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other hand, is best for the case of the heavily has yet been found to determine what the effect plated, lightly loaded ship. The heavier the armor, will be. the shorter and broader, proportionately, must be Of the three principal elements of resistance, the hull chosen to do the best work. The fact that the friction of the skin of the ship, the wave-makthe shorter and broader, though for a given dis- ing effect, the eddy resistance, the first is usually placement the lighter, ship demands greater the greatest. In very fast vessels the second and engine-power, brings another complication into third may approximate to equality with the first. the problem ; and it is for the naval architect and At low speeds the friction may be nine-tenths engineer to seek the form which, on the whole, the total : at high speeds, such as now are becomwill be best for his purpose. On the whole, it is ing common, the frictional resistance may become found that, for war-vessels, the heavier the armor as low as one-half the total. Comparing warto be carried, the fuller the form to be chosen : vessels, it is seen that fine-lined ships having thick in other words, the value of a ship for purposes of armor would require to be of enormous length, war is not to be judged at all by the magnitude size, cost, and power, while the same offensive and of the so-called .constant of performance' (cube defensive power may be obtained in full-lined of the speed, multiplied by the two-thirds power ships at much less sacrifice of all desirable quali of the displacement, divided by the indicated ties. horse-power). A ship with a high coefficient may No insuperable obstacles exist to-day to the be a very bad vessel for war purposes, even though production of armored war-vessels capable of easily propelled through the water. This is a very defying all the ordnance of the world, and of important principle in naval architecture, and is carrying their own armament at a speed of 18 or the more to be kept in view from the fact that 20 knots into the waters of any enemy. The cost it has been customary for many years to judge the of such vessels has become so great, however, that value of a design by the magnitude of this con- progress in this direction has apparently nearly or stant or some similar quantity. The application quite ceased for the present. The engineer and of a correct method of comparison shows the naval architect is prepared to do his part of the Belerophon, a short ship of 300 feet length, to be work whenever the nation shall call upon him. superior as a war-vessel to the Minotaur, - a ship This was the closing lecture of a course coverof 400 feet length, and of much finer form. The ing the general subject of hydromechanics, and smaller ship was handier,' attained the same was considered a very fitting final address. speed, carried an equal battery better protected, had the same engine-power, and cost less than
MEDICAL MISSIONARI WORK IN CHINA. three-quarters as much as the larger. But her coefficient was about 15 per cent lower. This IN 1881 Dr. Elizabeth Reifsnyder graduated in comparison effected a revolution in the naval medicine from the Woman's medical college of design of Great Britain. The later iron-clads are Pennsylvania. Two years afterward she went as built with a length only about five times the a medical missionary to Shanghai, where she is in breadth, though steaming 16 and 17 knots.
charge of a new and handsome hospital. On Oct. It is found, on carrying out the investigation, 25, 1884, she performed the first ovariotomy ever that the short, broad ship, which should be given, done in northern China. The subject was thirtynevertheless, fine · entrance' and 'run,' may often one years of age, and travelled about five hundred be subject to less resistance than a rival craft of miles to see Dr. Reifsnyder. The tumor weighed greater length and less beam. This was shown by thirty-three pounds, and eleven days after the Froude's experiments on the Ajax and a rival form. operation the patient sat up. The magnitude and position of the bow wave' A successful operation like this soon made her relative to the stern of the ship is one of the im- famous, and the Chinese published accounts of portant modifying conditions. Should that wave
From one of these pamphlets the antake the right position, the resistance may be nexed cut is reproduced. It is evidently an ideal much less than where it comes in the wrong place. sketch by a native artist of great capacity, and The action of the screw, in relieving the pressure vies in its amusing misrepresentation with some of the water under the stern, is another serious of the manufactured conversations of the modern consideration. Froude found, that, if it could be interviewer. placed one-fourth or one-third the ship's beam It is al fresco; and evidently two passers-by from the stern of the vessel, the resistance to an Englishman and a Scotchman, to judge by propulsion would be very much decreased. The their looks — have been attracted by the sight, and introduction of a lengthened middle body may are watching it from the street. But the doctor's or may not aid ; but no principle or formula attitude and dress are the most amusing things in
the composition,' as it may well be called. She is kneeling with one knee on the patient's knees ; and her Derby hat, French shoes,
春成 train dress, and extraordinary coiffure and earrings would proclaim her rather a devotee of fashion than of science.
