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Before the last loan of twenty-four millions, the total of the public debt, as originally funded, was 993,077,608l. 25.73d. and the debt unredeemed, and due to the public creditor, was 717,509,536l.0s. 43d. The interest on the debt unredeemed, was 24,397,267 l. 14s. 83 d. and the total charge of debt, being interest, and life, and other annuities, charges of management, and amounts for redemption, was 39,337,216l. 3s. 84 d. Of course the wa R Taxrs of twenty-one millions, and further loans, are the only means of supporting the peace establishment:
The visit of the Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia, forms a feature of the times honourable to them and to the English people. They came among us, particularly Alexander, for the ostensible purpose of cementing the peace of Europe, and of profiting by those institutions which have been nurtured in England by that public spirit which is the consequence of public liberty. Whether similar effects can be expected to arise without the aid of similar causes —whether the MAGNANI MoUs ALEXANDER proposes to confer on his subjects greater public privileges—or whether he supposes that the institutions and spirit of freemen can be forced, like other exotics, on the soil of Russia, we shall not stop to determinc; but nothing is more indubitable than that, for every thing enjoyed by Britain more than is enjoyed by her neighbours, she is indebted primarily to the independence of her people, arising from her insular situation—to their independence, arising from the enjoyment and exercise of an enlarged degree of public liberty—and to that public spirit, which grows out of the sense of personal independence, felt, more or less, by all her inhabitants. LiBERTY, and nothing but LIBERTY, is
the talisman which produces the moral
and social effects that make Britain the theme of admiration among other nations; and, though we applaud the benevolent intentions of sovereigns who desire to make their countries as much as possible like Britain, yet they will want that which is more essential than power—the spirit of liberty among their subjects—and though they may do much good, yet they can render no country like a land of liberty without that independence of the people, which can only be created by a house of representatives, freely and independently chosen, and ly trial by juries of their pairs impartially called to that duty. Such are the true
Public Affairs in June.
[July i, causes of Britain's glory, such the springs. of her industry, and such the basis or which arises the personal character of her people. Yet it is at the same timé too true, that all Englishmen are not freemen, that many of them are slaves in spirit and in practice, nuisances on a free soil, and fitter subjects for Turkey than for England. Our forefathers, however, left us the legacy of freedom, and though not cherished as it ought to be, and often basely sold and compromised, yet we enjoy many of its moral and political effects, and there remain among us a numerous and resolute band, who duly appreciate it, and who, if needful, would spill the last drop of their blood in its defence and preserVation. * These observations are drawn from us. at this time, by the nauseating and loathsome language of many, very many, of the London papers, the editors of which make sport of the best feelings of Englishmen, and set at nought all that is *acred in the great causes of humanity and liberty. Practised in the arts of declamation, they pollute and poison the fountains of truth, which flow, or ought to flow, through the medium of the public press, confounding agent and patient, cause and effect, vice and virtue, truth and falsehood, with a degree of dexterity and effrontery, that astound and overwhelm the multitude, while they fill with grief and dismay those who comprehend the illusions of their sophistry, and
the artifices of their eloquence.
To avoid details, for which we have not room, we have subjoined, in chronological order, the dates of the progresses . of these sovereigns during their memorable visit. On the afternoon of Monday, the 6th of June, the Emperor Alexhuder, and Frederick-William, King of Prussia, landed at Dover, having been conveyed thither from Boulogne in the Impregnable man-of-war, commanded by the Duke of Clarence, as, admiral of the fleet. Sleeping that night at Dover, the imperial and royal strangers entered London, in a private manner, on the afternoon of Tuesday the 7th ; the Emperor lodging at . the Pulteney Hotel, Piccadilly, previously occupied by his sister the Duchess of Ol. denburgh; and the King of Prussia, in apartments prepared for him in the Stable Yard, St. James's. . . . . On the following morning, the 8th, the .
Emperor visited Kensington Gardens, Wests.:
minster Abbey and Hall, the British Müz.
