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with each other, were then made fast with ropes, thus forming chevaux de frize to keep off the cavalry; and lastly a large quantity of fand was thrown between the branches which pointed outwards toward the enemy.

A trench could not be dug, as the fand was fo loose in its quality that the excavations were instantly filled up as soon as made: but the abbatis above-mentioned wason several accounts highly serviceable, particularly as it not only secured Mr. Thomas from the attacks of the enemy's cavalry, but afforded protection to the camp. He next directed batteries to be made for the defence of the different wells in the neighbourhood, which had by this time been cleaned out and opened afresh for use. He took poffeffion of and fortified the city in the best manner that the shortness of the time

" were stationed under the cannon of the place, behind an '« abbatis or breast-work formed of the trunks of trees “piled one upon another; and they were farther defended “ by whole trees, with their branches outward, some of « which were cut and sharpened so as to answer the pur« pose of chevaux de frize."-See Russel's History of Modern Europe, vol. v. p. 288.

admitted; ordered a large supply of provisions to be brought into his camp; and had scarcely finished these preparations, when the vanguard of the enemy's army appeared in fight. '

. On their arrival, the enemy encamped within four coss of Mr. Thomas, and soon after pushed on a detachment of cavalry and infantry to elear the wells in the neighbourhood. For two days he allowed them to proceed with their work uninterruptedly; but on the third morning, he with two battalions of infantry, eight pieces of artillery, and his own cavalry, marched out with a resolution to attack their grand park of artillery, leaving directions to the battalion that remained behind to attack and disperse the advanced party before-mentioned. On his departure, he left a written paper for Vavon Row, requesting that chief to follow with the remainder of his cavalry, and with the infantry which he had with him, to provide for the security of the camp.



Mr. Thomas was disposed to act in this manner from his experience of the Mahrattas, who he well knew, if acquainted with his plans, could keep nothing secret, but would, by die vulging them, put the enemy on their guard. It was night when he fet out; and a tumbril being upset on the road, occasioned confider, able delay in their progress, fo that the day began to dawn before the evil was repaired; and, to add to his mortification, on arriving near the camp, he perceived the enemy af fembled under arms, and ready to receive him.

It was now too late to carry his first design into execution. He pushed on, however ; and, coming up with a party who now advançed to meet him, attacked them to the number of seven thousand men with great fpirit and vigour, The enemy made but a feeble resistance, and soon after withdrew to their main body, having sustained considerable loss. The wells which had been cleaned out were again filled up; and Mr. Thomas, after collecting the horses and other cattle which had been left on the field, returned with his detachment to camp. On his way he met with the Mahratta cavalry, who seemed much out of humour that they had not been consulted on so important an occasion: but Vavon

Row; their chief, repressed their pride by telling them plainly, that their own delay in accoutring was the real cause of their disappointment.

Mr. Thomas's officers now received khilluts * from the Mahratta chief; and, to prevent animosities, fimilar marks of honour were bestowed, though with reluctance, on the officers of the Mahratta horse.

Preparations were now making by the enemy to bring on a general engagement, which proved far greater in its confequences than either party had foreseen. The next morning at day-break, Mr. Thomas was informed that there was a great bustle in the enemy's camp, and fhortly after received intelligence of their actual approach in order of battle. He had determined in his own mind the spot where he would engage; and as he. well knew no reliance could be placed on the Mahrattas, he was necessitated to leave a part of his infantry, and four fix-pounders, to guard

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the camp and cover his rear, which was in danger of being surrounded by the enemy: with the remainder, consisting of two battalions of infantry, two hundred Rohillas, his cavalry, and ten pieces of artillery, he prepared for the encounter.

The Mahrattas, on seeing the immense force they had to cope with, gave themselves over for loft; and Mr. Thomas was in a manner compelled to fight this important battle without assistance.

After some manoeuvres on either side, he was glad to find that the enemy distributed their army as he wished.


Their right wing, consisting of the whole force of the Rajpoot cavalry, was destined to the attack of his camp; and so certain were they of victory, that, on perceiving the stockade we have before described, they laughed at the idea that a few bushes, as they were pleased to term them, could for a moment retard their progress, or resist the impetuosity of the attack.. The left wing, conhisting of four thousand Ra

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