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tious have been the devices to improve
those that aré not so. How many of
these have been lost after obtaining some
Patronage, and how many have been re-
corded as monuments of human wisdom,
or of human folly, I am not prepared to
say, but it appears to me that the princi-
le of o plan is association. The ce-
ebrated Mr. Foote was asked his opinion
of a gallery of paintings, consisting en-
tirely of representations of naval battles.
"Indeed, sir,” he observed, “they are
all very fine, and what is much in their
favour they are all alike.” It is precisely
the same with the systems of mnemonics,
one leading principle pervades the whole,
the symbols and characters only are dif-
serent. The dark and mysterious
Egyptians made use of uncoath and
monstrous figures as records of their ac-
tions—the frank and manly Briton, for
the same purpose, used harmonious lan-
guage : the contrast is striking, and the
feeling it imparts gratifying. What is
true of nations is true also of individuals;
each one consults his taste as to the plan
he adopts to assist his memory, but still
adhering to the common principle of as-
sociation. The mathematician makes
use of figures; with him numbers are ex-
ressive of things: a linguist combines
tters; no matter what unmeaning word
he forms, he compels his memory to re-
tain it, and each letter is expressive of
an event: a third, fond of anecdote,
throws events into the form of stories,
and in this way his memory is aided :
another ties a knot in his handkerchief,
or puts a slip of paper into his snuff-box.
A proof of the prevalence of the science
of mnemonics.-Indeed we meet with it
in every department of life.
. In this hasty sketch I have not enquired
into the merit of any system, because,
for practical and useful purposes, volun-
tary associations are insufficient; the tie
that binds them together is not strong
$nough, for, in order to recollect a chair,
am desired to call to mind the Tower
$f Babel; to remember Henry the Eighth,
I am desired to call to mind eight hens,
t what is to lead my mind in this di-
rection? Can I not recollect a chair as
readily as the Tower of Babel? But
*uppose the art attainable, suppose a per-
*on, not naturally of a strong memory,
taught to repeat a page of a German
ok, without knowing the language, by
ring it once read, would such a me-
mory be desirable? I apprehend not.—
For what is the office of memory, is it not
to supply materials for the judgment *
Memory then is a mean to an end, it is
hot a whole in itself; could a person re-

Dr. Jarrold on the Art of Mnemonics, f

peat his day book, it would not constitute
him a good tradesman. . . Something
more than memory is requisite, and that
something is judgment. Here then arises
the important question, if the memory
be strengthened, is the judgment improved
as a consequence of it * I apprehend not.
A child with a memory furnished as Mon-
sieur Von Feinagle's may be supposed to
be, could make no use of it, but would
be confounded and overwhelmed. Food
must be digested and assimilated, and
even incorporated, before it strengthens
and is useful; it is the same with know-
ledge. A parrot, repeats as accurately
as a man, and gains as much by what it
says. If the sentiment be not made the
man's own, when that is done the words
need not be retained. A man at Oxford
committed to memory the whole of a
Greek lexicon—enviable man, what a
prodigy of learning! Alas, he was an
ideot—his mind could appropriate no-
thing. I have occasionally been invited
to the company of gentlemen, the bare
mention of whose attainments have filled
me with shame; desirous of profiting by
their knowledge, I have asked them a
question, not respecting words, but
things—the answer has commonly been,
IJr. A. has written an excellent treatise
on the subject, and is of such an opinion.
Dr. B. a man of equal learning, is of an
opposite way of thinking; and there is 4
third class who pursue a middle course.
But pray, sir, I ask, what is your opinion?
Why, truly, the arguments on each side
are so excellent, and supported by such
authorities, that it is difficult to make up
one's mind on the subject.—I have now
discovered my man—he is a man of mes
mory—he can repeat a thousand things,
but can decide oil none; he is learned
but, not wise; should you wish to know
something of the opinion his neighbours
form of him, you will be told that he is in
possession of every sense but common
sense. Thus literature becomes less
esteemed than it ought to be by the pub-
lic. Ilere I can scarcely refrain from en-
tering on a defence of literature, and en-
deavour to rescue it from the obloquy
which mere memory-moogers and specu-
lative characters have brought upon it;
but I have already occupied too much