Majesty, in full court, at the Queen's Palace, and splendidly entertained by the Regent. On Thursday the 9th, the Emperor rode along Westminster-bridge, and through Southwark by London-bridge, into the city. Passing by the Mansion-house, the Royal Exchange, &c. the party proceeded through Finsbury-square into the Cityroad, which carried them to Tavistock and Russell Squares, and Paddington, whence they returned to the hotel. They afterwards visited St. Paul's and the London iXocks. In the afternoon, the Emperor and the King were admitted Knights of the Garter, at Carlton House, and the absent Emperor of Austria was likewise declared a companion of the same order. Qn Friday the 10th, both severeigns, With their suite, proceeded by way of Richmond and Hampton Court, to Ascot races, and afterwards dined with her Majesty at Frogmore. On Saturday the 11th, Alexander paid a visit to the Bank; and, in the afternoon, ave audience to Lords Erskine, Grenville, 3rey, Holland, and other distinguished statesmen: after which, both he and Frederick-William received addresses of congratulation from the lord mayor and the whole corporation of London. In the evening, both parties appeared in the Opera-house. Qn Sunday the 11th, the King of Prussia, with his family and suite, attended diviné service in Westminster Abbey; as did Alexander at the chapel of his ambassador in Welbeck-street. Both sovereigns afterwards rode for a considerable time in Hyde Park, amidst at least 150,000 people. Monday the 18th was set apart for an excursion down the river to visit the dock-yard and arsenal at Woolwich, Greenwich, &c. Tuesday the 14th and Wednesday the 15th, were employed in an excursion to Oxford, Blenheim, Stowe, &c. of which an account is given under the head Oxfordshire, in our Provincial Occurrences. On Thursday the 16th, the sovereigns were present in St. Paul's, at the annual assembly of 8000 charity children of the metropolis and, in the evening, they visited. Drury-lane Theatre. On Friday the 17th, they dimed in great - magnificence with the city merchants, at Merchant-taylors' Hall, at a cost of 10,000l. On Saturday the 18th, they accompanied the Prince Regent, in grand procession, to a most splendid banquet given by the city of London in Guildhall, which cost nearly 30,000l. On Sunday afternoon, the 19th, they dimed at Oatlands, with the Duke of York and the Duchess, sister of the King of Prussia. The forenoon of Monday the 20th, was employed in viewing 10,000 troops, drawn up in Hyde Park to fire a feu-de-joie, in honour of the PEACE, which was proclaimed
with the usual formalities in the afternoon.
We feel it due to the Emperor Alexander and the duchess of Oldenburgh to state, that, during their residence in Londou, they won the affections and acquired the esteem ef all classes of the people by their amiable manners, their rational pursuits and their enlightened curiosity. Nothing frivolous occupied their attention; but they were indefatigably engaged day after day, or rather hour after hour, except when called on to accept the civilities of hospitality, in examining whatever is useful and meritorious in our public or private establishments. The satigues of a campaign could not have been greater than those endured by Alexander during his sojourn in London; and any man of less temperate habits, and less energy of character, could not for so many days have undergone the same incessant pursuits of curiosity and pleasure, without injury to his health. Peter the Great, or Napoleon himself could not have pursued what is great and useful with more ardour than this Prince; while the Regent of England, famed as he is for the grace of his manners, found a rival in Alexander, in whatever adds the fascinations of person to those of rank, fame, and power. Of the King of Prussia we have seen and heard less, but the modesty and amenity of his character, leads us to wonder how, in 1805, he permitted his ministers to assert those claims on Hanover which led to the fatal battle of Jena, and to all the wars which have since desolated the Continent of Europe. Happy would it be for mankind if their destinies depended more on the personal character of such princes, as these we have been describing; but, unfortunately, the good intentions of princes are constantly frustrated by wicked, corrupt, and selfish ministers, who deceive their sovereigns to screen themselves
themselves, and involve nations in wars to serve the purposes of their intrigues, to gratify their vanity or malice, or enrich their relatives and flatterers, by the plunder of the helpless inhabitants. FRANCE.