The assistant, whose left arm is apparently dislocated, and the cheering relics of former patients displayed on the top shelf of the showcase, complete a picture that is unique in medical illustrations, so far as we are familiar with them.
Dr. Mildred M. Philips, in a communication to the Alumnae association of the college, gives a translation of the character seen in the cut, a part of which is as follows:
“ A knowledge of the Rhyming medical adviser is considered a sufficient qualification to be a practising physician. Such igno
NE ramuses (as those thus qualified] recklessly prescribe for disease, and ignorantly trifle with men's lives. If a patient dies, it is charged to his fate, and the doctor is not held responsible by the law. If a patient survives, he praises the skill of the doctor."
The article in the pamphlet from which the cut is taken gives a short account of the operation, and then adds, “If this disease had not met with this doctor, it could hardly have been relieved. If this doctor had not met with this disease, who could have known any thing of such divine skill?
“When Chinese doctors hear of this, their tongues will become immovable, three hundred years. Beginning with Harvey and their heads will hang down."
and Sydenham, and ending with Sir James Paget and Sir Joseph Lister, the author has sketched
the lives of a succession of scientific men, eminent DOCTORS AND THEIR WORK.
in the various departments of medicine and surENGLISH medical annals contain many names gery, of whom any country may well be proud. both familiar and honored the world over. It has It is, perhaps, from such memoirs as these that not been a difficult matter, therefore, for Mr. the history of progress in medicine can be most Bettany to prepare a fair history' of the progress pleasantly traced. The personal element in science of medical science in England during the past is often neglected, but always repays investigation. 1 Eminent doctors. Their lives and their work. By G.
And nothing is more entertaining than to notice T, BETTANY, London, Hogg, 1885. 8o.
how the pure scientific spirit in search of facts
displayed by one, the clear reasoning powers of of the cases had no external wound, these evils another, and the practical mind of a third, all were greatly mitigated or entirely absent. He have their place, and combine to produce a result had also been struck with an account of the rewhich no one genius alone could have reached. markable effects produced by carbolic acid upon Harvey and Hunter may be selected as types of the sewage of the town of Carlisle ; the admixture the first class mentioned, as they were among the of a very small proportion not only preventing all earliest to make evident the necessity of an accu- odor from the lands irrigated with the refuse rate knowledge of the structure of the body as a material, but also destroying the entozoa which foundation for all further progress.
In the mu- usually infest cattle fed upon such pastures. These seum which bears Hunter's name is to be found facts, taken in connection with others which he a lasting monument of his influence in impress- had ascertained in experiments concerned in proving upon his contemporaries and successors the ing the germ theory of disease of Pasteur, led him need of a wide collection of data for scientific to the idea that if a wound could be closed to the induction. With him may be classed Charles entrance of air, or be kept from all obnoxious Bell and Marshall Hall, whose careful physiologi- influences in the air by the use of carbolic acid, cal experiments furnished many of the facts upon the conditions for rapid healing without the comwhich modern theories are based. The reasoning plication of hospital diseases might be fulfilled. mind which advances from facts to conclusions From this idea was developed the entire system is exemplified by such men as Bright and Addison of antiseptic dressings which bears the name of and Holland. To put facts together, to balance Lister. From the first experiments in the use of their comparative importance, to eliminate the these dressings, a change in surgical procedure non-essential, and thus to reach a logical conclu- began ; and now, under their use, wounds which sion, is the work of the diagnostician, a work never healed formerly under three or four weeks, which may not bring lasting fame, since it is con- are completely healed in six days. Operations cerned with individual cases only, but which is which were followed by days of fever and distress none the less important in increasing the sum of are now succeeded by rapid recovery without any general knowledge. It is, perhaps, in the prac- surgical fever. Various procedures are daily tical application of facts and theories that the undertaken which formerly would have been English school has been pre-eminent. The names unhesitatingly declared impossible, and pyaemia of Astley Cooper, Syme, Jenner, and Lister, will and hospital gangrene have been almost banished occur naturally in this connection. To Jenner from wards where the system is properly carried and Lister the race owes a tremendous debt. out (ii. 141-147). They have saved, and are to-day saving, the lives It would have added to the interest of this book of thousands. And it is not only for the methods if a large number of details had been given reof vaccination and an ptic surgery that science garding the personal characteristics of the physiis indebted to them : it is for the principle involved cians whose lives are sketched. Even without these, in these methods,--the principle of preventive medi- however, the book will prove of interest both to cine. To cure an individual case may be gratify- those in the medical profession who wish to know ing, to discover a remedy for a single disease something of their English predecessors and conmay be beneficial; but to find a means of making temporaries, and to those outside of the profession the entire race exempt from certain dangerous who are interested in the history of the progress affections is indeed a triumph. Under Lister's of science.
