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which is also thin and wavy-margined. Placed “But the impulse thus given to scientific thought upon a mass of Sargassum in an aquarium, the rapidly spread beyond the ordinarily recognized limScyllaea was hard to find, so closely did it imi
its of biology. Psychology, ethics, cosmology, were tate the appearance of the leaves. To make
stirred to their foundations; and the Origin of this an undoubted case, the Scyllaea should
species' proved itself to be the fixed point which have been found upon the gulf-weed, and
the general doctrine of evolution needed in order
to move the world. “Darwinism,' in one form or should never occur anywhere else. This was
another, sometimes strangely distorted and mutifound on the sand; and it is the only specimen lated, became an every-day topic of men's speech, the that has ever been found by our party, so that object of an abundance both of vituperation and of we may consider it a rarity. As it can swim praise more often than of serious study. very readily, almost like a heteropod in this “It is curious, now, to remember how largely, at respect, and is naturally found only in the out- first, the objectors predominated; but, considering side waters, the chances were against their be
the usual fate of new views, it is still more curious ing found in any numbers. It seems to me
to consider for how short a time the phase of vehethat there can be but little doubt that this crea
ment opposition lasted. Before twenty years had
passed, not only had the importance of Mr. Darwin's ture presents another interesting case of mim
work been fully recognized, but the world had disicry, and deserves mention, and additional
cerned the simple, earnest, generous character of observation if any one is so situated as to be
the man, that shone through every page of his able to make it. HENRY LESLIE OSBORN.
“I imagine that reflections such as these swept PROFESSOR HUXLEY ON DARWIN.
through the minds alike of loving friends and of
honorable antagonists when Mr. Darwin died, and OUR readers have been informed, that, through that they were at one in the desire to honor the popular international subscription, a fund had been
memory of the man, who, without fear and without raised to erect a statue to Charles Darwin, and that reproach, had successfully fought the hardest intelthis was recently unveiled with appropriate ceremo- lectual battle of these days. nies at the new museum of natural history in South “It was in satisfaction of these just and generous Kensington. We copy from Nature the address upon impulses that our great naturalist's remains were that occasion, made by Professor Huxley in the name deposited in Westminster Abbey; and that immeof the committee, to the Prince of Wales as repre- diately afterwards, a public meeting, presided over sentative of the trustees of the British museum. by my lamented predecessor, Mr. Spottiswoode, was We accompany it by a portrait and signature of held in the rooms of the Royal society for the purDarwin, taken from a photograph obtained in Lon- pose of considering what further steps should be don in 1872, and inscribed, “I like this photograph taken towards the same end. better than any other which has ever been taken of “It was resolved to invite subscriptions, with the me. — CH. DARWIN."
view of erecting a statue of Mr. Darwin in some “YOUR ROYAL HIGHNESS, — It is now three years suitable locality, and to devote any surplus to the since the announcernent of the death of our famous advancement of the biological sciences. Contribucountryman, Charles Darwin, gave rise to a manifes- tions at once flowed in from Austria, Belgium, tation of public feeling, not only in these realms, Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, but throughout the civilized world, which, if I mis- Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzertake not, is without precedent in the modest annals land, the United States, and the British Colonies, no of scientific biography.
less than from all parts of the three kingdoms; and “ The causes of this deep and wide outburst of they came from all classes of the community. To emotion are not far to seek. We had lost one of
mention one interesting case, Sweden sent in 2,296 those rare ministers and interpreters of nature whose subscriptions ‘from all sorts of people;' as the disnames mark epochs in the advance of natural knowl
tinguished man of science who transmitted them edge; for, whatever be the ultimate verdict of pos- wrote, “from the bishop to the seamstress, and in terity upon this or that opinion which Mr. Darwin
sums from five pounds to twopence.' has propounded, whatever adumbrations or antici- “The executive committee has thus been enabled pations of his doctrines may be found in the writings to carry out the objects proposed. A 'Darwin fund' of his predecessors, the broad fact remains, that has been created, which is to be held in trust by the since the publication, and by reason of the publica- Royal society, and is to be employed in the promotion, of the Origin of species,' the fundamental tion of biological research. The execution of the conceptions and the aims of the students of living statue was intrusted to Mr. Boehm; and I think that nature have been completely changed. From that those who had the good fortune to know Mr. Darwin work has sprung a great renewal, a true instauratio personally will admire the power of artistic divinamagna of the zoological and botanical sciences. tion which has enabled the sculptor to place before
1 Dr. Breitenbach, in the article above referred to, mentions us so very characteristic a likeness of one whom he without any names, and with too vague description for indentifi. had not seen. cation, a creature on the Sargassum that would seem to be Scyl. laea.