The Treaty has at leagth been published, which was concluded between the allied powers and Napoleon, at the time when he determined to abdicate rather than consent to a peace which he thought ignominious to France, and, in conse*uence, to sit on “a degraded throne.” We have inserted this treaty bencath; but we have not room to give place to sertain documents relative to his taking possession of Eiba, whereby it appears that his arrangements are made with views to a permanent residence. The powers, however, who now conduct the sycophant press of Paris and London, indicate their alarm in regard to his influence in France, by continuing to give currency to stories of his insanity, &c.
evidently in the hope of depriving his
partizans in France of any reliance on him ; though it would be the wiser course, and a better security, to permit the establishment of a FREE constiturio N in France; and, by respecting popuHar rights and public liberty, to prove the superiority of their own government over that of Napoleon, than which, according to their own account, nothing could have been more easy, while in our view nothing would have been more politic. Art. 1. His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon renounces for himself, his successors, and descendants, as well as for all the wnembers of his family, all right of sovereignty and dominion, as well to the French empire, and the kingdom of Italy, as over every other country. Art. 2. Their Majesties the Emperor Napoleon and Maria Louisa shall retain their titles and rank, to be enjoyed during their lives. The mother, the brothers, sisters, nephews, and nieces of the Emperor, shall also retain, wherever they may reside, the titles of Princes of his family. Art. 3. The Isle of Elba, adopted by his Majesty the Emperor Napoléon as the place of his residence, shall form, during his life, a separate principality, which shall be possessed by him in full sovereignty and property; there shall be besides granted, in full property to the Emperor Napoleon, an annual revenue of 2,000,000 francs, in rent charge, in the great book of France, of which 1,000,000 shall be in reversion to the Empress. S. Art. 5. The Duchies of Parma, Placemtia, and Guastalla, shall be granted, in full Property and sovereignty to her Majesty
Public Affairs in June,
the Empress Maria Louisa; they shall pass to her son, and to the descendants in the right line. The Prince her son, shall from henceforth take the title of Prince of Par. ma, Placentia, and Guastalla. Art. 5. All the Powers engage to employ their good offices to cause to be respected by the Barbary Powers the flag and the territory of the Isle of Elba, for which purpose the relations with the Barbary Powers shall be assimilated to those with France. - Art. 6. There shall be reserved in the territories hereby renounced to his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, for himself and his family, domains or rent-eharges in the great book of France, producing a revenue, clear of all deductions and charges, of 2,500.000 francs. These domains er rents shall belong, in full property, and to be disposed of as they shall think fit, to the Princes and Princesses of his family, and shall be divided amongst them in such manner that the revenue of each shall be in the following proportion, viz.
Francs, To Madam Mere . . . . . .300,000 To King Joseph and his Queen 500,000 To King Louis . . . . . . 200,000
To the Queen Horterise and to her
The Prince and Princesses of the House of the Emperor Napoleon shall retain, besides their property (moveable and immoveable, of whatever nature it may be) which they shall possess by individual and public right, and the rents of which they shall enjoy also as individuals. t Art, 7. The annual pension of the Empress Josephine shall be reduced to 1,000,000, in domains, or im inscriptions in the great book of France; she shall continue to enjoy, in full property, all her private property, moveable and immoveable, with power to dispose of it conformably to the French laws. Art. 8. There shall be granted to Prince Eugene, Viceroy of Italy, a suitable establishment out of France. Art. 9. The property which his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon possesses in France, either as extraordinary domain, or as private domain, attached to the Crown, the funds placed by the Emperor, either in the great book of France, the Bank of France, in the Actions des Forets, or in any other manner, and which his Majesty abandons to the Clown, shall be reserved as a capital, which shall not exceed two millions, to be expended in gratifications in favour of such persons, whose names shall be contained in a list to be signed by the Emperor - Napoleon,
Wapoleon, and which shall be transmitted to the French government. Art. 10. All the Crown diamonds shall remain in France. Art. 11. His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon shall return to the Treasury, and to the other public chests, all the sums and effects that shall have been taken out y his orders, with the exception of what has been appropriated from the Civil List. Art. 12. The debts of the household of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, such as they were on the day of the signature of the present Treaty, shall be immediately discharged out of the arrears due by the public Treasury to the Civil List, according to a list, which shall be signed by a Commissioner appointed for that purpose. Art. 13. The obligations of the MontNapoleon, of Milan, towards all the creditors, whether Frenchmen or foreigners, shall be exactly fulfilled, unless there shall be any change made in this respect, Art. 14. There shall be given all the necessary passports for the free passage of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, or of the Empress, the Princes, and Princesses, and all the persons of their suits who wish to accompany them, or to establish themselves out of France, as well as for the passage of all the equipages, horses, and effects belonging to them. The Allied Powers shall in consequence furnish officers and men for escorts. ' Art. 15. The French Imperial Guard shall furnish a detachment of from 1200 to 1500 men, of all arms, to serve as an estort to the Emperor Napoleon to St. Tropes, the place of his embarkation.
