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Report of Fashions in proud Italy,
Whose manners still our tardy, apish, Nation
Limps after, in base aukward imitation.
Where doth the world thrust forth a vanity,
(So it be new, there's no respect how vile,)
That is not quickly buzz’d into his ears?
Then all too late comes counsel to be heard,
Where Will doth mutiny with wit’s regard.
Direct not him, whose way himself will chuse ; *
'Tis breath thout lack'it, and that breath wilt thou lose.

Gaunt. Methinks, I am a prophet new-inspir’d,
And, thus expiring, do foretel of him,
His rash, fierce blaze of riot cannot last;
For violent fires foon burn out themselves.
Small show'rs last long, but sudden storms are short;
He tires betimes, that spurs too fast betimes ;
With eager feeding, food doth choak the feeder.
Light vanity, insatiate Cormorant,
Consuming means, foon preys upon itself.
This royal Throne of Kings, this scepter'd Ine,
This Earth of Majesty, this Seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demy Paradise,
This fortress, built by Nature for her felf,
Against infection, - and the hand of war;
This happy Breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver fea,

Report of fashions in proud. * - whofe way himé'f will

Italy,] Our authour, who chufe ;) Do not attempt to gives to all nations the customs guide him who, whatever thou of England, and to all ages the malt say, will take his ou'n coure. manners of his own ; has charged + Rajk. That is, hafty, tiothe times of Richard with a folly lent. not perhaps known then, but 4 Again! infection, very frequent in Shakespeare's once luspected that for in!ection time, and much lamented by the we might read invofion; but the wifi and best of our ancestors. copies all agree, and I suppose 3 Where Will doth mutiny with Shakespeare meant to say, that

wit's regard.] Where the ilanders are secured by their situawill rebels against the notices of tion both from war and peftilence. the understanding.


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Which serves it in the office of a wall,
Or as a moat defensive to a house,
Against the envy of less happier Lands; s
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal Kings,
* Fear'd for their breed, and famous by their birth,
Renowned for their deeds, as far from home
For christian service and true chivalry,
As is the Sepulchre in stubborn Jury
Of the world's Ransom, blessed Mary's Son ;
This land of such dear fouls, this dear dear Land,
Dear for her reputation through the world,
Is now leas'd out, (I dye, pronouncing it)
Like to a Tenement, or pelting Farm.
England, bound in with the triumphant Sea,
Whose rocky shore b: ats back the envious fiege
Of watry Neptune, is bound in with shame,
With inky blors, and rotten parchment-bonds.
That England, that was wont to conquer others,
Hath made a shameful Conquest of itself.
Ah! would the scandal vanish with


life, How happy then were my ensuing death!


5 Less happier lands.). So read The first folio, though printed all the editions, except Harmer's, from the second quarto, reads as which has 1 's happy. I believe the first. The particles in this Shakespiare, from the habit of authour seem often to have been saying more bappier according to printed by chance. Perhaps the the custom of his time, inad- passage, which appears a little dilvertently writ less happier, ordered, may be regulated thus: 6 Feurd for their breed, and famous by their birtir.),

-royal kings, The first edition in 4to, 1598, Fear'd for their breed, and


mous for their birth, Fsar'd by their breed, and fu- For Christian service, and true mous for their birth.

chivalry; The second 4to in 1615,

Renowned for their deeds as far Fear'd by their breed, and fa

from home mous by their birth.

As is the Sepulchre.

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Enter King Richard, Queen, Aumerle, Bushy, Green,

Bagot, Rols, and Willoughby. York. The King is come, deal mildly with his

youth : For young hot colts, being rag'd, do rage the more.

Queen. How fares our noble uncle, Lancaster ?
K. Ricb. What comfort, man? How is't with aged

Gaunt. Oh, how that Name befits my composition !
Old Gaunt, indeed, and gaunt in being old;
Within me grief hath kept a tedious faft,
And who abftains from meat, that is not gaunt?
For Neeping England long time have I watch'a,
Watching breeds leanness, leanness is all gaunt ;
The pleasure, that some fathers feed upon,
Is my strict falt; I mean, my children's looks ;
And, therein fasting, thou hast made me gaunt;
Gaunt am I for the Grave, gaunt as a Grave,
Whose hollow womb inherits nought but bones.
K. Rich. Can sick-men play so nicely with their

Gaunt. No, misery makes sport to mock itself:
Since thou doft seek to kill my name in me,
I mock my name, great King, to fatter thee.

