteur's treatment is 25 times as great as that of all the other treatments.
The use of petroleum as fuel was the subject of a paper by Colonel Stewart at the United service institution recently, and a warm discussion followed. The Russians have now applied liquid fuel in various ways to 200 steamers, 700 or 800
locomotives, and probably 1,000 stationary engines. In England the use of liquid fuel is still only in an experimental stage, whereas in Russia the labors of Urquhart, Lentz, and other sound practical engineers, have made it as familiar as constant practice can make anything. A suggestion was made that English ship-owners should send one of their staff to Baku to examine the various systems in use. Two pioneer steamers are now being fitted out on this principle in West Hartlepool, one of whicb, the Glückauf, is to be engaged in carrying oil from the United States. She is of steel, to carry 3,000 tons dead weight, fitted with triple-expansion engines, with cylinders of 22, 35, and 58 inches diameter. Two single-ended steel boilers, with two furnaces in each, are expected to develop 1,000 horse-power. W. London, July 13.
NOTES AND NEWS.
THE local committee of the American association announces that the arrangements for a successful meeting are fairly completed. A misstatement was made in the first circular regarding telegraph dispatches. The Western union telegraph company has consented to accept for free transmission over its lines only the official telegrams of the association, and will charge onehalf of the regular rates to members who have their messages stamped by the local secretary. The American express company, the United States express company, and the National express company will ship packages over their own lines free of charge to Buffalo providing, such packages, 1o, contain specimens, etc., to be used during the meeting; 2o, do not exceed twenty-five pounds in weight; 3°, are shipped at owner's risk and are addressed to the American association, care of the local secretary at the High school in Buffalo. The following programme has been arranged by the local committee: Thursday, afternoon, excursion down the Niagara River to Grand Island; evening, the Botanical club of Buffalo will receive the Botanical club of the association, at the residence of Hon. David F. Day; the Entomological club of Buffalo will receive the Entomological club of the association at the rooms of the Society of natural sciences. Friday, afternoon, Mrs. Bronson C. Rumsey will receive the association at a lawn party at her residence on Delaware Avenue from 4 to 6 o'clock; evening, illustrated lecture by Prof. C. A. Ashburner, on the Geology of oil and gas.' Two excursions will be given to the members of the association on Saturday, one to Niagara Falls, the other to Chautauqua Lake. Monday, afternoon, excursion of the Botanical
club of the association to Point Abino in company of the Botanical club of Buffalo; and excursion of the Entomological club of the association to Ebenezer in company of the home club; evening, receptions at different places. As another large convention is held in Buffalo during the same week, it will add greatly to the comfort of the members to have the necessary rooms engaged prior to their arrival, and notices to that effect should be sent as soon as possible to the local secretary.
The Pilot chart for August, just issued by the Hydrographic office, contains information appropriate to the season: The tracks of tropical huricanes on their curved course into the temperate zone drawn for eleven examples recorded in previous years. It is also announced that the charts for the months of August, September, and October will contain brief accounts of the form and motions of the tropical cyclones that characterize this season, and the signs of their approach; of the principles on which the rules for their avoidance are based; and of points that need additional information. The first of these papers is printed on the current chart. The slow progress made by a wreck east of the Gulf Stream off Charleston is of interest; as is also the curious direct and retrograde course of the bark Rowland Hill in mid-ocean. The following tells a sad story: "Captain Maddox of the British steamer Norseman reports passing close to a raft and a heavy stick of timber, on July 13, in latitude 42° 49' north, longitude 66° 0' west. The raft, about twenty feet square, was strongly built of heavy square timbers, stoutly lashed and wedged, and had evidently been used by a shipwrecked crew."
The U. S. coast survey has recently issued a chart of the approaches to New York showing remarkable features of much interest to navigators. Among them is a mud gorge which appears to have been formerly an extension or continuation of the bed of the Hudson. It extends from Sandy Hook out to the ocean basin, through a sea-bed of sand. The earlier surveys showed a number of mud holes off the entrance to New York harbor, and these, from their depth and the peculiar characteristics of the bottom, have long served in some degree as guides to the mariner. The recent re-survey of this locality with improved facilities has developed the fact that instead of detached holes there is a continuous gully. Ensigns Henry E. Parmenter and Walter O. Hulme have been ordered to the Palinurus at Stamford, Conn. Ensigns I. K. Seymour, C. M. Fahs, and H. P. Jones have all been ordered to the Endeavor to work on the re-survey of New York harbor.
Naval Cadet R. Welles and Ensign A. W. Dodd, the latter having been detached from the Gedney, have been ordered to the Arago at her new station on the Long Island coast. Ensign C. S. Williams has been assigned to the Eagre for duty in Long Island sound. Lieut. Commander Brownson, chief hydrographic inspector, will inspect next week the work and vessels engaged in the survey of Long Island Sound. Lieut. F. H. Crosley, commanding the steamer Gedney, has been granted two weeks' leave of absence; Ensign J. S. Watters will be in charge of the work. Lieut. J. E. Pillsbury, in command of the coast survey steamer Blake, has been conducting an interesting series of experiments in the Gulf of Mexico, measuring by the aid of an instrument of his own invention, the depth and velocity of subocean currents. Lieut. E. D. Taussig of the coast survey, who has been conducting work off Cape Mendocino, California, has been detached and ordered home to await orders. The coast survey operations of the steamer Hassler in that vicinity have been attended with considerable difficulty not to say danger, on account of the high seas in that locality. Lieut. Commander W. N. Brownson, U. S. N., hydrographic inspector, of the U. S. coast survey, leaves Washington this week to inspect the work of the survey on Long Island Sound.