M. A. S. method of antiseptic surgery, operations are daily performed which the boldest of all the surgeons DR. A. B. Griffiths, of the Manchester techniin this list of eminent men would never have ven- cal school, has published the following account of tured to undertake. The history of Lister's dis- an assay of gold ore from the vicinity of Constancovery is interesting. In 1860 he was put in charge tinople : ** The gold is disseminated in very small of a new hospital in Glasgow, and, although the pieces here and there through a quartz and earthy most approved principles were employed in its matrix. The ore comes from mines which have construction, it proved extremely unhealthy. not been worked for several centuries, and were Pyaemia, erysipelas, and hospital gangrene showed thought to be exhausted of gold. The assay, both themselves, affecting most severely those patients by dry and wet methods (of a carefully selected in the wards nearest the ground. Lister noticed, sample), gave 3 oz. 14 dwt. of gold per ton of ore. that, when nearly all the beds contained patients The gold in the ore contains iron and copper, and with open sores, the diseases which result from a very small quantity of silver. The matrix is hospital atmosphere were sure to be present in an composed chiefly of quartz, but contains calcium aggravated form ; whereas, when a large proportion carbonate, ferric oxide, alumina, and lime."
INDEX TO VOLUME VI.
Names of contributors are printed in small capitals.
ABBOTT, C. C. Aestivation of mammals;
what is it ! 402.
cultivation in, 160; East.explorations in,
Cameroons district, 555.
trade, 441; smithy, ill. 347.
litical scientists,' 233.
during sleep, 841; influence on scientific
morial of, 258.
convention, 68; science, society for pro-
motion of, 2, 193.
university courses in, 240,
industries of, 357, 427; late news from,
ment of science, 197. 201; committee re.
Amia, serrated appendages of, 226.
310, 359, 473; spectrum of, ill. 262, 333,
of the history of China, 479.
201; undergraduate study at, 4:28.
tion of American association, 230.
colonization in, 555; trade routes with
creaming milk, 194.
ral gas, 42, 181.
ill. 242, 337.
310, 333, 358, 381, 405, 427, 418, 473, 489,
work at Nice, 350.
to the production and consumption of
operation, 237; fire insurance, 236; silk.
culture in United States, 236.
from West Virginia, 563.
men of note, W. 72.
water-supply to cholera, 532.
Campanula americana, 225.
BASHORE, H. B. An Indian paint-cap, 3.
atropine on circulation, 224.
scums, 224; demands of agriculture on
496, 519, 556.
the literature of micro-biology, 124.
cases to public health, reviewed, 38.
382; section of American association,
tic, of Madayascar, 418; origin of, 116;
practical, $H; Shaw school of, 21, 475.
vey done for science: 558.
zation of functions in, 379; physiology
wanna valley, 221.
Brazil, mangrove mud in, 120.
Bréon and Korthals on results of Kraka-
toa eruption, ill. 291.
Breslau water-supply, 34.
BREWER, W. H. The ginkgo-tree, 103.
Bridges, railroad, 14.
BRINTON, D. G. The sculptures of Cozu-
British America, plains of, 468; museum
and cultivation of oysters in floats, 437.
