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590 the same river below Yellow-wood river are the Wahpatootas, or Gens de Feuilles, an inferior band of not more than one hundred men; while the sources of the St. Peter's are occupied by the Sisatoones, a band consisting of about two hundred warriors. These bands rarely if ever approach the Missouri, which is occupied by their kinsmen the Yanktons and the Tetons. The Yanktons are of two tribes, those of the plains, or rather of the north, a wandering race of about five hundred men, who roam over the plains at the heads of the Jaques, the Sioux, and the Red river; and those of the south, who possess the country between the Jaques and Sioux rivers, and the Desmoines. But the bands of Sioux most known on the Missouri are the Tetons. The first who are met on ascending the Missouri, is the tribe called by the French, the Tetons of the Bois Brule, or Burntwood, who reside on both sides of the Missouri, about White and Teton rivers, and number two hundred warriors. Above them on the Missouri are the Teton Okandandas, a band of one hundred and fifty men, living below the Chaenne river, between which and the Vetarhoo river is a third band, called Teton Minnakenozzo, of nearly two hundred and fifty men; and below the Warreconne is the fourth and last tribe of Tetons of about three hundred men, and called Teton Saone. Northward of these, between the Assiniboin and the Missouri, are two bands of Assiniboins, one on Mouse river of about two hundred men, and called Assiniboin Menatopa; the other, residing on both sides of White river, called by the French Gens de Feuilles, and amounting to two hundred and fifty men. Beyond these a band of Assiniboins of four hundred and fifty men, and called the Big Devils, wander on the heads of Milk, Porcupine, and Martha’s rivers; while still farther to the north are seen two bands of the same nation, one of five hundred and the other of two hundred, roving on the Saskaskawan. Those Assiniboins are recognised by a similarity of language, and by tradition as descendants or seceders from the Sioux ; though often at war are still acknowledged as relations. The Sioux themselves, though scattered, meet annually on the jo, those on the Missouri trading with those on the Mississippi.
Travels to the Source of the Missouri River,
SAND STORMS. April 24th.--The wind blew so high during the whole day that we were unable to move; such indeed was its violence, that although we were sheltered by high timber, the waves wetted many articles in the boats: the hunters went out and returned with four deer, two elk, and some young wolves, of the small kind. The party are very much afflicted with sore eyes, which we presume are occasioned by the vast quantities of sand which are driven from the sandbars in such clouds, as often to hide from us the view of the opposite bank. The particles of this sand are so fine and light that it floats for miles in the air, like a column of thick smoke, and is so penetrating that nothing can be kept free from it, and we are compelled to eat, drink, and breathe it very copiously. To the same cause we attribute the disorder of one of our watches, although her cases are double and tight; since, without any defect in its works that we can discover, it will not run for more than a few minutes without stopping. THE WHITE BEAR. 29th.-We proceeded early with a moderate wind. Captain Lewis, who was on shore with one hunter, met about eight o'clock two white bears. Of the strength and ferocity of this animal the Indians had given us dreadful accounts: they never attack him but in parties of six or eight persons, and even then are often defeated with the loss of one or more of their number. Having no weapons but bows and arrows, and the bad guns with which the traders supply them, they are obliged to approach very near to the bear; and as no wound except through the head or heart is mortal, they frequently fall a sacrifice if they miss their aim. He rather attacks : than avoids a man, and such is the terror which he has inspired, that the Indians who go in quest of him paint themselves, and perform all the superstitious rites customary when they make war on a neighbouring nation. Hitherto those we had seen did not appear desirous of encountering us, but although to a skilful rifleman the danger is very much diminished, yet the white bear is still a terrible animal, On approaching these two, both Captain Lewis and the hunter fired, and cach wounded a bear; one * . - * = * . t
made his escape; the other turned upon Captain Lewis and pursued him seventy or eighty yards, but being badly wounded, he could not run so fast as to prevent him from reloading his piece, which he again aimed at him, and a third shot from the hunter brought him to the ground. He was a male not quite full grown, and weighed about three hundred pounds. The legs are somewhat longer than those of the black bear, and the talons and tusks much larger and longer. The testicles are also placed much farther forward, and suspended in separate pouches from two to four inches asunder; while those of the black bear are situated back between the thighs, and in a single pouch like those of the dog. Its colour is a yellowish brown; the eyes small, black, and piercing. The front of the fore legs near the feet is usually black, and the fur is finer, thicker, and deeper than that of the black bear : add to which it is a more furious animal, and very remarkable for the wounds which it will bear
AN TELO PES.
