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500 Organ at St.
tain streams, of which we have seen so many—it is broad, smooth, and uniform. Eighth Day Llangolien . . 10 Oswestry . . 10 Shrewsbury . . 16 . The country from Corwen to Llangollen exactly resembles South Wales—the abrupt mountain character has given way to the gentie swell of considerable hills, and the angular character is changed into the curve. The vale of Llangollen is certainlybeautiful,but far wore than equalled by many others that I have seen, and quite surpassed by that of Maéntrog and Tan-y-Bwlch—the town mean and ugly. We walked two miles to visit ValleCrucis Abbey, of which the remains are inconsiderable, except a fine window in front—inferior in beauty to Llantony, in Monmouthshire, to Netley, Beaulicu, Glastonbury, and, equally so in situation. Dinas-Bran Hill and Castle fine and commanding. To Oswestry the country is merely pleasant; two bridges however occur, of so great magnitude and beauty as to give character to the landscape; the first consists of eighteen arches, and is quite straight, for the purpose of an aqueduct for the Ellesmere canal, from one side of the vale to the other, the Dee flowing below. The other is six miles farther on at Chirk, similarly situated, and for the same purpose. Twelve arches—the first has a striking resemblance to the north bridge of Edinburgh, and may be seen a great many miles off. Pass Oñas Dike, an huge mound, thrown up as a barrier between the Welsh and the Saxons; some remains are visible, in the form of a high green bank running for miles across the country, and serving as a division of the lands. Oswestry is an ugly large town...We are now again in Salop; indeed, North Wales disappeared on a sudden, when we turned our backs on Dinas Hill, five miles north of Keniogé. The inn at Llangollen vile and the harper odious. in proceeding to Shrewsbury, along a dead level, pass on the opposite side of the Bregthin hills, to that which we had seen on the road to Montgomery; they are picturesque in all di cotions, even after Wales. At eight arrived at Shrewsbury:-... • Total of miles going - 126 Returning - 83 209
Sepulchre's. [July 1, Coaches. Aberystwith coach from Shrewsbury; M. W. and F. at four in the morning, 1. 17s. inside—11, 2s. outside. Mail to Bangor Ferry and Holyhead, at eight every evening, 31, 13s.6d. insidt —11, 17s, outside. Ancient Briton daily at two. Chester coach every morning at six, through Ellesmere and Wrexham.
-or-toTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine; SIR, - IS the obituary of your Magazine for January last, page 552, you made riention (in the ever to be lamented act count of Mr. Russell) of the organ at St. Sepulchre's church, it being a very fine instrument. Upon the testimony of so great and scientific a person as Mr. Russell, I was induced to pay a visit to the church one evening, on purpose to hear this organ; and I must say I was not disappointed. It was a charity sermon for the benefit of the girls' school. After the sermon they sung an hymn, it consisted of four verses; the first three were sung by the girls alone, the music being composed by the organist—Mr. Cooper. The music of the last verse was adapted from Haydn's Oratorio of Creation—The Marv'lous Works behold amazed. And I must say, I never heard, by children unacquainted with music, an hymn sung better. Mr. C. in adapting the words to the music of Haydn, had not occasion to alter a note, and the children kept time with the greatest exactness. It was sung as verse and chorus, and played upon the full and choir organ alternately, when I had an opportunity of hearing the trumpet; and truly I was delighted. Among all the organs I ever heard, I never found one to equal this; the generality of the trumpets, in other organs, having a harsh, coarse sound. But this exceeds all I had anticipated, being regular throughout, and producing a fine, full, sonorous, trombone sound, with a peculiar richness I never heard before. The testimony of Mr;
Russell is not exaggerated a whit, for f.
do not believe either church or cathedral in the kingdom has an organ with such a trumpet in it. The rest of the reed stops are cqually fine. The cremona I was exceedingly delighted with, it producing all the tone of a fine clarionet. The brilliancy of tone in the great organ, is rather too much for the diapasons. If there was another open diapason, and a double diapason for pedal pipes, it wo
be a valuable acquisition to the organ. It has 24 stops—12 to the great organ— 6 to the choir—6 to the swell. The choir organ is in front, like the Abbey and St. Paul's, and has a very grand appearance in the church. L. JPark Lane, Feb. 15, 1814.