Brugmann's Philology, reviewed, 366.
Building-stones, decay of, 14.
BUNKER, F. S. Anti-cholera inocula-
Burgess, E., 384, 477.
Burmah, 158; fate of, settled, 552; rail-
Burman dispute, maps, 399.
Burrill, T. J., on silk-culture, 194.
Busk on the Challenger Polyzoa, 527.
Butler, A. W., on remains at San Juan
BUTLER, N. M. The study of logic in the
Butterflies of North America, 307.
Cable, laying a, 545.
CAILLETET, L. The liquefaction of oxy-
Caird's Social philosophy and religion of
California, archeological discovery in, 19.
Camphor, trade in, 451.
Canada, geological survey, 521; small-pox
Cantwell's exploration of the Kowak
Capello and Ivens in Central Africa, 489.
Carbolic acid as a disinfectant, 566.
Carter, R. B., on civilization and eye-
Cartographic work in Portugal, 59.
Cassino's Standard natural history, re-
Cassiopeiae (y), spectrum of, 386.
Caucasus, explorations in, 492; petroleum
Cereals, origin of, 73.
Chaffaujon's expedition on the Orinoco,
Challenger expedition, work of, reviewed,
Chancellor, C. W., on causes of pulmo
CHAPPEL, J. E. Crystals in maple sirup,
Charcoal burning, utilization of by-prod-
Chauvin, Marie von, on Mexican axolotl,
Chazal, P. E., on determination of nitro-
Chemical laboratory, national, suggested,
Chemistry, organic, 76; and public health,
Chemists, agricultural, meeting of, 248;
Chesapeake zoological laboratory, work
Chevreul, a centenarian, 258.
Cheyne's observations on cholera microbe,
Chicago-River pollution, 27.
CHILD, A. L. The English sparrow, 478.
CHIPMAN, K. A. Color associations, 125.
Christiani on localization of functions in
Chronograph, improvements in, 205.
Cincinnati scientific lectures, 359.
Clam, edible, introduced on Atlantic
Clapp-Griffiths Bessemer plant, 342.
Clayton, H. H., on weather-changes of
Clowes's Practical chemistry, 117.
lina, 548; problems in study of, 217.
Cocaine, influence of, on circulation, 224.
Cold, action of, on microphytes, 393;
Coleoptera of America, 382, 454.
Colonization in Algeria, 317.
Color and other associations, 82, 125, ill.
Combustion, effect of heating air upon,
Comets II and III of 1884, ill. 47; 1885
Congress, American forestry, 181; of
CONN, H. W. A suggestion from modern
Connecticut, height of land in, 4; legisla-
Consumptive period, 35.
Cooke's Scientific culture, reviewed, 114.
Cooley system of creaming milk, 194.
Cope, E. D., on brain and auditory organs
Cornil and Babes's Bacteria, reviewed, 77.
Corona, photographing solar, 131, 32, 3
CORTHELL, E. L. The ship-railway b
Corwin, cruise of, 425.
Coulter, J. M., on relation of ovary and
Cowles, E. H. and A. H., and Mabery, C
Crinoids, stalked, 138.
CROSS, C. R. Electric measuring appara
Crystals in maple sirup, 520, 539.
Cylinder condensation, 216.
D., W. M. The recent tornadoes, 252.
Dakota group in Nebraska, 221; mounds.
DALL, W. H. The arms of the octopus,
Dana, J. D., on Silurian fossils from New
Danais Archippus, 409.
Danish expedition to east coast of Green-
Darwin, Charles, portrait, 10; biography
Darwinism, public sentiment toward,
Disinfection, 328, 564.
Displacement of solar lines, 358.
Doctors, eminent, 571.
Dolley's Technology of bacteria investi-
gation, reviewed, 97.
Dome, floating, ill. 80.
Don, connecting, with Volga, 515.
Dorsey, E. B., on English and American
DORSEY, J. O. Linguistic studies at the
Dorsey, J. O., on Siletz agency, 230.
Draper, D., on effect of ozone, 302.
Dunnington, F. P., on laboratory practice,
DUTTON, C. E. The latest volcanic erup-