“It appeared to the committee, that, whether they
regarded Mr. Darwin's career or the requirements of along the coast between the Yellow Sea and the Bay a work of art, no site could be so appropriate as this of Bengal. Evidently the solution of the problem of great hall; and they applied to the trustees of the reaching western China is to be sought in the course British museum for permission to erect it in its of these rivers or on their banks. The first of these present position. That permission was most cor- rivers to the east is the Yang-Tze-Kiang, which may dially granted, and I am desired to tender the best be easily ascended for seven hundred kilometres. thanks of the committee to the trustees for their Junks can proceed above that as far as Sion-Choo, willingness to accede to our wishes. I also beg in Se-Chuen; but it is impossible to go higher, and leave to offer the expression of our gratitude to your consequently impossible to reach Yun-Nan. South of royal highness for kindly consenting to represent the Yang-Tze-Kiang is the Si-Kiang, or Canton River, the trustees to-day.
navigable to the city Pe-se, nine hundred kilometres. “It only remains for me, your royal highness, my Regular caravans then proceed by land to Yun-Nan, lords and gentlemen, trustees of the British museum, a route which is shorter than by the Yang-Tze-Kiang. in the name of the
But Song-Ka, the Darwin memorial
river of Tonquin, committee, to re
offers a shorter quest you to ac
route than this; cept this statue of BARRAPO SION-CHOO YANG-TZE LATE
and Lieut. KerCharles Darwin. BOOTAM N
garadec says that We do not make
steamers of light this request for the ASSAM
draught can reach mere sake of per
Laos-Kai, on the petuating a mem
Chinese frontier, ory; for, so long as
while junks asmen occupy them
MAIN-CHUSS cend to Mangselves with the
Hao, in the cenpursuit of truth, MANDELA
tre of the Yunthe name of Dar
HA NOOR ALPHO
Nan territory. win runs no more
We have nothrisk of oblivion
ing to hope from tban does that of TUNGUTS
the Me-Kong. Its Copernicus or that
outlet is much farof Harvey.
ther away, and “Nor, most as
rapids are numersuredly, do we ask
ous. It is imposyou to preserve
sible at present to the statue in its
seriously think of cynosural position
building a railway in this entrance
on its banks a hall of our Na
thousand kilometional museum of S.-BOUNDARIES OF STATES
tres in length, natural history as
and, what is more, evidence that Mr.
in an unknown, Darwin's views
savage, and hostile have received your
country, and one official sanction;
of the most mounfor science does not recognize such sanctions, and tainous regions of the world. The Saluen empties commits suicide when it adopts a creed.
into the Indian Ocean; but in most of its course it “No: we beg you to cherish this memorial as a flows near the Me-Kong and Yang-Tze-Kiang, and symbol by which, as generation after generation of traverses with them the province of Yun-Nan. Startstudents of nature enter yonder door, they shall be ing from Martaban, a stone road could proceed to reminded of the ideal according to which they must the junction of the Main-Long-Gye, follow this river, shape their lives, if they would turn to the best traverse the mountain range which separates the account the opportunities offered by the great insti- basins of the Salven and the Me-Nam, proceed to tution under your charge.”
Zimme, then to Kiang-Hai, descend the He-Kok to
the Me-Kong, and ascend this river to the frontier of ROUTES INTO THE INTERIOR OF
China, and even as far as Talifu. This is a long and WESTERN CHINA.1
very hilly course; for it is necessary to pass from one
basin into a second, then into a third, and, further, to A GLANCE at the map shows in Yun-Nan and the build the route into the valley of the Me-Kong, - a adjacent part of Burmah the proximity of several plan any thing but practicable. It means gigantic large rivers, which separate farther south, and empty labor and incalculable expense, without considering 1 Condensed from Science et nature.
the probable hostility of the population.
A railway already follows the lower course of the Irrawadi, between Rangoon and Prome. This route has just been extended to Tungu on the Sitang, and ultimately will proceed to Mandelay, and even to Bhamo. A branch could be made at Mandelay, and touch the Me-Kong at Kiang-Tung, though in this comparatively short space it must cross at least eight mountain chains having a height of two thousand metres. One can imagine the inclination of the sides and the depth of the valleys among mountains so near each other. The Saluen flows seven hundred metres below the hills which border it: it is therefore out of the question to consider this.