HE Museum of French monuments merits more than common attention. It was founded in 1790, under the auspices of the Constituent Assem. bly, at the time of the confiscation of the property of the clergy : from this period, down to the present moment, the most valuable of the monuments found in the churches and suppressed convents, and the fruits of the French conquests in warious parts of Europe, have been collected at the Petits-Augustins. M. Lenoir, who was conservator of the infant museum, collected during the era of the revolution a considerable number of mausoleums, statues, bas-reliefs, and busts of all ages and of every description: when the political storms subsided, this artist proposed to the government to arrange chronologically the monuments which he had saved from destruction, by dividing them by centuries into separate halls, also decorated with the ruins of avery age. This plan, which embraced at one view the history of the arts and of France, was highly approved, and adopted by the members of the consular government. Let us now run over this museum, and endeavour to describe such curiosities as are worthy the attention of the artist, as well as of the historian. An introductory saloon first presents itself to our attention, and, like the preface of a great work, it exhibits a variety of precious articles, arranged with method so as to prepare the eye for following the various ages which we have to examine. We shall remark in the first place, those altars, defaced by time, on which the Gauls, the merchants of the ancient Lutetia, sacrified to their gods in the reign of Tiberius–Jupiter, Esus (or Mars), Vulcan, Mercury, Venus, Pan, Castor and Pollux; and the religious ceremonies also engraved upon these altars sufficiently testify, that the Parisians were then idolators, and followed the religion of the Romans, to whom they were tributary. The inscriptions with which * Monthly Mag, No. 256, " '
these monuments are loaded, leave no room for doubt as to the era of their erection and their authenticity. Adjoining the monuments, dug out in 1711 from the foundation of the ancient church of Paris, (now that of Notre Dame,) which Childebert had constructed upon the scite of a temple dedicated to Isis, which he demolished, we see the chief goddess of the Germans, named Rehalennix, in honour of whom these people erected a prodigious number of monuments, some of which were discovered in 1646, when the sea retired from the island of Walcheren. Capitals, decorated with bas-reliefs, and obtained from a subterranean tem. ple, built by King Pepin, have also been collected and placed next in order to the above. Afterwards you see the tomb of Clovis, in which this prince is represented in a recumbent posture; he is humbling himself before the Almighty, and seems to supplicate pardon for his crimes: the tombs of Childebert and of Chilperic the cruel are next in order. The hollow engraving on the tomb of Queen Fredegonde, which is made conspicuous by projecting pieces of stone, like Mosaic work, has escaped the revolutions of twelve centuries. How many earthly powers have disappeared since this epoch, and what a train of reflections does not the image of this impious woman, as it still exists, excite in the mind of the philosopher | Here also Charlemagne, in an undaunted attitude, and with his sword in his hand, seems still to give the law to the world. The sepulchre of the French Sappho, the learned and gentle Heloise, also holds a distinguished place in this museum : her earthly remains, mixed in one coffin with those of her lover, have not yet lost their attractions for the heart which glows with sensibility: sighs, full of tenderness and love, seem still issuing from the tomb and ascending to heaven, Near her interesting effigy, lies the unfortunate Abelard, still coldly commenting on the sacred text. If we pass on to the architecture of the 13th century, we may remark clusters of ridged arches, supported by thick pillars, according to the taste of the times. Ornaments in the form of the bottoms of lamps terminated the centre of the arches, which are painted blue and studded with stars. The statue of the pious Louis IX. (called Saint Louis) is placed near those of Philip his son, and King Charles his brother. The aisles, in - 3 T 0306;
* : ogee, are adorned with painted glass of the earliest age of the invention. The hall of the fourteenth century exhibits the slender and sumptuous architecture of the Arabs, introduced into France subsequent to the crusades. The kings who successively reigned in this century, down to King John, are here sculptured in their proper costume, and recombent on a stylobatus studded with fleurs de lys, ... I wenty-two cavaliers mounted upon lions, armed cap au pied, represented of the natural size and cojoured, filled the ogive niches, which are enriched with mosaics, variegated with gilding and red and blue. The tombs of Charles V. si named the Wise, of the good constable Duguesclin, and that of Šance re, his friend, are elevated in the centre of this hail, which exhibits to the eye all the magnificence of an eastern mosque. How striking is the contrast presented on entering upon the fifteenth century! Arabesque columns, and mouldings charged with gilding; sculpture slightly raised upon blue and violet grounds, initatio cameos, china, or enamel-every thing astonisties, and concurs in recalling the first era of the revival of the arts in Europe. The ideas of the amateur will dilate in this brilliant receptacle, which will prepare him for the gratification he is about to feel at the sight of the fine monuments which the illustrious age of Francis I. produced. The monuments of the fifteenth century are more imposing from their volume, the matter of which they are composed, and the personages which they represent, than those of the preceding century. In the latter, architecture predominates over sculpture; in the former, by a contrary effect, sculpture and ornainont, throw architecture into the shade. In the first place we see the mausoleums of Louis of Orleans, the victin of the faction of the l)ake of Burgundy, and that of the poet, Charles his brother. Afterwards come those of René d’Orleans, grandson of the intrepid Dunois, and Philip de Comines, celebrated as the author of Historical Memoirs of Louis XI. whose statue faces that of Charles VII. his son. That of Joan of Arc also figures in this hall near Isabeau of Bavaria. The Surperh tomb of Louis XII. placed in the imidst of this apartment, presents a grand magnificence; and his recombent sawe, which represents him dying, recalls the melancholy moment when the French people exclaimed, in following his re
inains to Saint Denis; o Our good King
Museum of French Monuments.
