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other hand, is best for the case of the heavily plated, lightly loaded ship. The heavier the armor, the shorter and broader, proportionately, must be the hull chosen to do the best work. The fact that the shorter and broader, though for a given displacement the lighter, ship demands greater engine-power, brings another complication into the problem; and it is for the naval architect and engineer to seek the form which, on the whole, will be best for his purpose. On the whole, it is found that, for war-vessels, the heavier the armor to be carried, the fuller the form to be chosen : in other words, the value of a ship for purposes of war is not to be judged at all by the magnitude of the so-called constant of performance' (cube of the speed, multiplied by the two-thirds power of the displacement, divided by the indicated horse-power). A ship with a high coefficient may be a very bad vessel for war purposes, even though easily propelled through the water. This is a very important principle in naval architecture, and is the more to be kept in view from the fact that it has been customary for many years to judge the value of a design by the magnitude of this constant or some similar quantity. The application of a correct method of comparison shows the Belerophon, a short ship of 300 feet length, to be superior as a war-vessel to the Minotaur, a ship of 400 feet length, and of much finer form. smaller ship was 'handier,' attained the same speed, carried an equal battery better protected, had the same engine-power, and cost less than three-quarters as much as the larger. But her coefficient was about 15 per cent lower. This comparison effected a revolution in the naval design of Great Britain. The later iron-clads are built with a length only about five times the breadth, though steaming 16 and 17 knots.
It is found, on carrying out the investigation, that the short, broad ship, which should be given, nevertheless, fine entrance' and 'run,' may often be subject to less resistance than a rival craft of greater length and less beam. This was shown by Froude's experiments on the Ajax and a rival form. The magnitude and position of the bow wave' relative to the stern of the ship is one of the important modifying conditions. Should that wave take the right position, the resistance may be much less than where it comes in the wrong place. The action of the screw, in relieving the pressure of the water under the stern, is another serious consideration. Froude found, that, if it could be placed one-fourth or one-third the ship's beam from the stern of the vessel, the resistance to propulsion would be very much decreased. The introduction of a lengthened middle body may or may not aid; but no principle or formula
has yet been found to determine what the effect will be.
Of the three principal elements of resistance, the friction of the skin of the ship, the wave-making effect, the eddy resistance, the first is usually the greatest. In very fast vessels the second and third may approximate to equality with the first. At low speeds the friction may be nine-tenths the total at high speeds, such as now are becoming common, the frictional resistance may become as low as one-half the total. Comparing warvessels, it is seen that fine-lined ships having thick armor would require to be of enormous length, size, cost, and power, while the same offensive and defensive power may be obtained in full-lined ships at much less sacrifice of all desirable qualities.
No insuperable obstacles exist to-day to the production of armored war-vessels capable of defying all the ordnance of the world, and of carrying their own armament at a speed of 18 or 20 knots into the waters of any enemy. The cost of such vessels has become so great, however, that progress in this direction has apparently nearly or quite ceased for the present. The engineer and naval architect is prepared to do his part of the work whenever the nation shall call upon him.
This was the closing lecture of a course covering the general subject of hydromechanics, and was considered a very fitting final address.
MEDICAL MISSIONARY WORK IN CHINA. IN 1881 Dr. Elizabeth Reifsnyder graduated in medicine from the Woman's medical college of Pennsylvania. Two years afterward she went as a medical missionary to Shanghai, where she is in charge of a new and handsome hospital. On Oct. 25, 1884, she performed the first ovariotomy ever done in northern China. The subject was thirtyone years of age, and travelled about five hundred miles to see Dr. Reifsnyder. The tumor weighed thirty-three pounds, and eleven days after the operation the patient sat up.
A successful operation like this soon made her famous, and the Chinese published accounts of the case. From one of these pamphlets the annexed cut is reproduced. It is evidently an ideal sketch by a native artist of great capacity, and vies in its amusing misrepresentation with some of the manufactured conversations of the modern interviewer.
