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$40 six patients were chained close to the wall—five handcuffed, and one locked to the wall by the right arm, as well as by the right leg, who was very noisy. All were naked, except as to the blanketgown, or a small rug on the shoulders, and without shoes; one complained miich of the coldness of his feet. Ci:ains are universally substituted for the strait-waistcoat. In the men's wing tiere were seventy-five or so wenty six patients, with two keepers and an assistant; and about the same oup her of patients on the women's side. In one of the cells, on the lower gallery, the cortionis tee saw William Norris, who stated himself to be fifty-five years of age, and that he had been confined about fourteen years. A stout iron ling was rivett: d round his neck, from which a shot chain passed to a sing, made to side upwards ard downwards on an upright to assive iron bar, more than six feet higi, inserted into the wal; ; round his body, a strong iron bar, about two inches wide, was rivetted : on each side of the i.ar was a circular projection, which being fashioned to and enclosing each of his arms, pinioned them close to bis sides; this waist-bar was secured by two similar bars, which, passing over his shoulders, were rivetted to the waistbar, both before and behind; the iron wing round his neck was connected to the bars on his shoulders by a double Hink; from each of these bars another short chain passed to the ring on the upright iron bar. He was cnabled to raise himself, so as to stand against the wali, on the pillow of his bed, in the trough-bed in which he lay; but it was impossible for him to advance from the wall in which the iron bar is soldered, on account of the shortness of his chains, which were only twelve inches long. It is conceived to have been out of his power to repose in any other position than on his back; the projections, which, on each side of the waist-bar, enclosed his arms, rendering it impossible for him to Hie on his side, even if the length of the chains frem his neck and shoulders would permit it. His right leg was chained to the trough, in which he had remained thus encaged and chained more than twelve years. He informed the committee, that he had for some years been able to withdraw his arms from the manacles which encompassed them. He then withdrew one of them: and ort rving an churession of surprise, he said, that when his arms were withdrawn he was ccupoiled to rest them on the

Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

[July 1,

edges of the circular projections, which was more painful than keeping them within. His position, we were informed, was mostly lying down, and that, as it was inconvenient to raise himself and stand upright, he very seldom did so; that he read a great deal—books of all kinds—history, lives, or any thing that the keepe's could get him; the newspaper every day; and conversed persectly coherent on the passing topics and the events of the war, in which he felt particular interest. On eaeh day that the committee saw him he discoursed coolly, and gave rational and deliberate answers to the different questions put to him. In consequence of the discovery made by this committee of the situation of William Norris, and of a drawing which they procured to be made of him in his irons, he was visited by Messrs. Home Sumner, Lord Robert Seymour, William Smith, Hon. G. Beilnett, IR. J. Lambton, Thos. Thompson, and other members of the House of Commons; but the committee have now to state, that at their last visit they obs served that the whole of the irons had been removed from Norris's body, and that the length of chain from his neck, which was only twelve inches, had been doubled. In the public hospitals it is customary to lock up the patients in their ceils at dusk ; this, in winter, is soon after four o'clock; and the cells are opened at seven o'clock the next morning. The committee conclude this document by stating, that, if they have been pained by the remarkable contrast in management between one of out great public hospitals for the insane; and the larger private houses generally; they have been as forcibly impressed by contrasting the practice, of even such houses, with the general economy of the “ Friends' Retreat,” .."; where neither chains nor corporeal punishment are tolerated on any pretext; where the conveniences provided, within doors and without, are suitable to patients in any station of life; and where every appearance is avoided that can afflict the mind by painful recollections; and where regulation and control are governed by the experienced efficacy of the important principle—that whatever tends to promote the happiness of the patient, increases his desire to restrain: himself. - * : * An account is announced of the most celebrated public and private libraries, with bibliographical notices, anecdotes of eminent collectors, booksellers, prin- terse