K. Rich. Should dying men flatter those that live?
Gaunt. No, no, men living flatter those that die.
K. Rich. Thou, now a dying, fay'st, thou flatter'st


Gaunt. Oh! no, thou dyest, though I ficker be.
K. Rich. I am in health, I breathe, I see thee ill.
Gaunt. Now he, that made me, knows, I see

thee ill.
III in my self, but seeing thee too, ill.
Thy death-bed is no lesier than the Land,


Wherein thou liest in Reputation fick ;
And thou, too careless Patient as thou art,
Giv'it thy anointed body to the cure
Of those physicians, that first wounded thee.
A thousand Hatt'rers sit within thy Crown,
Whose compass is no bigger than thy head,
And yet incaged in so small a verge,
Thy waste is no whit lesser than thy Land.
Oh, had thy Grandfire, with a prophet's eye,
Seen how his son's son should destroy his sons ;
From forth thy reach he would have laid thy shame,
Deposing thee besore thou wert poffelt;
Who art posless’d now, to depose thyfelf.
Why, Cousin, wert thou Regent of the world,
It were a shame to let this Land by lease ;
But for thy world enjoying but this Land,
Is it not more than Thame to shame it fo?
Landlord of England art thou now, not King:
7 Thy state of law is kondhave to the law;
And Thou
K..Rich. And thou, a lunatick lean-witted fool,

a Presuming on an ague's privilege,

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7. Tly state of law is bondslave reasoning of Gaunt, I think, is

to the law :] State of law, this : l'y setting thy royalties to i. e. legal fou'rainty. But the farm thou hajl reduced thyself to Oford Ehtir alters it to fate a fiare below fovereignty, thou o'er law, i. e, absolute fov'rainly, art now no longer king but landA doctrine, which, if our poet lord of England, fubje&t to the eyer learnt at all, he learnt not Jame restraint and limitations as in the reign when this play was cther landlords; by making thy written, Queen Elizabeth's, but condition a state of law, a condi. in the reign after it, King James's. tion upon which the common rules By bondji ave to the law, the poet of law can oferate, thou art bemeans his being inslaved to his come a bond llave to the law ; farorite subjects. WARBURTON. thou hast made thuse'f amenable to

This sentiment, whatever it laws from which thou wert oribe, is obscurely expressed. I un- ginally exempt. derstand it differently from the Whether this interpretation be learned commentator, being per. true or no, it is plain that Dr. baps not quite so zealous for Shake- ' Warburton's explanation of bandspeare's political reputation. The fiave to the law, is not true.


Dar'st with thy frozen admonition
Make pale our cheek; chasing the royal blood
With fury from his native residence.
Now by my Seat's right-royal Majesty;
Wert thou not Brother to Great Edward's son,

tongue that runs so roundly in thy head,
Should run thy head from thy unreverend shoulders.

Gaunt. Oh, spare me not, my brother Edward's son,
For that I was his father Edward's son.
That blood already, like the Pelican,
Halt thou tapt out, and drunkenly carows'd.
My brother Glofter, plain well-meaning foul,
(Whom fair befal in heav'n ʼmong'st happy souls !)
May be a precedent and witness good,
That thou respects not spilling Edward's blood.
Join with the present Sickness that I have,

And thy unkindness be like crooked age,
To crop at once a too-long-wither'd flower.
Live in thy shame, but die not shame with thee !
These words hereafter thy tormentors be!
Convey me to my Bed, then to my Grave :
9 Love they to live, that love and honour have.

[Exit, borne out. K. Rich. And let them die, that Age and Sullens

For both haft thou, and both become the Grave.

York. I do beseech your Majesty, impute

crooked age,

8 And thy unkindnefs be like dictated thus :

And thy unkindness be time's To crop at once a 100-long wi

crooked edge ther'd flow'r.] Thus ftand To crop at once these lines in all the copies, but That is, let thy unkindness be I think there is an errour. Why time's scythe to crop. hoald Gaunt, already old, call Edge was easily confounded on any thing like age to end him? by the ear with age, and one mifHow can age be said to crop at take once admitted made way once? How is the idea of crook for another. edness connected with that of 9 Lore they. ] That is, let cropping? I suppose the poet them low.

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