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dia, not deeming the capture of this fort worth the trouble it would take to gain possession, of his own accord soon after raised the siege, and returned to Seharunpore. Mr. Thomas remained with his force at Soneput, a city, twenty-six miles south of Panniput, the neighbouring country, barren and desolate.

North of this city is a mausoleum erected by Khizzer Khan, a Patan nobleman, descended from the royal family of Sheer Shah. This building is an octagon, surmounted by a spacious dome, and ornamented at the top with a cullis of copper gilt. The interior of the mausoleum is of grey stone, the cornices are embellished with sculpture ornaments of red freestone, and around the lower part of the dome runs a stone border, on which are engraved verses from the Koran in Arabic characters. The front of the building is decorated with roses cut in freestone, of a brown colour ; the whole uncommonly delicate, and has been finished with more than usual attention.

The pergunnah of Soneput composes part of the Jaghire of Desmouk, son-in-law of Scindia, and yields an income of seventy-five thoufand rupees. But in the reign of the emperor Mahomed Shah, this pergunnah, in consequence of the benefit it derived from its vici- nity to the noble canal of Ali Merdan Khan, is said to have yielded a revenue of nine lacks of rupees.

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· In the environs of Soneput, a traveller first meets with the coss minar, or Indian mile-stone.

It is a round pillar of brick, ten feet in height, - and placed on each side of the road, at the distance of about three English miles from each other. They were erected by order of the emperor Jehan Gheer, and formerly extended from Lahor to Agra. Adjoining to each of these pillars is a well, lined with brick, near which are stone benches expressly for the accommodation of travellers.

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Mr. Thomas had not long remained at Soneput, when rumours of the arrival of Zemaun Shah, king of Cabul, at Lahore, induced Bappoo to meet and consult with him on the prefent emergency

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Mr. Thomas accordingly repaired to Bappoo; but his troops having again fallen in arrears, were become clamorous for payment: this conduct giving offence to Bappoo, à misunderstanding took place between him and Mr. Thomas, when the latter in disgust marched away.

He was soon after attacked by Bappoo's force, who, on hearing of the retreat of the fhah, had determined on punishing Mr. Thomas for what he termed his late misbehaviour. An action ensued; but the commander of Bappoo's troops being wounded in the conflict, he thought proper to remove to a distance.

An amicable arrangement between the parties would now have taken place, had not the Seiks in Bappoo's army, aware of Mr. Thomas's intention to enter the Punjab, used their utmost exertions to widen the difference. Hoftilities being again renewed, an action took place at the passage of the Jumna ; and though the country people had by this time joined the Mahrattas, Mr. Thomas, by a spirited attack, compelled them to leave him a free passage.

Straitened for provisions, he proceeded on his route to the north-east frontier. In his retreat, he was followed by Bappoo's army; and the troops of Begum Somroo, as also those of Ragojee, governor of Delhi, had now increased the number of his enemies. . '

Over this combined force, however, he proved victorious; and having defeated the enemy in every attempt to interrupt him on his march, he at length reached the neighbourhood of Panniput. Here, on account of his inferiority in force, he was compelled for the present not only to relinquish the frontier towns, but to confine himself to Jyjur. Thither he shortly after arrived. Unable to satisfy the demands of his troops, Mr. Thomas now determined to levy contributions on the territories of his neighbours. For this purpose he led his army to Oreecha, a large and populous town belonging to the rajah of Jypore.


As a ransom for this place, Mr. Thomas demanded of the governor a lack of rụpees; which being denied, he stormed and took possession of the city. The fort, which was separate, still holding out, he was on the point of making a second assault, when the killadâr agreed to ransom both for fifty-two thousand rupees. During the negotiations the town had unfortunately been set on fire; which burnt so fiercely, that it was with difficulty extinguished, and not until goods to the amount of several lacks of rupees had been totally consumed. .

About this time a reconciliation was effected betwixt Mr. Thomas and Vavon Row, when it was agreed to adjust all former differences; and Mr. Thomas, to' evince the reconciliation was on his part sincere, brought under obedience to Vavon Row several refractory zemindars. He now entered the Jypore country the second time; and the Meenas, a thievish tribe inhabiting a part of the country on his route, about thirty cofs north of Jypore, having formerly invaded Vavon Row's possessions, Mr. Thomas attacked them in force, and in a very short time annihilated this nest of banditti. After these transactions, Mr. Thomas returned to Jyjur.

At this place, about the middle of the year

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