Art. 16. There shall be furnished a corvette and the necessary transport vessels to convey to the place of his destination his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon and his household; and the corvette shall belong, in full property, to his Majesty the Em. peror. Art. 17. The Emperor Napoleon shall be allowed to take with him and retain as his guard 400 men, volunteers, as well officers, as sub-officers and soldiers. At t. 18. No Frenchman who shall have followcd the Emperor Napoleon or his family, shall be held to have forfeited his rights as such, by not returning to France within three years, at least they shall not be comprised in the exceptions which the French government reserves to itself to grant after the expiration of that term. Art. 19. The Polish troops, of all arms, in the service of France, shall be at liberty to return home, and shall retain their arms and baggage, as a testimony of their honour. able services. The officers, sub-officers, alid soldiers shall retain the decorations which have been granted to them, and the pensions annexed to those decorations. Art. 20. The High Allied Powers guarantee the execution of all the Articles of the present Treaty, and engage to obtain that it shall be adopted and guaranteed by France. Art. 21. The present Act shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged at Poris within two days, or sooner, if pos. sible. Dome at Paris the 11th of April, 1814.
INCIDENTS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS, IN LONDON, MIDDLESEX, AND SURREY. With Biographical Memoirs of distinguished Characters recently deceased.
ORD CochPANE, M.P. for Westminster and K. B. his uncle Cochrane ohnstone, M.P. and six other persons, having been found guilty of a conspiracy for the purpose of unduly raising the price of the stocks by false rumours, Cochrane Johnstone and another fied to the continent; but Lord Cochrane, a Mr. Butt, and one Berenger, were sentenced by the Court of ing's Bench to be imprisoned 12 months, and to be placed in the Pillory, and the two former to pay a fine of 1000l. and the others to be imprisoned for twelve months, and one Holloway to pay a fine of 500l. The public were previously disgusted with the conspirators, and with the effrontery with which some of them denied their participation; but the severity of the sentence has excited a degree of sympathy, particularly towards the gallant and patriotic Lord Cochrane, which we should hope will lead
The Rev. G. T. Pretyman, second son of the Bishop of Lincoln, to Miss Amelia Tower, of Weald Park, Essex. W. Mules, esq. of Lincoln's Inn, to Lady Pilkington. J. H. T. Stapleton, esq. capt. 3d Guards, to the Hon. Miss Fitzroy, daughter of the late Lord Southampton. Jas. G. Arthur, esq. of the War Office, to Miss Bunce. Francis Pinto, esq. from Oporto, to Miss Isabella Edwards. Sol. Check, esq. of Bristol, to Mrs. Watkins, of Charing Cross. Henry Reed, esq. solicitor, of Bridgewater, to Miss Scraggs, of Buckingham. John Slater, esq. of Great East Cheap, to Mrs. Green, of Montague-street. Jos, Blades, esq. to Miss Hainworth. At Paddington, Edw. Waddilove, esq. to Miss Eliza Hookey, Hackney-road. Mr. John Read, to Miss Briand. Jas, Cathrow, esq. Somerset Herald, to Mrs. Macnamara, of Mount-street. Mr. H. Paulin, of Ratcliff, to Miss Car. Mary Mills, of Limehouse. Zac, Hubbersty, esq. of Austin Friars, to Miss Isab. Curteis, of Bernard-street. Mr. Spragge, of Bridge-street, Westminster, to Miss Harriot Field, of Lambeth Marsh. R. W. Coley, esq. to Miss Mallet, of Aldermanbury. - Fred. Barry, esq. Crescent, Minories, to Miss M. A. Wegener. Mr. Richard Price, of Chelsea, to Mrs. Appleby. Wm. Matterson, esq. surgeon, York, to Miss Fr. Key, of Cheshunt. Mr. Powell, of Holboin Hill, to Miss Caroline Tringham. Mr. Middleton, of Skinner street, to Miss Poole, of Bristol.