Another project is to start from Bhamo, and to reach Talifu by Man-Wyne or Momein. In this territory the hills are even more marked, more abrupt, and steeper, than in the preceding, and the population is much to be feared. Even the Brahmapootra has been suggested: it is easily ascended to Sooja, partly by rail, partly by steam; but above this the route is impracticable, there being a rapid and uninterrupted succession of high mountains and highbanked rivers.
To summarize these data, the two Chinese rivers must be abandoned, not precisely on account of the difficulties of the territory, but because for a long time the celestial empire will be more or less impenetrable and dangerous for Europeans, and the course of the Me-Kong is too long and too hilly. The routes which traverse the bed of the Brahmapootra and the valley of the Irrawadi present such obstacles that they are impracticable. The route of the Saluen is more attractive; but it must not be forgotten, that, besides its length, it must cross two watersheds, one of which at least is very difficult, and must ascend the Me-Kong for a very long distance. The route by the Red River remains, which is not at all wonderfully accessible; but, to establish communications with Yun-Nan and with Se-Chuen, some obstacles must be surmounted; and this is the course which offers fewest of them. Beside the fact that it is shortest, it will not be necessary to cross mountains or to traverse valleys. The French recently sent a commission of engineers to survey for a railway between Tonquin and Burmah. We doubt whether this project can be realized; but these investigations will necessarily bring forth important data in regard to the penetration of western China.
accompanying text are being published in both Japanese and English. The agronomical survey was begun in 1882. A inap showing the knowledge at present attained, of the geological structure of Japan, is amongst the series. The observations made are summarized as follows: All the geological formations are met withı in Japan. Gneiss occurs in small quantities in the neighborhood of Nagasaki and in the centre of the main island. Crystalline schists, consisting of mica, talc, marble, serpentine, etc., are found in Shikoku and the south-west of the main island. The paleozoic formations embrace the largest portion of the country, and are found everywhere. The mesozoic formation, including trias, jura, and chalk, is also known in Japan, but is not so prevalent as the previous one. Trias occurs in the north and south-west of the main island and in Shikoku. Chalk is found widely distributed in Yezo, the main island, and Shikoku. The cenozonic formation, including the tertiary and quaternary, is found everywhere on the edges of the older mountain ranges. In these formations numerous remains of mammals are found, especially of prehistoric elephants. Of the Plutonic rocks, granite is found widely distributed, and covers, next to the paleozoic formations, the widest area. The volcanic rocks consist mustly of trachyte and andesite: basalt is rare. Among the soils in Japan is the so-called tuff, i.e., volcanic tuff, which, for the most part, consists of decomposed silicates, and which is of great importance to agriculture. It is almost wholly unknown in Europe, while in Japan it forms the greater part of the so-called hara, which are the uncultivated plains at the foot of mountains, but which will bear cultivation. Accurate knowledge of this kind of soil will be of the utmost moment to Japanese agriculture. It is also noticeable that Japanese soils in general are very poor in chalk, and would therefore be improved by the addition of marl and chalk.
THE GEOLOGY OF JAPAN. THE Japanese geological bureau has prepared a series of maps illustrative of the geology of the Japanese archipelago, to be presented at the Geological congress at Berlin this year. The bureau was established in 1879, and includes topographical, geological, and agronomical departments, and a chemical and technical laboratory officered by Germans. The area already surveyed by the topographers is about eighty geographical miles square; and the whole country is expected to be surveyed and mapped in about eight years more. The geological survey has reached about the same extent as the topographical. The maps and
AMERICAN ENGINEERS AT DEER
PARK. The annual convention of the American society of civil engineers, just held at Deer Park, Md., June 24-26, will be remembered as one at which more business was transacted, and more discussion elicited, than at any previous convention of the society. In fact, the limit in this direction may fairly be said to have been reached; and the thin attendance at the meetings of the last day was followed early in the afternoon by a motion, which was unanimously carried, that the reading of the remaining papers be dispensed with, as the members were too tired to listen to them. The experience at the conventions of the past few years had indicated the advisability of devoting less time than formerly to excursions and sight-seeing; and the meeting this year was therefore purposely held in a place offering little of local engineering interest, and where almost the whole time could be devoted to the business of the occasion.