The antelopes are yet lean, and the females are with young. This fleet and quick-sighted animal is generally the victim of its curiosity: when they first see the hunters, they run with great velocity; if he lies down on the ground and lifts up his arm, his hat, er his foot, the antelope returns on a light trot to look at the object, and sometimes goes and returns two or three times till it approaches within reach of the rifle: so too they sometimes leave their flock to go and look at the wolves, who crouch down, and, if the antelope be frightened at first, repeat the same manoeuvre, and sometimes relieve each other till they decoy it from the party, when they seize it. But generally the wolves take them as they are crossing the rivers, for although swift of foot they are not good SW1mmers.
A New species of coos E.
Among the vast quantities of game around us, we distinguish a small species of goose, differing considerably from the common Canadian goose, its neck, head, and beak being much thicker, larger, and shorter in proportion to its size, which is nearly a third smaller; the noise too resembling more that of the brant, or of a young goose that has not yet fully acquired is note; in other respects, in colours
habits, and the number of feathers in the tail, the two species correspond. This species also associates in flocks with the large geese, but we have not seen it pair off with them. The white brant is about the size of the common brown brant, or two-thirds of the common goose, than which it is also six inches shorter from the extremity of the wings, though the beak, head, and neck are larger and stronger: the body and wings are of a beautiful pure white, except the black feathers of the first and second joints of the wings; the beak and legs are of a reddish or flesh-coloured white ; the eye of a moderate size, the pupil of a deep sea green, encircled with a ring of yellowish brown; the tail consists of sixteen feathers equally long; the flesh is dark, and, as well as its note, differs but little from those of the common brant, whom in form and habits it resembles, and with whom it sometimes unites in a common flock : the white brant also associate by themselves in large flocks, but as they do not seem to be mated or paired off, it is doubtful whether they reside here during the summer for the purpose of rearing their young. W O L V E $.
The wolves are also very abundant, and are of two species. First, the small wolf or burrowing dog of the prairies, which are found in almost all the open plains. It is of an intermediate size between the fox and dog, very delicately formed, fleet and active. The ears are large, erect, and pointed; the head long and pointed, like that of the fox ; the tail long and bushy; the hair and fur of a pale reddish brov... colour, though much coarser han that of the fox ; the eye of a deep sea-green colour, small and piercing; the talons rather longer than those of the wolf of the Atlantic States, which animal, as far as we can perceive, is not to be found on this side of the river Platte. These wolves usually associate in bands of ten or twelve, and are rarely if ever seen alone, not being able singly to attack a deer or antelope. They live and rear their young in burrows, which they fix near some pass or spot much frequented by game, and sally out in a body against any animal which they think they can overpower; but on the slightest alarm retreat to their burrows, making a noise exactly like that of a
small dog. Th - he
The second species is lower, shorter in the legs, and thicker than the Atlantic wolf. Their colour, which is not affected by the seasons, is of every variety of shade, from a grey or blackish brown to a cream-coloured white. They do not burrow, nor do they bark, but howl, and they frequent the woods and plains, and skulk along the skirts of the buffaloe herds, in order to attack the weary or wounded.
B L A C K B E A R.
Captain Clarke and one of the hunters met this evening the largest brown bear we have seen. As they fired he did not attempt to attack, but fled with a most tremendous roar, and such was his extraordinary tenacity of life, that although he had five balls passed through his lungs, and five other wounds, he swam more than half across the river to a sandbar, and survived twenty minutes. He weighed between five and six hundred pounds at least, and measured eight feet seven inches and a half from the nose to the extremity of the hind feet, five feet ten inches and a half round the breast, three feet eleven inches round the neck, one foot eleven inches round the middle of the fore-leg, and his talons, five on each foot, were four inches and three eighths in length, It differs from the common black bear in having its talons much longer and more blunt; its tail shorter; its hair of a reddish or bay brown, longer, finer, and more abundant; his liver, lungs, and heart, much larger even in proportion to its size, the heart particularly being equal to that of a large ox; his maw ten times larger; his testicles pendant from the belly and in separate pouches four inches apart : besides fish and flesh he feeds on roots, and every kind of wild fruit.
D R Y RIVE R S.