ters, &c. under the title of Repertorium Bibliographicum. Prefixed will appear a Dialogue in the Shades, between William Caxton, a modern Bibliomaniac, and the Author, the late William Wynken, clerk, a descendant of the illustrious Wynken de Worde. ... The ingenious author of the Complete Family Assistant, will on the first day of July publish the first number of the Domestic Magazine, price one shilling. This monthly work is intended to include the more useful and select classes of literature, a register of remarkable occurrences, &c. A method has been discovered by Mr. TURNER, near Vauxhall, of fabricating very elegant and splendid embellishments for ball-rooms, supper-rooms, pillars, temples, &c. by a composition; to which the Society for the Encouragement of Arts have attached the name of Imitative Scenite Granite. It is capable of being appied either on wainscotting or bare walls, or on walls already papered, and while it may be made to resemble the most beautiful marble or granite, particularly wiven assisted by lights, its charge does not exceed that of other ornamental painting or papering. A selection of the more remarkable passages in that very rare work, “L’Es. priţ de Saint François de Sale, Eveque et Prince de Geneve,” is printing, and may be expected to appear in August. The progress of science is greatly accelerated by the method pursued in the permanent Literary Societies in large towns, of annexing to them the appointment of a Lecturer in natural and chemical philosophy, with funds for an apparatus. This plan was acted upon at Boston during the late winter, and Dr.W. CRANE, a physician of that place, readily undertook to deliver a course of lectures on philosophical chemistry, and afforded for many weeks a rational and pleasant amusement to a genteel audience, who were admitted on paying a small subscription, sufficient to defray the expences. A correspondent who remarked the cure for Cancer, published in a late number, desires us to state, that a cancer may be cured by the use of Clivers, called commonly Goose-grass, and scientifically Galium aperine, taken as juice, and also applied to the wound: On the 1st day of January will be published No. I. of the Bible Mo, and Theological Review. It will consist of Biblical Researches,—Religious Communications,—Select Biography, -Misceila, MonTHLY Mag. No. 256,

neous, Review of New Publications,— Intelligence, religious and literary. A. SHERB Rook, esq. of Oxton, Nottinghamshire, raises young potatoes in the winter months. In the beginning of May he lays a quantity of the largest oxnoble potatoes on a dry cellar floor, two or three deep, and turns them over once in about three weeks, rubbing off all the white sprouts as they appear, but not the spawn or rudiments of the young potatoes. At the end of September he has ready a few boxes; at the bottom of each he puts six inches of decayed leaves, dried to a vegetable mould, and places upon it a single layer of potatoes, olose to each other; he then puts another layer of the same mould, six inches deep, then another of potatoes, and so on till the boxes are full. He then sets the boxes in a dry covered place, free from frost, never giving them any water. They will produce good fine young potatoes in December; and those which are ready may be taken off, and the old potatoes replaced till the remainder of the produce shall be ready. To obtain a succession, he places other potatoes in vegetable mould, in the succeeding winter months. FRANCE. A very attractive account was lately published in this country of the Retreat at York, which deserves to become the model of our lunatic asylums. But the French have advanced a step beyond us in the discipline of insanity. M. Salgues, in a recent work on Paris, informs us, that at the lunatic hospital of Charenton, near Paris, the experiment has been tried with admirable success of inducing the lunatic patients to act plays together for their common amusement. This exertion of the memory to get a part •by heart cures one cause of absence of mind; and this exersion of self-command to assume the character imposed cures another cause of disorder. ITALY. L'Italico, a periodical work, publishe in the Italian language in London, and conducted by Dr. AUGUSTo Bozzi GRANvi Li.e., contains the following account of a new excavation made among the ruins of Pompeii on the 18th of March, 1813, as drawn up by an eye-witness, and addressed in a letter to Dr. Granville. “They have commenced the execution of a great project here, viz. the clearing of the whole of the walls which surround Pompeii, and which are supposed to be about 1600 or 1700 toises in circumference. Great