Were I asked whether I would recom.
mend the cultivation of the inemory as
a particular branch of education, I an-
swer, that I would not any more than I
would recommend a suit of armour to
him who wished to walk with ease; the
ordinary habits being amply sufficient, a
A person who commits to


8 Mr. Culham, on Originality in Composition.

like a child sent on an errand, at every step it must repeat its message, there is nothing properly and radically made its own; change the words and the thing is new. The man who reads a book with advantage does not commit the words to memory, but weighs their meaning, and thus judges of the sentiment or the fact. It is the judgment, not the memory, which dignifies a man. Judgment is the glory that envelopes him, and which cowers him with a mantle of power; it is this which puts a sceptre in his hands, to which every faculty, every passion, pays involuntary homage, and ready tribute. Suppose the sceptre to have fallen—suppose madness to have assumed the seat of judgment, and what then is the man The memory is uninjured, but it is useless; a topical memory therefore is not the basis of a sound understanding, it does not grow out of it, and is but little aided by it. An artificial memory, take whose system you please, while it surprises some and mortifies others, enfeebles the possessor; it heaps upon him a load of heterogeneous materials, which oppress and render inactive: but the man who has cultivated his judgment is like a ship upon the ocean, the centre of a vast circumference, every thing pointing towards him, while he moves on calm, screne, and dignified ; not first in this direction, then in that, then stopping to appeal to his memory; but his object is before him, and he refers to his judgment; here he obtains the means of possession; he has no contrary opinions to reconcile, no doubts to enfeeble ; he receives the counsel of others, but he decides for himself. A sound judgment gives activity and force to all the other faculties, it commands and strengthens them. The memory is not weak, if the judgment be strong; but the converse of this proposition is not always true. A well educated man's memory is always sulficiently strong for his judgment; but suppose that, in the place of cultivating the memory, he were to cultivate one of these; would it not usurp the place of the understanding? He would be a drunkard, a debauchee, a miser, or he might derive his character from some other passion; but every honourable epithet would be withheld from such an one. The man of memory does not rank among such, only because his passion is not vicious, whilst this is the case with the memory. The judgment is an atom of deity within, and all besides is merely the casket; the judgment is not a given quantity, but is a gift put into our hands

'to improve ; in childhood, the gift is

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small, but it increases in proportion te its cultivation. The great end of education is to strengthen the judgment; for this purpose mathematics, and metaphysics, are attended to, and are useful; but many individuals have neither taste nor inclination for such studies; to such (and indeed to all) I recommend a plan within their reach, and of undeviating efficacy. In every science there are standard books, read one of these books; at first it will not be comprehended, but read and dwell upon it, till it is well understood; it may need a twentieth reading, but the effort will amply repay the trou. ble, by enlarging the capacity, and by making the future pursuit of the science easy. Where this plan has been practised, the mind has acquired more elevation, strength, and dignity, than by any other. means I am acquainted with.

-omTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SI R,

HAT originality of thought should T have discovered itself in the productions of those who first trod the flowery fields of genius, cannot appear surprising, if we coasider the uniformity of the human intellect, and the similarity of effect produced by the impression of external objects on the sensorium. This may in some measure assist us to account for those remarkable coincidences of thought and expression, not unfrequently to be met with in contemporary writers, not only totally unconnected with, but who even never saw, or heard of each other. But, if we survey the inventive powers of man, and examine with a scrutinizing eye the productions of human genius, we shall frequently have occasion to acknowledge the truth of the wise man's observation, that “There is no new thing under the sun,” and to inquire with the same royal preacher, “Is there any thing, whereof it may be said, “See, this is new?" It hath been already of old time which was before us.” I was led into this train of reflection the other day, while reading a very favourite author, (Dr. YoUN G,) by discovering that some of his most beautiful, and, as 1 till then thought, original ideas, were borrowed from the Apocryphal Book, called the “Wisdom of Solomon.” The similes alluded to, are to be found in “Night Thoughts,” Book I. where the poet is representing in glowing colours the fleeting nature of human thought, in reference to death; even when some memento mori has awakened us to a consideration of

our mortality. “B -“But

1814.] Mr. Pilgrim on Moses and Ezra-Plans of Reforn.

