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thick substance which remains ? How is it made into white sugar ? What names does it then get ? Why is it called lump sugar ? What is sugar said to do?
MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE.
A-midst the many kinds of food which our Ma'ker has been pleased to pro-vide' for us, the milk of cows is one of the most pleas'-ant and most use’-ful. Al-most all young persons like it, and noth'-ing is more whole'-some for them, wheth'-er they take it by it-self, or eat it with bread or with por'-ridge.
It is from milk that we get butter and cheese. After it is taken from the cows it is put into large flat dish'-es, made of wood, or of tin, or of čarthenware ; and there it stands till the next day, when the cream, or oil'-y part of the milk, is found to have come to the top. The cream is skimmed off and poured into a ves'-sel called a churn, where it is tossed and beaten a-bout', till lumps of but'-ter are formed. These are then taken out, washed well from the milk that may still be mixed with them, and put up in such a way as ei'-ther to be salt'-ed for winter stock, or car'-ried to mar-ket for sale. The liq'-uid sub-stance that is left be-hind' in the churn is butter milk, which is also called churned milk, and sometimes, from its being a little acid, is called sour milk.
Cheese is made ei'-ther of new milk or of skimmed milk. The milk is made some'-what warm. It is then cur-dled by some sour sub-stance ; and for
this pur'-pose a sub-stance named ren’-net, which is made of a calf's stom'-ach, is chief'-ly used. The curds are then squeezed, so as to be freed from the thin liq'-uor called whey, and when made as dry as they can be by the hand, have some salt mixed with them; and in this state they are put into a cheese press, by means of which, they are made firm and sol-id. After being kept there a cer'-tain time they be-come' cheese ; and the cheese as-sumes' the form or shape of the ves'-sel in which the curds were, when put into the cheese press. The cheese hav'ing been placed on a shelf to dry, is then read'-y for being taken to mar'-ket, or for being eaten.
In Eng'-land, the butter milk and the whey are most-ly used to feed pigs ; but in Scot-land, though some'-times used in the same way, they are thought of too much value to be mere'-ly given to the pigs; they are used for food by boys and girls, and also grown up people; and are found not only pléas'-ant to the taste, but also good for the health.
EXERCISES.—Where is the milk put after it is taken from the cows ? What is done with the cream ? What is the liquid substance that is left behind in the churn called ? Of what is cheese made ? How is milk curdled ? Of what is rennet made ? What is whey? What form does the cheese assume? What is done with the whey and butter milk in England ? What is done with them in Scotland ?
In al'-most every re-gion of the earth corn is to be found, of one spe'-cies or an-oth'-er,-even in the val-leys of the north, though sur-rounded by bleak
and snow'-y moun'-tains. This plant, which is the prin'-ci-pal sup-port of hu'-man life, is formed for grow'-ing in all sit-u-a'-tions, from the Line to the very borders of the Frozen O-cean. One spe'-cies is a-dapt-ed to the hu’-mid pla’-ces of warm countries, as the rice of A'-si-a, which grows in vast a-bun'dance in the mud'-dy swamps of the Gan'-ges. Other kinds of corn thrive on hot and dry land, as the mil-let of Af'-ri-ca and the maize of Bra-zil'. In our own cli’-mate, wheat a-grees' with a strong clay soil, rye with a san'-dy or grav'-el-ly one, oats with a coars'-er, and bar-ley with a fi'-ner soil. Barley suc-ceeds' in the very bo'-şom of the north. I have seen, says a writer, a-midst the rocks of Fin'-land, crops of this grain, as beau’-ti-ful as the plains of Pal-es-tine ever pro-duced'.
It is wor'-thy of re-mark' too, that corn is produced by plants which are neither too high nor too low for the hu'-man stat'-ure; but which are ea'-șily han'-dled and reaped. These plants grow up ev'-er-y year, and yield their har-vest each re-turn'ing season. Were corn pro-duced on for-ests of trees, and should these be de-stroyed' by war, or set on fire by our own im-pru'-dence, or rooted up by the winds, or rav'-aged by floods, it would require whole a'-ges to re-store' them, and man would be often left to starve.
Corn yields an am'-ple sup-ply' for the ne-ces'-sities of man. It gives him a whole'-some and palat-a-ble food. He can ex-tract from it a drink, refresh'-ing and nour'-ish-ing, when tem'-per-ate-ly used. It af-fords' grain for his põul'-try, bran for his pigs, for'-age and lit-ter for his cat'-tle and hors'-es. With its straw he en-joys' the means of lod'-ging, of cov'-er-ing his coť-tage, and keeping him-self' warm.
EXERCISES.-_Where is corn to be found ? Where does rice grow in vast abundance ? Where do millet and maize thrive ? With what kind of soil does wheat agree? What soil suits rye ? Were corn produced on trees, what might happen to man? What can he extract from corn? What does it yield to man? What does he enjoy with its straw ?
GOLD, SILVER, AND COPPER. Gold is of a deep yell-low col-our. It is very pret-ty and bright. It is a great deal hčav'-i-er than any thing else, ex-cept' plat’-i-num. Men dig it out of the ground. Shall I take my spade and get some ? No, there is none in the fields in this country: It comes from a great way off; and it lies deep'-er a great deal than you could dig with your spade. Sov'-er-eigns and half-sovereigns are made of gold. This watch is of gold; and the look'ing-glass frame, and the pic'-ture frames are gilt with gold. Here is some leaf gold. What is leaf gold ? It is gold beat very thin ; thin'-ner than leaves of pa'-per.
Silver is white and shi’-ning. The spoons are silver; and the waiter is silver ; and crowns, and half-crowns, and shil-lings and sixpences are made
of silver. Silver comes from a great way off too, from South A-mer'-i-ca.
Copper is red. Half'-pence are made of copper ; the ket'-tle and pots are made of copper; and brass is made of copper. Brass is bright yellow, like gold al'-most. This sauce'-pan is made of brass ; and the locks upon the door, and this can'-dle-stick. What is this green sub-stance upon the sauce'-pan? It is ver'-di-gris; it would kill you if you were to eat it.
EXERCISES.–Of what colour is gold ? What things are made of it? What is leaf gold? What colour is silver ? What things are made of silver ? From what place does it come? What colour is copper? What things are made of copper? Of what colour is brass? What would happen if you were to eat verdigris ?
IRON AND STEEL.
Iron is very hard. It is not pretty ; but I do not know what we should do without it, for a great many things are made of it. Go and ask the cook wheth'-er she can roast her meat with-out a spit. Well, what does she say? She says she cannot. But the spit is made of iron; and so are the tongs, and the po'-ker, and shovel. Go and ask Dob'-bin if he can plough without the plough'-share. Well, what does he say? He says no, he cannot. But the plough'-share is made of iron. Will iron melt in the fire ? Put the po'-ker in and try. Well, is it melt-ed? No; but it is red hot, and soft; it will bend. But I tell you, Charles, iron will melt in a very hot fire,' when it has been in a great while. Como, let us go to the black'-smith's shop. What is