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Great advantages will of course be derived in future excavations from the denudation of the walls. The streets which lead from the gates will be more easily found, while there will be a greater facility in transporting the ashes and earth, and a guard may then be placed over the monuments to preyeat dilapidations, “The walls of this city are real fortifications: they are from 18 to 20 feet in Height, and in some places higher: they are fortified at intervals with a kind of quadrangular towers partly destroyed ; and they do not seem to have much exceeded the height of the wall. They are furnished with shall gates, which seem to have answered the same purpose with those in modern fortresses. Certain it is, that two of these already discovered, were used by the brave inhabitants of Pompeii in their sorties against the troops of Sylla. “The walls are twelve feet broad: they are ornamented, both on the side towards the city and towards the country, with parapets, which probably served in time of war as a security to the soldiery, and in peace as a promenade for the inhabitants. The parapets are furnished with loop-holes pretty close to each other, and with scuppers to carry off the water :--in several places there are flights of steps leading up from the city. - “ The walls are not uniform, in consequence of the injuries they have sustained at various periods; they are mostly built of masses of fine stone four feet broad by five long, and two in thickness, without time, and yet weil joined together, but so irregularly that the architecture is of the kind denominated incertum. If we are to believe, that these are restorations made in the last days of the city, about the time of the siege of Sylla, and the earthquake A. D. 63, then the upper part of this description of architecture and the lower will be found to be more regular. Among a great number of these stones there was a monogram formed of an H and an E: on another a resemblance to the Greek L. or

cross formed of two Zs, similar to what"

we see upcm paintings of ancient vases and in the monograms of medals. These probably were the characteristic marks of those who farmished the materials, while the Greek and Roman names, which are so frequently met with, may have been those of the workmen, who probably did not think they would have been handed down to so late posterity. “The height of the walls of Pompeii may give some idea of the labours which their complete excavation requires, and which is now prosecuting with great vigour. A ditch has been excavated twelve feet broad. For the space of about eight toises the walls are completely uncovered, and persons may now walk upon the pavement of the ancient Street leading from Poinpeii

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Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

[July 1,

to Nola. The other parts still remain but ried. The workmen are already 500 toise from the gate at which they set out, and have eleared nearly one third of the circum: ference of the city. Proceeding along the great street, they have uncovered the upper part of the portico of the Grand Theatre: The point of the wall to which it adjoins is not far from the Amphitheatre. “The excavations around the walls of the city have not suspended those in other quarters. One of the most interesting discoveries was made on the 21st of November, 1812. During the preceding week, the workmen had been occupied in .# the great street leading to the Temple o Isis, and which traverses the whole of the city in a straight line. They suddenly met with another street opening into the great street, and at the joining of the two streets discovered the capitals of several columns, which seemed to have composed the portico of a theatre. The excavations were then directed towards the house known by the name of La Caza del General Championnet, and two inscriptions scarcely legible were discovered, but appearing rather insignificant. When working about ten feet from the extremity of the street, where the rubbish consisted alternately of earth and ashes, and there appearing to be no probability of finding any interesting object, they were about to leave off, when they unexpectedly found a human skeleton and several bones, some medals of bronze and silver, and one of gold, and finally, a large heap of medals that were collected with great care. They were, for the most part, particularly those of bronze and silver, fused into each other, and it was difficult to distinguish the inscriptions on account of the patina with which they were covered. They were medals of Domitian and other Emperors, of the smallest size, very common, but well preserved; 316 in silver, and 42 in bronze, But what attracted most attention, was eight beautiful medals of gold newly struck, wrapt up in several folds of linen, which seemed to have been injured by humidity and the infection from the human bodies. However, the texture was so good that these stripes could hardly be torn. This may be considered as one of the greatest curiosities which Pompeii ever afforded. “The skeleton just mentioned was found among the ashes about ten feet above the level of the street. This is a proof of the rapidity with which the city was overwhelmed, as it is probable that this individual was endeavouring to save himself by flight. It will also make it evident, that Pompeii was buried by one single, and not by repeated eruptions, as some-writers are disposed to insinuate. . . . ." “On the same day that this skeleton. was discovered near the theatre, several others were found in the streets. "A mother flying with part of her family, consisting of , o z . . . . • *. . . . two two young girls and an infant, the skeleton of which was still clinging to the breast of the mother: all hopes seem to have left them; trying still to breathe amid the burning, ashes, and clinging to the walls of the portico, they appear to have sunk nnder the effects of fatigue and grief: the lava had buried them in the same grave, and their bones were mixed with each other as if they were embracing at the last noment of their existence. Three gold rings and ear-pendents adorned with pearls, found near them, bespoke their riches and