-* But their hearts wounded, like the wounded air Soon close; where past the shaft, no trace is found : As from the wing no scar the sky retains; The parted wave no furrow from the keel; $o dies in human hearts the thought of death.” The passage which unquestionably furinished the moral muse with such admirable eomparisons, is contained in the fifth chapter of the “Wisdom of Solotnon,” and the tenth and eleventh verses, in which the vain and unprofitable nature of pride and riches is set forth by several very just and striking allusions to sensible objects, familiar to common observation; in what may be termed a frank confession of the wicked, or serious remonstrance with their own consciences: “8. What hath pride profited us? or what good hath riches, with our vaunting, brought us? 9. All those things are passed away like a shadow, and as a post that hasteth by ; 10. And as a ship that passeth over the waves of the water, which when it is gone by, the trace thereof cannot be found, nei

ther the pathway of the keel in the waves:

11. Or, as when a bird hath flown through the air, there is no token of her way to be found, but the light air, being beaten with the stroke of her wings, and parted with the violent noise and motion of them, is passed through, and thercin afterwards no sign where she went is to be found.”

But though from comparing the two passages, thus transcribed, theme can be no doubt but the fact which this letter was meant to bring before the reader, is completely established; nameiy, that the world is too old for us to crpect much originality of thought, even in the greatest and most admired writers; yet, let no one for a moment imagine it is intended in the least degree to depreciate the works of genius, because drawn from other sources than from the poet's own original stock; so far from it, that i much commend the writer, who, like Young, Thomson," and others, enriches his productions by ideas and similies drawn from every pure source; but especially, and above all, from the purest fountain of truth and wisdom, the lioly Scriptures, from which far more grandeur and beauty flow, than from all the faulcd springs of Castalia or Parnassus.

Henley. R. P. Culii A.M.

* It is well known that the author of the “Seasons,” borrowed the idea of his admired story of Palemon and Lavinia, from that of Boaz and Ruth.

Musility MAG, No. 354,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, OUR correspondent who signs himself “The Archaeologist,” affirms that “before the captivity, no Jewisis writer appears to have been acquainteti with the creation or the deluge,” and that the “book of Genesis was written by Ezra :” but it would be very difficult to reconcile the former assertion with the account of the creation contained in the fourth commandment, and supposed to have been communicated immediately by the Supreme Being to Moses, in which it is declared that “in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and ail that in them is, and rested the seventh day;” and these words being so palpably analogous to the description of the creation in Genesis, it follows of course, either that Mioses was the author of that book, or that Ezra had his account of the creation from the 20th chapter of Exodus: in either of which cases, the hypothesis advanced by your correspondent = is so s. * must sall to the ground. E. T. PILGRIM, Woburn,

-oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SI R, SEND you sour sketches of Reform in Iłepresentation. I LAN I. 1. Equal and Universal Suffrage. 2. Annual Parliaments. 3. Election by districts to be begun and finished in one day. 4. The representation to be equalized. by an uniform proportion through out of the number of voters to that of represer:tatives. P.A.N. I. I. 1. That the towns which I before stated, many of which are large and populous, which for men ly sent members to parliament, have their representation revived; and the representation of Scotland and Ireland be increased in proportion. 2. That where the voters (which should be in a!! such boroughs thus to be revived, inhabitants resident paying scot and lot) amount to 2000, they should choose two representatives; where fewer voters, the difference to be made up from the surrou, ding hundreds. 3. Poll to be taken by parishes or districts, of not less than 200 voters in each. 4. The subsisting boroughs which chuse representatives at present to be on the same system, by including the inhabitants of like description in the surround-. ing hundreds to complete 2000 voters. C 5. Cities