It is al fresco; and evidently two passers-byan Englishman and a Scotchman, to judge by their looks have been attracted by the sight, and are watching it from the street. But the doctor's attitude and dress are the most amusing things in
the composition,' as it may well be called. She is kneeling with one knee on the patient's knees; and her Derby hat, French shoes, train dress, and extraordinary coiffure and earrings would pro
claim her rather a devotee of The fashion than of science. assistant, whose left arm is apparently dislocated, and the cheering relics of former patients displayed on the top shelf of the showcase, complete a picture that is unique
in medical illustrations, so far as we are familiar with them.
Dr. Mildred M. Philips, in a communication to the Alumnae association of the college, gives a translation of the character seen in the cut, a part of which is as follows:
"A knowledge of the Rhyming medical adviser is considered a sufficient qualification to be a practising physician. Such ignoramuses [as those thus qualified] recklessly prescribe for disease, and ignorantly trifle with men's lives. If a patient dies, it is charged to his fate, and the doctor is not held responsible by the law. If a patient survives, he praises the skill of the doctor."
The article in the pamphlet from which the cut is taken gives a short account of the operation, and then adds, "If this disease had not met with this doctor, it could hardly have been relieved. If this doctor had not met with this disease, who could have known any thing of such divine skill?
"When Chinese doctors hear
of this, their tongues will become immovable, and their heads will hang down."
DOCTORS AND THEIR WORK. ENGLISH medical annals contain many names It has both familiar and honored the world over. not been a difficult matter, therefore, for Mr. Bettany to prepare a fair history of the progress of medical science in England during the past 1 Eminent doctors. Their lives and their work. By G. T. BETTANY. London, Hogg, 1885. 8°.
three hundred years.
and Sydenham, and ending with Sir James Paget and Sir Joseph Lister, the author has sketched the lives of a succession of scientific men, eminent in the various departments of medicine and surgery, of whom any country may well be proud. It is, perhaps, from such memoirs as these that the history of progress in medicine can be most pleasantly traced. The personal element in science is often neglected, but always repays investigation. And nothing is more entertaining than to notice how the pure scientific spirit in search of facts
displayed by one, the clear reasoning powers of another, and the practical mind of a third, all have their place, and combine to produce a result which no one genius alone could have reached. Harvey and Hunter may be selected as types of the first class mentioned, as they were among the earliest to make evident the necessity of an accurate knowledge of the structure of the body as a foundation for all further progress. In the museum which bears Hunter's name is to be found a lasting monument of his influence in impressing upon his contemporaries and successors the need of a wide collection of data for scientific induction. With him may be classed Charles Bell and Marshall Hall, whose careful physiological experiments furnished many of the facts upon which modern theories are based. The reasoning mind which advances from facts to conclusions is exemplified by such men as Bright and Addison and Holland. To put facts together, to balance their comparative importance, to eliminate the non-essential, and thus to reach a logical conclusion, is the work of the diagnostician, a work which may not bring lasting fame, since it is concerned with individual cases only, but which is none the less important in increasing the sum of general knowledge. It is, perhaps, in the practical application of facts and theories that the English school has been pre-eminent. The names of Astley Cooper, Syme, Jenner, and Lister, will occur naturally in this connection. To Jenner and Lister the race owes a tremendous debt. They have saved, and are to-day saving, the lives of thousands. And it is not only for the methods of vaccination and antiseptic surgery that science is indebted to them: it is for the principle involved in these methods,-the principle of preventive medicine. To cure an individual case may be gratifying, to discover a remedy for a single disease may be beneficial; but to find a means of making the entire race exempt from certain dangerous affections is indeed a triumph. Under Lister's method of antiseptic surgery, operations are daily performed which the boldest of all the surgeons in this list of eminent men would never have ventured to undertake. The history of Lister's discovery is interesting. In 1860 he was put in charge of a new hospital in Glasgow, and, although the most approved principles were employed in its construction, it proved extremely unhealthy. Pyaemia, erysipelas, and hospital gangrene showed themselves, affecting most severely those patients in the wards nearest the ground. Lister noticed, that, when nearly all the beds contained patients with open sores, the diseases which result from hospital atmosphere were sure to be present in an aggravated form; whereas, when a large proportion
of the cases had no external wound, these evils were greatly mitigated or entirely absent. He had also been struck with an account of the remarkable effects produced by carbolic acid upon the sewage of the town of Carlisle ; the admixture of a very small proportion not only preventing all odor from the lands irrigated with the refuse material, but also destroying the entozoa which usually infest cattle fed upon such pastures. These facts, taken in connection with others which he had ascertained in experiments concerned in prov ing the germ theory of disease of Pasteur, led him to the idea that if a wound could be closed to the entrance of air, or be kept from all obnoxious influences in the air by the use of carbolic acid, the conditions for rapid healing without the complication of hospital diseases might be fulfilled. From this idea was developed the entire system of antiseptic dressings which bears the name of Lister. From the first experiments in the use of these dressings, a change in surgical procedure began; and now, under their use, wounds which never healed formerly under three or four weeks, are completely healed in six days. Operations which were followed by days of fever and distress are now succeeded by rapid recovery without any surgical fever. Various procedures are daily undertaken which formerly would have been unhesitatingly declared impossible, and pyaemia and hospital gangrene have been almost banished from wards where the system is properly carried out (ii. 141-147).