We passed three streams on the south ; the first, at the distance of one mile and a half from our camp, was about twenty-five yards wide; but although it contained some water in standing pools it discharges none : this we called Littledry Creek, about eight miles beyond which is Bigdry Creek, fifty yards wide, without any water. The third is six miles further, and has the bed of a large river two hundred yards wide, yet without a drop of water. Like the other two this stream, which we called Bigdry river, continues its width undiminished as far as we can discern. The banks are low,
Travels to the Source of the Missouri River,
the channel formed of a fine brown. sand, intermixed with a small proportion of little pebbles of various cqlours, and the country around flat and without trees. They had recently discharged their waters, and from their appearance and the nature of the country through which they pass, we concluded that they rose in the Black mountains, or in the level low plains which are probably between this place and the mountains; that the country being nearly of the same kind and of the same latitude, the rains of spring melting the snows about the same time, conspire with them to throw at once vast quantities of water down these channels, which are then left dry during the summer, autumn, and winter, when there is very little rain. At fifteen and a quarter miles we reached the bed of a most extraordinary river which presents itself on the south : though as wide as the Missouri itself, that is about half a mile, it does. not discharge a drop of water, and contains nothing but a few standing pools. we found an eminence from which we saw the direction of the channel, first south for ten or twelve miles, then turning to the east of south-east as far as we could see ; it passes through a wide valley without timber, and the surrounding country consists of waving low hills interspersed with some handsome level plains; the banks are abrupt, and consist of a black or yellow clay, or of a rich sandy loam, but though they do not rise more than six or eight feet above the bed, they exhibit no appearance of being overflowed; the bed is entirely composed of a light brown sand, the particles of which, like those of the Missouri, are extremely fine. Like the dry rivers we passed before, this seemed to have discharged its waters recently, but the watermark indicated that its greatest depth had not been more than two feet : this stream, if it deserve the name, we called Bigdry river. About a mile below : is a large creek on the same side, which is also perfectly dry. - B R O v N BEAR S. About five in the afternoon one of our men, who had been afflicted with. biles, and suffered to walk on shore, came running to the boats with loud. cries and every symptom of terror and
distress; for some time after we had
taken him an board, he was so much. out of breath as to be unable to describe
On ascending it three miles
scribe the cause of his anxiety, but he at length told us that about a mile and a half below he had shot a brown bear, which immediately turned, and was in close pursuit of him ; but the bear being badly wounded could not overtake him. Capt. Lewis, with seven men, immediately went in search of him, and having found his track, followed him by the blood for a mile, and found him concealed in some thick brushwood, and shot him with two balls through the skull. Though somewhat smaller than that killed a few days ago, he was a monstrous animal, and a most terrible enemy; our
man had shot him through the centre
of the lungs, yet he had pursued him furiously for half a mile, then returned more than twice that distance, and with his talons had prepared himself a bed in the earth, two feet deep and five feet long, and was perfectly alive when they found him, which was at least two hours after he received the wound. . . The wonderful power of life which these animals possess renders them dreadful ; their very track in the mud or sand, which we have sometimes found eleven inches long, and seven and a quarter wide, exclusive of the talons, is alarming; and we had rather encounter two Indians than meet a single brown bear. There is no chance of killing them by a single shot, unless the ball goes through the brains, and this is very difficult on account of two large muscles which cover the side of the forehead, and the sharp projection of the centre of the frontal bone, which is also thick. Towards evening the men in the hindmost canoes discovered a large brown bear lying in the open grounds, about three hundred paces from the river; six of them, all good hunters, immediately went to attack him, and, concealing themselves by a small eminence, came unperceived within forty paces of him; four of the hunters now fired, and each lodged a ball in his body, two of them directly through the lungs : the furious animal sprang up and ran open-mouthed upon them; as he came near, the two hunters who had reserved their fire gave him two wounds, one of which, breaking his shoulder, retarded his inotion for a moment; but before they could reload he was so near that they were obliged to run to the river, and before they reached it he had almost over
