« PreviousContinue »
rence which are and must always remain the ble; and the main geological features are so clear and chief seats of population and wealth, and an accu- easily read, that, although the details are largelsi rate knowledge of which must therefore always left to the future, the present report and map will be of prime importance. This result is now in a be found adequate for a long time. The treeless large measure accomplished ; and meanwhile the character of the plains is in a large measure offset external conditions have greatly changed. The by the fossil fuels, but their aridity is not thus Canadian Pacific railway has connected the Guf mitigated. That the climate has become drier of St. Lawrence with the Gulf of Georgia, and in post-glacial times, is very plainly indicated by flourishing communities have arisen in British the broad, deep drainage channels known as Columbia and Manitoba. With this tide of immi- coulées, which were evidently formed by large gration and development in the far west has come rivers, but are now dry, or nearly so. not only the possibility, but the necessity, of greatly Dr. Robert Bell's report on the Athabasca River extending the field and changing the plan of the gives the results of a rapid geological reconnaissance survey. The outlines of the geology of a vast of the valley of that stream from the 55th parallel region are being rapidly traced, while the elabora- to Lake Athabasca. We have here the first definite tion of details is mainly left to the future, save information concerning a geological section, which, where there is promise of important economic de- like that on the Bow and Belly rivers, is chiefly velopments.
remarkable for its simplicity and its promise of imThe • Report of progress of the Canadian geolo- portant economic developments. It consists of gical survey for 1882-81,'' includes, besides the sum- cretaceous marls and sandstones resting horizonmary report of the director and two contributions tally but unconformably on horizontal beds of from the chemist of the survey on the composition Devonian limestone ; and the lower part of the of the coals and lignites of the north-west territory, cretaceous is, over an area of thousands of square and various building stones and ores, thirteen sepa- miles, supersaturated with asphaltum and petrorate reports on explorations, in nearly as many leum. In no other extensive petroleum-field, different sections of the dominion. These are
probably, are the conditions so simple and so clearly arranged in geographical order, beginning in the exposed as here. It is very much as if the two far west ; and it is therefore especially surpris- thousand feet of barren rock covering the oil-sands ing to find that the first report was written of Pennsylvania were removed. In the Athabasca twenty-five years ago, though now published for field, too, the much-vexed question of the origin the first time. This is an account of the geology of petroleum seems to find a ready solution, the of the country near the 49th parallel, west of the facts affording substantial support to the theory Rocky Mountains, by Mr. H. Bauerman, geologist that the oil has its source in the underlying limeto the boundary commission. The publication of stone, which is distinctly oleiferous. these rather antiquated observations seems to be Dr. Bell also accompanied the expedition sent justified by the fact that they largely relate to out in 1884 to establish meteorological stations at districts which have not been covered by more various points in Hudson's Strait and Bay. But recent explorations.
he enjoyed no special facilities, and the desultory This is followed by the most important of recent observations here published are all that could have contributions to Canadian geology ; Dr. G. M. been reasonably expected, even from so experienced Dawson's final report of 170 pages, on the region of an observer, especially considering that he was not the Bow and Belly rivers, embracing an area of only the geologist, but the zoologist, botanist, about 27,000 square miles of prairie and plateau taxidermist, photographer, and medical officer of country lying in the angle between the United the expedition. The glacial phenomena, past and States boundary and the eastern base of the Rocky present, received most attention ; and the interestMountains. This district, which touches the paleo- ing fact is established that the top of the coastzoic rocks of the mountains, and is based on the range of Labrador projected above the ice-sheet, cretaceous and Laramie formations, is the first in and was not glaciated. This report is accomthe north-west territory of which a systematic and panied by lists of the plants, mammals, birds, crusproximately complete examination has been made, tacea, marine invertebrates, and lepidoptera coland is of special importance in consequence of the lected. proximity of the valuable coal and lignite deposits to
Professor Laflamme's observations on the Sagthe line of the Canadian Pacific railway. These are uenay have so greatly extended and multiplied the shown to be wide-spread and practically inexhausti- known areas of Trenton limestone as to suggest
that this rock may once have covered the Lauren1 Geological survey of Canada. Report of progress for 1882-84. ALFRED R. C. SELWYN, director. Montreal, Daw
tian highlands continuously from the St. Lawrence son, 1885. 8°.
to Hudson's Bay, this part of the continental nu
cleus having been completely submerged by the running diagonally from Manche in the northsea of that period. But it must have been dry west to Savoie (Lyons) in the south-east, divides land previously, since no traces of the Chazy, cal- the country into two parts. To the north-east of ciferous, and Potsdam are found beneath the Tren- this line the inhabitants are above the average ton, which rests directly and horizontally upon height ; to the south-west of it, below the averthe Laurentian gneiss, and is so related to the age. This phenomenon was known to Broca, who present elevations and depressions of the gneissic ascribed it to racial influences alone. He held surface as to indicate that they are in large part that the Celts and the Cymri mentioned by Caesar the result of erosion in pre-Cambrian times. were the racial ancestors of the present French
The reports by Messrs. Ells and Low on the people. The Celts were of mean height, and were Gaspé Peninsula, with the maps, indicate con- further distinguished by their round heads and siderable progress in the elucidation of this small bulging foreheads, and light hair and eyes ; while but very formidable wilderness; and Mr. Ells's the Cymri (or Belges of Caesar) were tall, and had notes on the geology of Prince Edward's Island long heads, with broad, high foreheads and light prove that the so-called triassic beds of this island hair and eyes. Broca had also pointed out that belong almost wholly to the Permo-carboniferous. unusual deviations from the average height were
Prof. L. W. Bailey continues his investigation more common in those regions which we may reof the geology of New Brunswick in a report on gard as the country of the Celts, and rare among Carleton and York counties, which is devoted chiefly to the Silurian and supposed Cambro-Silu
526.6in-S 7.2in rian strata. The latter consist mainly of highly crystalline gneisses and schists; and the only evidence of their Cambro-Silurian age consists in the
MANCHE fact that they are overlain unconformably by the Silurian beds, coming between the latter and the great granite axis, by which it is supposed they have been metamorphosed.
DOUBS Mr. R. Chalmers describes at considerable length the interesting glacial phenomena of the same region. Mr. Hugh Fletcher's extended report on the
SAVOIE northern and hitherto unsurveyed portion of Cape
Vsestr 5253 Breton, with the accompanying map of the whole island, places the geology of this province on a par with that of the rest of Acadia. The scale of the map, which covers 24 sheets, is entirely too
Less than 54.36in liberal, being at least twice as large as either the topographic or geologic details require ; and the bulkiness of the map seriously diminishes its use- the Cymric people. Broca prepared his map acfulness, especially in the absence of a general map cording to the frequency of the deviations from of the island on one sheet.
the average height, and his result is quite similar The remainder of the volume is made up of de- to what is obtained when, as in the present intailed reports on the apatite mines and deposits of stance, the average height itself is the basis of Ottawa county, and the gold mines of the Lake of comparison. In both cases France is divided by the Woods, and some scattering observations on a line from north-west to south-east into two parts, the mines and minerals of Ontario, Quebec, and the inhabitants of one of which are markedly Nova Scotia.
taller than those of the other, while about the same regions appear as the extremes either of tallness or
smallness in both cases. HEIGHT IN FRANCE.
It is well known that if the height of a large In the accompanying map of France the average number of men are taken, and the number of men height of the inhabitants is indicated by the shad- at each height be recorded, the largest number of ing, in which the darker shades denote the smaller, records will centre about the mean height of the and the lighter shades the greater heights. It whole group, and the number will grow smaller as will be seen that a line, as shown on the map, we leave the point of average height to either side. 1 From the Revue scientifique, October, 1885. By M.