It would have added to the interest of this book if a large number of details had been given regarding the personal characteristics of the physicians whose lives are sketched. Even without these, however, the book will prove of interest both to those in the medical profession who wish to know something of their English predecessors and contemporaries, and to those outside of the profession who are interested in the history of the progress of science. M. A. S.
DR. A. B. GRIFFITHS, of the Manchester technical school, has published the following account of an assay of gold ore from the vicinity of Constantinople: "The gold is disseminated in very small pieces here and there through a quartz and earthy matrix. The ore comes from mines which have not been worked for several centuries, and were thought to be exhausted of gold. The assay, both by dry and wet methods (of a carefully selected sample), gave 3 oz. 14 dwt. of gold per ton of ore. The gold in the ore contains iron and copper, and a very small quantity of silver. The matrix is composed chiefly of quartz, but contains calcium carbonate, ferric oxide, alumina, and lime."
INDEX TO VOLUME VI.
ABBOTT, C. C. Aestivation of mammals;
Abbott, Miss H. C. D., on Yucca angusti-
Abert's squirrel, 82.
Abnormal black bass, ill. 243.
Actinometer, self-recording, 313.
Adelaide observatory, 350.
Aden, tornado at, 58.
Adulteration of honey, 210.
Aerial navigation, 20.
Aerostatic school, 300.
Aestivation of mammals. 402.
Afghan boundary, tribes upon, ill. 69.
African expedition, 60; islands, 306; slave
The coast survey and 'po-
Agassiz's Life of L. Agassiz, reviewed,
Agassiz, L., on the activity of the mind
Agassiz museum, ill. 421.
Agricultural chemists, meeting of, 248;
convention, 68; science, society for pro-
Agriculture, demands of, on botany, 193;
Alaska, exploration of, 278, 357, 380, 448;
Alasoniere's Horse breeding, reviewed,447.
Alert expedition, 350.
Algeria, colonization in, 317.
Allen's exploration of the Atnah River,
Allen's Organic analysis, reviewed, 356.
Almucantar, 406; observations, 206, 239.
Alps, Austrian, temperature in, 459.
Alvord, H. E., on human foods, 235; tele-
America, ethnography of antarctic, 92.
Americanists, international congress of,
Amherst college science association, 100.
Names of contributors are printed in small capitals.
Amia, serrated appendages of, 226.
Anaesthetic, chloroform as, 154.
Andromeda, new star in nebula of, 247,
ANGELL, J. B. A need for a careful study
Anthropometric apparatus, 361; instruc-
Antisell, T., on laboratory practice, 211.
Arctic coast of Alaska, 381.
Argentine republic, boundary of, 426;
Arizona natural bridge, ill. 67; scenery, 44.
Arthur, J. C., on pear-blight, 225.
Asia, central, explorations in, 554; maps
Askabad, mineral resources of, 359.
Associations, color, 82, 125, ill. 142, 186,
Asteroid, new, 333, 406, 449.
Astronomical day, 18, 358, 444; notes, 95,
Astronomy, practical. 404.
Atkinson, E., on competition and co-
Aztec hieroglyphic writing, 260.
Babes. See Cornil and Babes.
Bajeuoff, N., on skulls of assassins and
Baker, H. B., on relation of rainfall and
Botanical club at Ann Arbor, 99.
