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By this statement it will appear that the entire force of this nation, exclusive of the district held by Zemaun Shah, eastward of the Attock,* can amount to no more than sixty-four thousand men, and of these two-thirds might probably take the field, were a chief of experience and enterprize to appear amongst them ; but this in Mr. Thomas's opinion is highly improbable. The chief of most consequence at prefent is Runjeet Sing: he having poffeffion of Lahore, which may be termed the capital of the Punjab, has acquired a decided ascendancy over the other chiefs, though he be frequently in a state of warfare with his neighbours who inhabit that part of the country situated between the Beyah and the Rawee. This chief is deemed by the natives as the most powerful among them. He posseffes one thousand horse, which are his own property.

The repeated invasion of the Punjab by small armies, of late years, affords a convincing proof that the national force of the feiks cannot be so formidable as has been represented. Several instances occur in support of this assertion. Not many years since, Dara Row Scindia invaded it at the head of ten thousand men; though not more than fix thousand of that number deserved the name of troops, the remainder being a despi. cable rabble. Though joined on his march by two chiefs, Buggeel Sing and Kurrum Sing, he was at length opposed by Sahib Sing, the chief of Fyzealpore. That chief was encamped under the walls of Kussoor,* having the river Cugger in his front; was defeated in an engagement, and the ensuing day the fort surrendered. Sahib Sing then agreed to pay the Mahrattas a sum of money, and most of the chiefs south of the Sutledge having by this time submitted to Dara Row, opposition was at an end..

' * These districts are computed to reach from Sirhind ta the banks of that riveri

It was successively invaded by the armies of Ambajee, Bala Row, and Nana Furkiah, who drove the feiks repeatedly before them.

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In 1800 Mr. Thomas himself entered their country at the head of five thousand troops and fixty pieces of artillery; and though by the instigation of enemies, who promised them assistance, the chiefs south of the Sutledge and in the Dooab (or country between the two rivers*) combined against him, yet he penetrated as far as the Sutledge. During that campaign he never faw more than ten thousand Seiks in one army: he remained in their country six months, two of which were passed without competition, and he finally compelled them to purchase peace. . . .

* Kussoor, a fort south of the river Sutledge,

Of late years the rajah of Serinnagur has likewise made some conquests in Punjab, chiefly between the Beyah and the Sutledge; and Nizamuddeen Khan, the patan before mentioned, has also acquired territory yielding a revenue of three lacks of rupees per annum.

The Seiks, though united, have never made any considerable opposition against the force of Zemaun Shah, who has frequently attacked them ; but it may be urged, that a great difference is to be expected from a formidable

* The Beyah and the Sutledge.

army of fixty thousand men, led on by the Shah in person, and the princes of the blood, compared with the detached bodies already defcribed. Hence it would appear that this nation is not so formidable as they have been represented, and in all probability they never will be formidable when opposed by regular troops. .. . ..

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The Seiks are armed with a spear, matchlock, and scymetar. Their method of fighting, as described by Mr. Thomas, is fingular :.. after performing the requisite duties of their religion by ablution and prayer, they comb their hair and beards with peculiar care ; then mounting their horses, ride forth towards the enemy, with whom they engage in a continued skirmish, advancing and retreating until man and horse become equally fatigued. They then draw off to some distance from the enemy, and meeting with cultivated ground, they permit their horses to graze of their own accord, while they parch a little gram for themselves ; and after satisfying nature by this frugal repast, if the enemy be near, they renew the skirmishing. Should he have retreated they provide foragefixty pieces of artillery; and though by the instigation of enemies, who promised them assistance, the chiefs fouth of the Sutledge and in the Dooab (or country between the two rivers*) combined against him, yet he penetrated as far as the Sutledge. During that campaign he never faw, more than ten thousand Seiks in one army: he remained in their country six months, two of which were passed without competition, and he fînally compelled them to purchase peace. . . .

Of late years the rajah of Serinnagur has likewise made some conquests in Punjab, chiefly between the Beyah and the Sutledge; and Nizamuddeen Khan, the patan before mentioned, has also acquired territory yielding a revenue of three lacks of rupees per annum.

The Seiks, though united, have never made any considerable opposition against the force of Zemaun Shah, who has frequently attacked them ; but it may be urged, that a great difference is to be expected from a formidable

; . The Beyah and the Sutledge.

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