Regislator, possessed of common sense, might in an hour make out a table of punishments which should limit all useful discretion to a small proportional part of the fixed punishment. A Judge might, for salutary purposes, be allowed to change a legal 3 months' intprisonment into 2 or 1 month; a 6 months into 4 or 3; a 12 months into 9 or 6; a 7 years' transportation to 3 or 5; a 14 years to 7 or 10; or the term of life to 14 years or 7. But all definite punishments, as pillory, whipping, maiming, or hanging, should be fixed by law, and generally attach to second offences of certain degrees; for we are all of us too
much the creatures of circumstances, to be .
civilly or physically destroyed, with any semblance of justice, for submitting to a first temptation! But this is not the place to discuss so delicate a subject, though it appears to be a moment in which we may properly call the public attention to it, as deeply concerning the happiness, honour, , and liberties of the country.
Marriages and Deaths in and near London.
[July 1, Mr. Thornton, of Hatton Garden, to Miss Louisa Maddox, of Great Russell-street. Charles Simson, esq. of Laurence Pountney Hill, to Miss Marg. Walker, of Worces. tershire. At Battersea, Robt. Hoggart, esq. to Miss Harford, of Clapham. - At Stepney, J. Westley, jun. esq. of St. Petersburgh, to Miss Eliz. Barnes, of Stepney. Henry Davison, esq. of Lincoln's Inn, to Miss Ann Tomlinson, of Newark. The Rev. John Pretyman, of Sherrington, Bucks, to Miss Dorothy Jane Sidebottom, of Chiswick. Perrot Fenton, esq. Doctor's Commons, to Catharine, daughter of Richard Howell, esq. P. Lugar, esq. of Richmond, to Miss Scofield, of Helborn. “ - Mr. J. Morgan, jun, of Sidmouth place, to Miss M. A. Wright, of St. Luke's. Wm. Rosser, esq. of Bartlett's Buildings, attorney-at-law, to Miss Mary Jenkins, of Edgeware-road. Richard Lee, esq. to Mary, eldest daughter of Mr. Gray, of Orchard-street, Mr. Robert Halford, to Grace, second daughter of Mr. Gray. or At St. George's, Hanover-square, Charles Compton Cavendish, esq. youngest son of Lord George Henry Cavendish, to Lady Catharine Susan Gordon, eldest daughter of the Earl of Aboyne. Mr. C. Bridgman, sen. of Hertford, to Miss Williams, of Walworth. At Hackney, Mr. G. Hackett, to Sophia, fourth daughter of the late Mr. G. Robine son, Pentonville. HDIED. By a fall in getting out of his gig, Joseph Eiridge, esq. formerly capt. in 1st dragoons. Aged 68, the Rev. C. Hunter, of Gayton, Northamptonshire. P. Thompson, esq. late major, and for 54 years an officer in 1st regt. Surrey militia. The Rer. H. Foster,minister of St.James's, Clerkenwell. At his house, Upper Brook-street, Viș. count Hamilton, only son of the Marquis of Abel corn. His lordship - married Miss Douglass, daughter of the Hon. John D. and grand-daughter of the Earl of Harewood. In Upper Wimpole-street, 71, John, fifth Earl of Sandwich, Viscount Hinchinbrook, and Baron Montague, of St. Neots, co, Huntingdon, one of the joint postmasters. general. His lordship married, first, Lady E. Montagu, only daughter of George, last Earl of Halifax, by whom he left no survi. ving issue: secondly, Lady M. Hen. eldest daughter of Harry; the last Duke of Bolton, by whom he left, George, the present Earl of S. and Mary Wiscountess Templeton. In Grosvenor-street, after a short illness,