Brady, G. S., on the Challenger Entomos-
Brady, H. B., on the Challenger Forami-
Brain of extinct vertebrates, 360; locali-
Branner, J. C., on glaciation of Lacka-
Brashear, J. A., on rock-salt surfaces, 207.
Brazil, mangrove mud in, 120.
Bréon and Korthals on results of Kraka-
Breslau water-supply, 34.
BREWER, W. H. The ginkgo-tree, 103.
BRINTON, D. G. The sculptures of Cozu-
British America, plains of, 468; museum
and cultivation of oysters in floats, 437.
Brugmann's Philology, reviewed, 366.
Building-stones, decay of, 14.
BUNKER, F. S. Anti-cholera inocula-
Burgess, E., 384, 477.
Burial customs, 233.
Burmah, 158; fate of, settled, 552; rail-
Burman dispute, maps, 399.
Burrill, T. J., on silk-culture, 194.
BUTLER, N. M. The study of logic in the
Butterflies of North America, 307.
Cable, laying a, 545.
CAILLETET, L. The liquefaction of oxy-
Caird's Social philosophy and religion of
Calendar, reform in, 324, 408.
California, archeological discovery in, 19.
Camphor, trade in, 451.
Canada, geological survey, 521; small-pox
Cantwell's exploration of the Kowak
Capello and Ivens in Central Africa, 489.
Carbolic acid as a disinfectant, 566.
Carter, R. B., on civilization and eye-
Cartographic work in Portugal, 59.
Cassino's Standard natural history, re-
Cassiopeiae (y), spectrum of, 386.
Caucasus, explorations in, 492; petroleum
Cereals, origin of, 73.
Chaffaujon's expedition on the Orinoco,
Challenger expedition, work of, reviewed,
15, 54, 137, 138, 526.
Chemistry, organic, 76; and public health,
Chemists, agricultural, meeting of, 248;
Chesapeake zoological laboratory, work
Chevreul, a centenarian, 258.
Chicago-River pollution, 27.
CHILD, A. L. The English sparrow, 478.
CHIPMAN, K. A. Color associations, 125.
Christiani on localization of functions in
Chronograph, improvements in, 205.
Cincinnati scientific lectures, 359.
Clam, edible, introduced on Atlantic
Clapp-Griffiths Bessemer plant, 342.
Clayton, H. H., on weather-changes of
Clowes's Practical chemistry, 117.
lina, 548; problems in study of, 217.
Cocaine, influence of, on circulation, 224.
Cold, action of, on microphytes, 393;
Coleoptera of America, 382, 454.
Colonization in Algeria, 317.
Color and other associations, 82, 125, ill.
Combustion, effect of heating air upon,
Comets II and III of 1884, ill. 47; 1885
Congress, American forestry, 181; of
CONN, H. W. A suggestion from modern
Connecticut, height of land in, 4; legisla-
Consumptive period, 35.
Cooke's Scientific culture, reviewed, 114.
Cooley system of creaming milk, 194.
Cope, E. D., on brain and auditory organs
Cornil and Babes's Bacteria, reviewed, 77.
Corona, photographing solar, 131, 32, 3
CORTHELL, E. L. The ship-railway b
Corwin, cruise of, 425.
Coulter, J. M., on relation of ovary and
Cowles, E. H. and A. H., and Mabery, C.
Crab invasion, 135.
Crinoids, stalked, 138.
CROSS, C. R. Electric measuring appara
Crystals in maple sirup, 520, 539.
Cylinder condensation, 216.
D., W. M. The recent tornadoes, 252.
Dakota group in Nebraska, 221; mounds.
Dinosaurs and birds, 295.
Diseases, animal, 38; infectious, 299; of
Disinfectants, 485, 540; carbolic acid as,
Disinfection, 328, 564.
Displacement of solar lines, 358.
Doctors, eminent, 571.
Dolley's Technology of bacteria investi-
gation, reviewed, 97.
Dolphin, rare, 44.
Dome, floating, ill. 80.
Don, connecting, with Volga, 515.
Dorsey, E. B., on English and American
DORSEY, J. O. Linguistic studies at the
Dorsey, J. O., on Siletz agency, 230.
Draper, D., on effect of ozone, 302.
Dunnington, F. P., on laboratory practice,
DUTTON, C. E. The latest volcanic erup-