The convention was attended by over one hundred
members; and the proceedings were opened on Tues- ment with corrosive sublimate, though of value when day, June 23, by the reading of a very interesting the wood is only exposed to occasional moisture, is paper by Mr. E. B. Dorsey, entitled English and not efficacious when the wood is permanently wet. American railroads compared.' It appears that the Although the testimony obtained was somewhat conaverage cost of the English railroads has been $202,- Alicting, the committee recommended the process of 227 per mile, as against $62,176 for the American Burnettizing (chloride of zinc) as the best process roads. At six per cent, to justify this increased ex- for preserving railroad ties, principally on account of penditure, that part of the operating expenses which the low cost, which was only from twenty to twentyis affected by good or bad construction should involve five cents a tie. Creosoting was found too expensive; a saving of about $8,000 per mile per year in the although it is the only effectual method for wood excase of the English roads. The comparisons of the posed to the attacks of the teredo and limnoria, and writer showed that this was by no means the case, is, without doubt, the most generally successful prothe saving being rarely over $1,000. Comparisons of cess. In connection with this report, a report was this kind, however, cannot pretend to be more than presented by Mr. F. Collingwood, on the preservaapproximations, as the items of expense cannot always tion of forests. be accurately separated; and, moreover, the figured A paper followed by Mr. Jos. M. Wilson of Philcost of English roads probably includes the cost of adelphia, on specifications for iron and steel railroadparliamentary proceedings in obtaining the charter. bridges, which was succeeded by a long discussion Regarding the physical characteristics of the English regarding the cantilever bridge at Niagara Falls, on roads, few of them attain elevations of nine hundred which a paper had previously been presented to the feet above the sea; and their construction, therefore, society. The specifications for this bridge, in which offered few engineering difficulties, their greater first steel was used for all the principal compression memcost having been due to the almost entire absence of bers, provided for the use of open-hearth steel alone. temporary structures. Recently several miles had In this discussion the opinion was very generally exbeen laid with steel sleepers, weighing a hundred and pressed that Bessemer steel should not have been twenty-four pounds, on the London and north-western barred out, and that in drawing up specifications the railway, following the example of the German roads, engineer should insist simply on a certain quality as where they are quite common. Of freight-cars, only determined by physical tests, leaving the manufacabout twenty per cent have brakes in England; and turer free in the method of manufacture. It is probthese are so placed that they cannot be operated able in this case, however, that Bessemer steel was when the train is in motion: so the only effective excluded to prevent delays in getting steel from works ones are those on the engine and caboose. And in that had not had experience in making steel for passenger-trains, where the air-brakes are used, but structural purposes, as most of the Bessemer works where only one car in three or four has a hand-brake, had been making rail steel, and not structural steel. platform-cars heavily loaded with cast-iron, and The fact that in making the steel for this bridge a provided with powerful hand-brakes, are attached on hundred and thirty-six beats out of two hundred and steep grades, to hold the train in case of accident to forty-five were rejected, showed, in the opinion of the air-brakes.
many members, that engineers were requiring too Prof. T. Egleston of New York presented an much of steel, that the specifications were too rigid, interesting paper on the cause and prevention of the and that a softer steel should have been used. decay of building-stones. In the speaker's investi- Among the remaining papers presented, brief mengation of the decomposition of calcareous materials tion may be made of a few. Mr. J. A. Ockerson dedue to the action of city gases and rain-water, he scribed a new apparatus for printing conventional had found that the action was a maximum at a height topographical signs upon maps by means of a roller. of ten feet above the ground, above which point it Mr. Clemens Herschel gave a new method of deterdecreased, and was null above a height of a hundred mining the discharge over a submerged weir. Capt. feet. To prevent decay, the only remedy was to Michaelis read a paper entitled 'Can we make heavy make the stone water-proof. The speaker believed guns?' Professor Egleston added his testimony that a wash of sulphur was the only thing of value, that there would be no difficulty in making castwhere the stone was a dolomite, according to some steel guns of a hundred or even a hundred and fifty experience in England. In the case of all porous tons. Mr. C. B. Brush explained the method of stones, he considered that an effectual remedy would aerating the water supplied to Hoboken. The bad be to immerse the stone in boiled linseed-oil, renew- taste and disagreeable odor previously existing had ing the application until the stone was saturated. been entirely remedied. Some discussion on this paper took place, many mem- In addition to the reading of papers, some imporbers believing that the use of oil would prevent the tant business was transacted at the convention. There formation of a good bond between the stones and the having been considerable discussion of late in regard mortar. It was stated, however, that the method to the proper relation to each other of the form of had been tried with success in England.
the head of a rail, and the flange, and tread of A valuable and extensive report was presented by wheels, it was resolved that a committee of five be the committee on the preservation of timber, whose appointed to investigate this subject. It was also work has covered five years. It appears from the ex- resolved to memorialize congress to appropriate the perience in this country that Kyannizing, or treat- sum of ten thousand dollars to carry on tests of steel