16 5. Cities which have more than 2000 voters to have their representation increased in proportion, two for every additional 2000. 6. Parliaments to be annual; or triennial, one third going out yearly, by rotation. PLAN III. 1. Article as in Plan il. 2. As in ditto. 3. In the boroughs, consisting of less than 2000 voters, one representative to be chosen as at present, the other as in articles 1 and 2 of Plan ii. 4. Any borough convicted of corruption in the majority of its voters, to be disfranchised; and the elective franchise to be exercised by the principal town, not before possessing it, of the surrounding district; with the requisite additional voters from the adjacent hundreds. 5. As 6 in the preceding. I’i, AN IV. 1. The boroughs to remain as they are, unless in case of disfranchisement for corruption. And then as in 4 of the preceding Plan. 2. 100 members to be added to the representation of England and Wales. 3. 34 of these to be chosen by the counties at present most deficient in representation. 4. 66 to be chosen by the cities and great towns, which either have none, or a aeficient proportion. 5. The representation of Scotland to be increased in proportion, by addjug 8. 6. Of Ireland, by adding 17.” 7. As 6 in Plan ii. General Provisions applicable to all the - Plans. 1. No place-man, other than the great officers of state, no person holding a sinécure, no person being pensioned, unless such pension be on address of Parliament for public services, to be eligible to serve in the [House of Commons. 2. No disqualification of voters entitled as above, except for crime, or for mental incapacity. 3. Qualifications of property in the representatives to be done away, as being to-eless in practice and wrong in principle. . . 4. Officers of the navy and arry, serjo ants at law, and king's counsel, and all other persons not before excepted, to be “ligible as at present; the great officers of state vacating their seats as now, but being capable of re-election.

* Making in sile whole 783.

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[Feb. 1,

5. The representatives to receive a salary, payable by each county for the members chosen within it, and to be estiII,ated by a corn rent.

If this were at present 400!. per annum to each member, it would amount on the 4th Plan to 313,200i, or not 3 days of our present weekly taxation.


Of these Plans the first is most consistent with freedom and justice, most simple, most universally interesting, and least Hikely to be vitiated or impaired, if adopted. But I fear, while we are still occupied with such a project, notwithstanding our professions of moderation, as the invasion of France, we are not cool and Considerate sufficiently to adopt the best. Plan II. may be regarded as a considerable approximation. Plan III. as a compromise with subsisting inequalities and abuses; which, by infusing a new portion of life and spirit into the constitution, would go far toward overcoming their practical ill effects. And the 4th Plan, leaving the boroughs, whose representation is defaultive, as they are, requires and adopts a more copious infusions. of ertended representation. It changes the least, being simply additive, but I believe it changes sufficient to restore vitae strength and health to the Constitution; ..freedom, independence, and preponderating purity, to the House of Commons. The first plan can only take effect

by the general voice of the people in sup

port of it; to any of the three others it
would be sufficient to have the support of
a considerable portion of the people in its
behalf, the tacit acquiescence of the rest,
and the adoption of Parliament. Possi-
bly 3 and 5 of the General Provisions
will be regarded with jealousy. The pro-
poser is interested in neither; but he be-
lieves both to be desirable for the public.
The people pays its generals, its admirals,
its judges, the crown itself; and why not
its representatives in the House of Cam-
moms? -
I sce not that any thing short of the
4th Pian can be adopted with the hope
of effectual or permanent resorm. And
if none adequate to this end be adopted,
the first will come in its own time and
manner, unless either anarchy or despes
tism prevent it. CAPEL Lof Ft.
Troston Hall, Dec. 20, 1813.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SI R, HERE is not, amongst your numerous readers, one, I will venture to affirm, who has entered into the spirit of - thoo:

1814.] Mr. Flower on War.—Mr. De Lite's Geological Principles. 11

those excellent protests against war, which have at different periods done honour to your miscellany, inore than myself. I cannot omit the occasion to recommend a piece on the subject of war, which must come home to the heart of every true Christian. I mean— Reflections on War, by that eminent tlivine of the established church of Englaud, the late William Law, author of the Serious Call, and other popular works. I enclose you a copy. Should you think proper to insert it in your Magazine, I hope it will have the same effect on some of them at least, which it bad on me. It so completely convinced me of the iniquity of war in general, and of the wars in which this country has been engaged, during the present reign in particular, that I challenge any one to vindicate those wars on Christian principles; the only principles, I beg leave to add, of much consequence, or which will be found effectual for the reformation of corruption in church and state. I have already published this small tract in so many ways, that on a taoderate calculation it must have had a hundred thousand readers; but your Magazine may still considerably increase the circulation. It will not require many pages, and on such an important, such an awful subject, Christian nations more particularly require constant admonition :--‘‘line upon line, and precept upon precept.” Harlow, Jan. 1, 1814. B. F.Low Fr. *...* We cannot make room for this tract, but as it is sold for only one penny, or tenence a dozen, and may be had of Conder, utton, and other booksellers, we presume most of our readers will possess themselves of it.

-oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, T the end of the paper I took the liberty of sending to you on Mr. Farey's criticism of my Geological System, I mentioned having seen in your No. 230, two papers which concern me; the first, p. 17. by Mr. E. F. Pilgri the second, p. 16, signed Simplex; ioth of which I intended to answer; and I begin here by that of Mr. Pilgrim, who has attacked the interpretation which, in my answer to Common Sense, I gav of the word day, in the first chapter of Genesis, as meaning a period of tindetermined length, and not one of our days of twenty-four hours. 1. The opening of Mr. Pilgrim's paper

has some appearance of what I have before remarked ; that the writers who contest the evident sense of the word day, in this chapter, are principally those who do not believe in the inspiration of that sacred book. Mr. Pilgrim, addressing you, Sir, says: “Permit me to offer a few bricf remarks on Mr. De Luc's endeavours to reconcile the Mosaic acceuilt of creation, with the organic remains of a former world.” 2. The chdeavour which Mr. Pilgrim intends here particularly to attack, is the sense in which I take the word dov, in the first chapter of Genesis; he waits to reduce these days, to our “ys of twentyfour hours. But what may be the motive of this attack If the latter sense was to be received, it would be the: impossible to reconcile the Mosaic account of creation with the geological phaenoincija he indicates, name ly, the organic remains of a former work!: but had he known. Mr. Parkinson's important v. cik on these reti.ains, he could not have thought of opposing them to nie. That naturalist having studied with the utmost attention this class of documents of the history of organic beings on the earth; and having found their “emains only in our secondary strata, but none in those of an earlier formation, distinguished by the name of primary, he saw clearly that they pointed ont two distinct periods in the cristence of oor go," : this circ stance made him recur to the expressions of the first chapter of Georso; and he came to the sain, conclusion, which is here attacked by Sir. I'iigri, , who how. ex of knows probably but httle of the subject by his own observations. 3. This pretension, that the days of the first chapter of Genesis meant twentyfour hours, was first brought forward by unbelieving geologists : it was not necessary that they should be deeply informed of geological phenomena, for opposing many of thcom, to a succession of operations on the carth as would irav boot performed in six of our days; and thus they thought to loove, that Genesis was a fable : but they were silenced when it was demonstrated, from the very text, that these days wite to be understood as periods of undetermined length, which could only be judged by be nature of the operations performed in each of them. I do not pretend to determine what inas been Mr. Pilgrim's motive for again bringing forward that defeated objection; but I shall first prove, that the tenor of C % tla:

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