rank in society; one of the rings was in the

form of a serpent in many folds. On another ring, which from its size must have belonged to a young girl, a garnet was fixed, on which a thunderbolt was engraved. The ear-rings resembled those of the same age which are to be seen in the cabinet of antiquities at Paris; two of the pearls were in good preservation; the others have suf. fered considerably. “A great quantity of marbles, adorned with forms of animals elegantly modelled, were found amassed at the foot of a part of the walls of the house where these skeletons were found, as if destined to ornament it. It seems to have been a house of the Thost elegant architecture, and decorated with excellent pictures, which for the sake of antiquarians have been permitted to remain for the present. One picture represented the figure of peace, upon a red ground, holding an olive branch in the right hand, and in the left a cornucopia : she is winged, and represented flying to

diffuse her blessings over the world: a light transparent habit covers her body from the girdle downwards: on the whole, this is one of the best specimens of the style of painting of the aera in which it was executed. “Among the antique objects found in the inside of this house, a large bronze plate was found with a double bottom, which must have served to keep the vic. tuals hot. It resembled a similar utensii now in use, and which is occasionally filled with warm water : the diff, rence between the ancient aud modern utensil seems to be, that in the former, the article to be kept hot was deposited between two thin vessels containing hot water. “There were also a great number of glass vases found, from three to six inches deep, in the form of cups, and some drinking cups of singular appearance. They were adorned so as to represent various figures, of the different colours of silver, gold, opal, Sapphire, and emeralds: time has given them a brilliancy which modern artists will in vain attempt to imitate. The glass which has been found at Pompeii is generally well wrought: the forms of the various utensils are different, but they are all regular and elegant: the bottles, cariffs, and other small vessels used in domestic affairs, are very round, and present no veins or flaws. They are mostly of coloured glass. Their utensils of white glass are by no means so beautiful as those of modern Europe.”

MONTHLY It

Acts PAssfd in the 54th YEAR of the REIGN of GeoRSE THE TIII RD, or in the sg.

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t cond session of the FIFTH PAR LIAMENT of the UNITED KING doms.

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A. XVI. To explain an Act of the C Forty-first Year of his present Majesty for declaring what Persons shall be dis. abled from sitting, and voting in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great fo, reland. Whereas by an Act 41 Geo. iii. c. 52, intituled “An Act for declaring what Persons shall be disabled from sitting and voting in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; and also for carrying in effect part of the Fourth Article of the Union of Great Britain and Ireland, by providing in what cases persons holding Offices or Places of Profit under the Crown of Ireland shall be incapable of being Members of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the said United Kingdom,” it is amongst other things enacted, that if any person being osen a member of the House of Commons shall accept of any office of profit what.