taken them; two jumped into the ca. noe ; the other four separated, and concealing themselves in the willows, fired as fast as each could reload; they struck him several times, but instead of weakening the monster each shot seemed only to direct him towards the hunter, till at last he pursued two of them so closely, that they threw aside their guns and pouches, and jumped down a perpendicular bank of twenty feet into the river; the bear sprang af. ter them, and was within a few feet of the hind most, when one of the hunters on shore shot him in the head, and finally killed him; they dragged him to the shore, and found that eight balls had passed through him in different directions. THE GREAT F A LLs. From the draught and survey of Capt. Clarke we had now a clear and connected view of the falls, cascades, and rapids, of the Missouri. This river is three hundred yards wide at the point where it receives the waters of Medicine river, which is one hundred and thirty-seven yards in width. The united current continues three hundred and twenty-eight poles to a small rapid on the north side, from which it gradually widens to one thousand four hundred yards, and at the distance of five hundred and forty-eight poles reaches the head of the rapids, narrowing as it approaches them. Here the hills on the north, which had withdrawn from the bank, closely border the river, which, for the space of three hundred and twenty poles, makes its way over the rocks with a descent of thirty feet ; in this course the current is contracted to five hundred and eighty yards, and, after throwing itself over a small pitch of five feet, forms a beautiful cascade of twenty-six feet five inches; this does not however fall immediately perpendicular, being stop. ped by a part of the rock, which projects at about one-third of the distance. After descending this fall, and passing the cottonwood island, on which the eagle has fixed its nest, the river goes on for five hundred and thirty-two poles over rapids and little falls, the estimated descent of which is thirteen feet six inches, till it is joined by a large fountain boiling up underneath the rocks near the edge of the river, into which it falls with a cascade of eight feet. It is of the most perfect clearness, and rather of a bluish cast ă 3s,
594 and even after falling into the Missouri it preserves its colour for half a mile. From this fountain the river descends with increased rapidity for the distance of two hundred and fourteen poles, during which the estimated descent is five feet : from this, for a distance of one hundred and thirty five poles, the river descends fourteen feet seven inches, including a perpendicular fall of six feet seven inches. The river has now become pressed into a space of four hundred and seventythree yards, and here forms a grand cataract by falling over a plain rock the whole distance across the river to the depth of forty seven feet eight inches: after recovering itself the Missouri then proceeds with an estimated descent of three feet, till at the distance of one hundred and two poles it again is precipitated down the Crooked falls of nineteen feet perpendicular; below this, at the mouth of a deep ravine, is a fall of five feet, after which, for the distance of nine hundred and seventy poles, the descent is xmuch more gradual, not being more than ten feet, and then succeeds a handsome level plain for the space of one hundred and seventy-eight poles, with a computed descent of three feet, making a bend towards the north. Thence it descends, during four hundred and eighty poles, about eighteen feet and a half, when it makes a perpendicular fall of two feet, which is ninety poles beyond the great cataract, in approaching, which it descends thirteen feet within two hundred yards, and gathering, strength from its confined channel, which is only two hundred and eighty yards wide, rushes over the fall to the depth of eighty-seven feet and three quarters of an inch. After raging among the rocks and losing itself in foam, it is compressed immediately , into a bed of ninety-three yards in width; it continues for three hundred and forty poles to the entrance of a run or deep ravine, where there is a fall of three feet, which, joined to the decline of the river during that course, makes the descent six feet. As it goes on, the descent within the next two hundred and forty poles is only four feet; from this passing a run or deep ravine the descent for four hundred poles is thirteen feet; within two hundred and forty poles a second descent of eighteen feet; thence one hundred
Travels to the Source of the Missouri River,
and sixty poles a descent of six feet; after which to the mouth of Portage creek, a distance of two hundred and eighty poles, the descent is ten feet. From this survey and estimate it results that the river experiences a descent of three hundred and fifty-two feet in the course of two and threequarter miles, from the commencement of the rapids to the mouth of Portage creek, exclusive of almost impassable rapids, which extend for a mile below its entrance. SOURCES of the Missou R1 and COLUM e I.A. The road was still plain, and, as it led them directly on towards the
mountain, the stream gradually be
came smaller, till after going two miles it had so greatly diminished in width that one of the men in a fit of enthusiasm, with one foot on each side of the river, thanked God that he had lived to bestride the Missouri. As they went along their hopes of soon seeing the waters of the Columbia, arosealmost to painful anxiety, when, after four miles from the last abrupt turn of the river, they reached a small gap formed by the high mountains which recede on each side, leaving room for the Indian road. From the foot of one of the lowest of these mountains, which rises with a gentle ascent of about half a mile, issues the remotest water of the Missouri. They had now reached the hidden sources of that river, which had never yet been seen by civilized man : and as they quenched their thirst at the chaste’ and icy fountain—as they sat down by the brink of that little rivulet, which yielded its distant and modest tribute to the parent ocean, they felt themselves rewarded for all their labours and all their difficulties. They left reluctantly this interesting spot, and pur. . suing the Indian road through the in. terval of the hills, arrived at the top of a ridge, from which they saw high mountains, partially covered with snow, still to the west of them, The ridge on which they stood formed the dividing line between the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They followed a descent much steeper than that on the eastern side, and at the distance of three quarters of a mile reached a handsome bold creek of cold clear water running to the westward. They stopped to taste for the firs
time the waters of the Colum ão: