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Bill

Bo'at Boo't Bush' U'se But Boy'

But' Boy' bout

ACCENT. Syllables are connected so as to form words, by the use of accent.

Accent is a stress of the voice, laid on one syllable in a word, which distinguishes that syllable from the rest.

Accent is made two ways; either by dwelling longer upon one syllable in a word, than the rest; or, by giving one syllable a smarter stroke of the voice, in utterance. When the accent is made by dwelling on a syllable, it is on a vowel ; as in pa'per, fé'ver, fi'nal, glo‘ry, tu'tor. When the accent is made by a smart stroke of the voice, it is on a consonant, and the preceding vowel is always short; as in rap'id, reb'el, riv'er, modern, cus'tom. Every word in the English language, of more syllables than one, has one syl. lable distinguished by accent ; and every monosyllable, a letter. In words of many syllables, there are commonly two accents perceived ; the one stronger, the other fainter as in lit"eratu're, im' portu"ne, as certain, or" ato'ry.

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND WORDS. Words are either simple or compound.

A simple word is that which cannot be divided into two or more words and retain sense ; as work, man, federal, add. A compound word is that which is made up of two or more words; as, workman, antifederal, superadd.

Compound words are generally formed by prefixing one or more syllables to the primitive ; as, hold, uphold: mix, intermix,

PRIMITIVB AND DerivatIVE WORDS. Words are either primitive or derivative.

A primitive word is that which is not derived from any word in our language ; as, love. A derivative word is that which comes from some other word; as from love, are de. rived lov-ing, love-ly, love-liness,

EMPHASIS. Words are connected so as to form sentences, by the use of emphasis.

Ba'ke Bå'rk Fåck Bill Bår

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4 Bee't Bet' Bi'te

Emphasis is a forcible stress of the voice laid on certain words in a sentence, in order to convey the meaning.

CADENCE.. Cadence is a falling of the voice at the close of a sentence,

Letters. A letter is a character standing as the representative of some articulate sound.

In the English alphabet there are twenty six characters; viz. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, qr, f, t; 2. v, w, X, Y, %.

These are divided into vowels and consonants. The vowels are, a, e, i, o, th, w, y.

The consonants are, b, , d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, , , X, %.

} The consonants are divided into mutes and semivowels. The mutes are, b, d, g, k, p, t. The semi vowels are, f, l, m, n, r, s, V, Z.

REMARKS ON THE CHARACTERS. Two of the consonants are superfluous ; c; and q: chav. ing always the power of k, s, or 2 ; anto, that of k. Two are marks of compound sounds; j, and x: 7, is the compound sound of ed ez-ba; and *, that of ks, or gz His no mark of any articulate sound, but a mere effort of the breath. I and #, as sounded in bite, use, are not simple sounds, but diphthongs. Thus, deducting the seven characters above inentioned, there remain but nineteen to tepresent

in amount to twenty ei ht: Consequently, to make a complete alphabet, in which every sound should have a matk

pecu• liar to itself, there ought to be nine more characters or letters.

In order to supply the deficiency of characters which represent the sounds of the vowels, we are obliged to give the same character different sounds. Thus, the letter a has three different sounds; as in bake, bart, ball.

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Bir Boat

Bo'at Boo't Bush' U'se Bui Boy' Bou't

E has two; as in beet, bet. I has a diphthongal sound, as in bite ; and a vocal sound, as in bit. O has two sounds, as in boat, boot. U has a diphthongal sound, as in use; and a vocal sound, as in but.

To supply the deficiency of characters, which represent the sounds of the consonants, we use the combinations th, sh, ng. Th represents two different sounds, an aspirated sound, as in breath; and a liquid sound, as in weather.

The simple sound ezh has no character to represent it, being formed by the sound of ez (commonly marked by s) coming before the diphthongal sounds ya, ye, yo, yoo, (mark. ed by ia, ie, io, and u) which being rapidly uttered, will un avoidably run into the simple sound ezh; as in elysian, osier, occasion, usual, pleasure.*

PAUSES, OR STOPS. The CHARACTERS made use of to mark PAUSES, are, 1. (The Comma, 5. (?) The Interrogation 2. ;) The Semicolon, Point, 3. ( : ) The Colon,

6.(!) The Exclamation 4. ( . ) The Period,

or Admiration Point.

Points EXPLAINED. 1. The Comma marks a pause while the reader may count one.

2. The Semicolon, while he may count one, two. 3. The Colon, while he may count one, two, three. 4. The Period, while he may count one, two, three, four.

The Interrogation and Exclamation Points are indeterminate as to their time, and may be equivalent, in that respect, to a semicolon, a colon, or a period, as the sense requires.

The Author acknowledges himself indebted to the late Mr. SAERIDAN, for many of the foregoing observations.

B

2

2

Balke

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Ba'rk Băck'. Ba'll Box' Bee't Bet' Bilte

The other MARKS or CHARACTERS made use of

in writing, are, 1. (°) The Accent,

12. (+) The Obelisk, 2. (') The Apostrophe, 13. ( The Double Obelisk, 3, (") The Quotation, 14. (II) The Parallel Lines, 4. The End of a Quotation, 15. () The Section, 5. ^) The Circumflex, 16. (1) The Paragraph, 6. () The Hyphen,

17. 0 The Crotchet, or 7. ☺) The Breve,

Brackets, 8. (1) The Caret,

18. (0) The Parenthesis, 9. (*) The Diæresis, 19. The Ellipsis, 10. (t) The Index,

20. The Brace. *) The Asterisk,

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The CHARACTERS made use of to express NUM

BERS, are the following:
I

XX

Twenty
II

Two

XXX

30

Thirty
III

3
Three

XL

40 Forty IV

Four

L

SO

Fifty
V

Five

LX 60 Sixty
Six

LXX

70 Seventy VII

7 Seven LXXX 80. Eighty VIII 8 Eight

XC

90 Ninety
IX

Nine
с

One hundred
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Іо Ten

CC

200

Two hundred
X
II Eleven CCC

300 Three hundred
XII
I 2
Twelve СССС

400 Four hundred
XIII
Thirteen D

500 Five hundred
XIV
14

Fourteen DC 600 Six hundred
XV IS
Fifteen DCC

700 Seven hundred XVI 16 Sixteen DCCC 800 Eight hundred XVII 17 Seventeen

DCCCC 900 Nine hundred XVIII 18 Eighteen м SOOC One thousand XIX 19 Nineteen MDCCC 1800 One thousand

eight hundred

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Bit Boat Boot Bush?

Bush? Use Bur Boy' Bou't

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