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whether in such case, the seat of such persons shall thereupon become vacant or not: for the obviating of all such doubts, be it declared and enacted, that if at any time any oerson being a member of the House of Commons, who shall have accepted of any office of profit whatever, on the nom.nation or appointment, or by any other appointment subject to the approbation of any Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, shall have remained or continued in, or shall remain or continue in, or shall have accepted or 1eaccepted, or shall accept or re-accept the same office, by the nomination or appointment, or by any appointment subject to the approbation of any successor or successors to the Lord Lieutenart, by whom such person was previously nominated, appointed, or a proved, or re-appointed or con. tinued, the seat of such person so emain. ing or continuing in, or accepting or reaccepting such office, from of under any such successor or successors, shall not thereupon become vacant. Cap. XVII. To enable his Majesty to accept the services of a proportion of the Militia of the Ciy of London, out of the United Kingdom, for the vigorous IProsecution of the War. Cap. XVIII. For raising the Sum of Ten millions five hundred thousand Pounds, by Frchequer Bills, for the Service of Great Britain for the Year 1814. Cai XiX. To enable his Majesty to accept the Sr. rices of the Local Illulitia, out of their Counties, under certain Restrictions, and until the 25th day of March, 1815. - Cap. XX. To explain and amend an Act passed in the present Session of Pardiament for enabling his Majesty to accept the Services of a Proportion of the Miiitia out of the United Kingdom, for the vigorous Prosecution of the War; and to extend the Provisions thereof' to the Regiment of Miners of Cornwall and Devon. Cap. XXI. For charging an equalizing Duly on Scotch Salt brought to .England. - An additional duty on salt brought from Scotland into England is imposed by this Act of 3s. per bushel; and in cases of contract the duty may be added. Cap. XXII. Continues the Watch and Ward Act till March 1, 1815. Cap. XXIll. To amend an Act of the Tify third Year of his Majesty's Reign, intiiuled an Act for the Religf of Insolwent Debtors in England. . The commissioner to hold the court established by the said Act, and to exercise his office as occasion shall require in any part of England; but nevertheless such commissioner shall at all times have an office in some couvenient * - - - -

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place, either in the cities of London, or Westminster, or in the county of Middlesex. The oath previous to petition motre+" quired; but the petition to contain an offer to take the oath. The notices under the Act to be given in such form, or to other effect as the said court shall direct. In case any advertisement to be inserted in any newspaper, shall contain more than fifty words, there shall be paid for the insertion thereof at the rate of six-pence for every ten words contained in such advertisement beyond the number of fifty words, over and above the sum of three shillings mentioned in the said Act, and no more.— The court empowcred to order prisoners to be brought before it.—The court may order prisoners to be examined before justices in quarter sessions.—Notice to be given of examination before justices.—Gaolers may be examined by the court or quarter sessions, and sheriffs and gaolers are indemnified.—A provisional assignee may be appointed. Cap. XXIV. For further continuing, until the 25th of March. 1815, certain Bounties and Drawbacks on the Erportation of Sugar from Great Britain. Cap. XXV. For punishing Mutiny and Desertion, and for the better payment of the Army. * .. Cap. XXVI. For repealing the Duties on Madder, and granting other Duties in lieu thereof. Cap. XXVII. To correct the preccding. Cap. XXVIII. For the Relief of certain Insolvent Debtors in England. Whereas it may promote the beneficial purposes of an Act, passed in the 53d year of his Majesty's righ, intituled an Act for the Relief of insolvent Debtors in England, and thereby to render it unnecessary hereafter to make temporary laws for the relief of insolvent debtors, if such provisions should be made, by law, as are hereid-after enacted, for the discharge of such persons. confined for debt, as are herein-after mentioned, to the intent that the number of such persons shall be thereby so reduced. Gaolers are o: required to make out lists of prisoners in their custody, and to deliver the same to justices of the peace. —Prisoners for debt on taking the oaths, &c. are to be discharged.—Justices may, on prisoners delivering in schedules, issue warrants to bring them to the quarter scssions.—They are to deliver schedules to the gaoler previous to the first notice.—Debtors proving that notices have been given, shall in open court deliver in certain schedules, and take an oath. – Estates and effects of debtors discharged, vested in the clerk of the peace, who is to assign the same to such creditors as the court shall direct, in trust,-Assignees to get in debtors'

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