It is further known that the frequency of the JACQUES BERTILLON.
records at each point of the scale is deterinined by
the probability curve. The applicability of this cretinism) seem to be active is offered in Switzer-
THE EXTRACTION OF SUGAR FROM
SORGHUM AND SUGAR-CANE. siderable variation in the average height. In The experiments in the application of diffusion several parts of France there is a strong indication and carbonatation to the extraction and crystalof the existence of two types, distinguishable by lization of sugar from sorghum, which have been in their difference in height. If we draw the curve progress under the direction of Dr. H. W. Wiley of height for these portions, this phenomenon is and his assistants at Ottawa, Kansas, during Sepevident. A good example is shown in the de- tember and October, have been described by him partment Doubs. The top of the curve for this in Bulletin No. 6 of the chemical division of the region is M-shaped, while, in dealing with a department of agriculture. The difficulties met case in which the probability case does hold, with were largely of a mechanical nature, or rethat is, when a single type is present, as in La sulting from the effects of early frost injuring the Creuze, the top of the curve resembles an in- quality of the cane which was used for the experiverted V. There exist, then, in all the provinces ment. in the north-eastern half of France, two types which Of the trial on Oct. 8, Dr. Wiley says that durcan actually be separated from each other. This ing a run of about 21 hours, 70 cells, of about 1400 is shown on the map by the occurrence of pairs pounds of cane apiece, or 49 tons, were diffused, of smaller circles ; and the ratio of the size of giving from 65 cells 96,140 pounds of juice. The these circles indicates the proportion of the two exhausted chips contained less than 2 per cent of types in each part. The average height of the sugars, and the waste waters about the same tall type is 5 feet 6.6 inches ; of the other, 5 feet amount; so that the extraction may be said to be 4.6 inches. It is certainly a curious fact that nearly complete. The cost was about 80 cents per these two peoples, who now have every thing in ton, and, with improvements in the mechanical common, language, mode of life, and all, – details of the apparatus, labor and fuel can be who intermarry freely, and probably have no con- saved, and the cost reduced to 30 cents. The juice sciousness of their dual origin, should still be drawn off stood to the cane chips in the ratio of unidentified by the constant characteristic of a 110 : 100 in the first, and 95.3 : 100 in the second, difference in height.
part of the experiments. The solids it contained It is probable that other circumstances than varied from an average of 1.024 per cent, correthose of race can affect the stature of a people. sponding to a specific gravity of 1.0394 at 25° C., Chief among these are, 1°, the well-being of the in the first half, to 10.55, corresponding to 1.0405 community; and, 2°, pathological conditions. at 25° C., in the second half, of the experiThere are countries where the average stature has ment. changed without the introduction of a new racial The juice corresponding to 15 tons of cane was element. In the low countries (Holland, etc.) defecated by the method of carbonatation, and this phenomenon is ascribed to the effect of the yielded 4320 pounds of masse cuite, containing 77 draining of the marshes, and the general better- per cent of solids, or a little more than 14 per cent ment of the people.
of the cane worked. This, on being .swung out,' The statistics of Saxony, from 1852 to 1854, yielded 1420 pounds, or 30 per cent of sugar well make possible a comparison between the heights washed and dried, polarizing about 98 per cent, or of the liberal and the laboring professions. If we at the rate of 95 pounds to the ton. The yield of draw the curves representing the number of each second sugars would, of course, increase the rate of class at each height, the curve for the liberal pro- production per ton. Allowing 12 pounds to the fessions shows a superiority of height throughout. gallon for the masse cuite, the number of gallons They have fewer short persons, and more tall ones. per ton would be 24, which is far in excess of the The difference between the two, however (5 feet amount usually produced. 5.6 inches and 5 feet 4.25 inches), is smaller than in Dr. Wiley's general conclusions are as follows: the case of racial difference.
1. By the process of diffusion 98 per cent of the A case in which pathological influences (such as sugar in the cane was extracted, and the yield was