on [July 1, Louis is dead—we have lost our father "
We now arrive at the era when the
fine arts flourished in France. On entering the receptacle for the chefs-d'oeuvre of this period, the amateur feels his breast inflamed with enthusiastic joy. He will first admire the fine toinb which was raised to the memory of the restorer of learning and the arts. the conqueror of Cerigoles, Francis I. Next comes that of the celebrated female, who knew at once how to govern the state and to reign over the sovereign's affections—Diana of Poitiers surely will not pass without the tribute of a sigh. The fine groupe of the Graces, and that which represents Diana and her dogs, with Procion and Syrius, sculptured by Jean Gougeon, the French Phidias, will alternately fix the admiration of the connoisseur. The tomb of Gougeon, composed of his own
works, and raised by public gratitude to
his memory, is doubtless an homage which is his due. If the artist will attentively examine that fine portico, built by Philibert de Lorme, on the banks of: the Eure, for Diana of Poitiers, com-o: posed of three orders of architecture, mounted on each other in regular gradations, and sixty feet in height, he will. be astonished to learn that this beautiful monument, constructed at Anet, twenty leagues from Paris, was safely transported and re-constructed in this museum, by M. Lenoir. On quitting this apartment, which contains all the chefs-d'oeuvre for which we are indebted to the genius and taste of Francis I. we read on the pediments over the gates of the next repository, “State of the arts in the seventeenth century.” What a crowd of celebrated men does this temple, dedicated to virtue, courage, and talent, contain Here you see the monuments of Turenne, Montansier, Colbert, Moliere, Corneille, Lafontaine, Racine, Fenelon, and Boileau. The great Louis XIV. placed in the middle, becomes still greater so near these immortal sons of genius: farther off you see the statue of Richelieu, reposing in the arms of Wisdom; and that of Mazarine, in a suppliant posture; Louis XIII. Sir-named the Just, not so great as his illustrious subject De Thou, casts down his eyes in the presence of his ministers. The mausoleum of Charles the Brown, of Sully, and of Jerome Bignon, the honour, the love, and the example, terminate the series of monuments of this epoch, still more remarkable for its scholars than its artists. . . ; - - Lasty;
Lastly: we admire in the eighteenth century the statues of Voltaire, Crebillon, Rousseau, Piron, &c. while the tombs of the learned Maupertois, Caylus, and Maréchal d'Harcourt, give a perfect idea of the state of degradation into which the art of design had fallen at the commencement of this century: but the new productions which decorate the extremity of this spacious hali, are sufficient to prove to us the rapid strides towards perfection, which Vien and David have made.
How affecting must be the emotions of a susceptible mind, at the sight of the fine monument by Michallon, which was erected to the memory of the most ingenious and amiable artist, the younger Drouais, who died at the age of twentyfour, after having left pictures which are chefs-d'oeuvre | The fine statue of the young Cyparissus, by Chaudet, one of the first contemporary French sculptors, will recal the manly and elegant forms of the fine Grecian Bacchus, which decorates the peristyle of the introductory saloon.—Thus the amateur and the student will find in this museum, a regular chronology of ancient and modern monuments, beginning with those of ancient Greece 2500 years before our era, and proceeding to those of the Romans, the Roman empire, the Gauls, and, finally, the French monarchy; he will be able, in
short, to trace all the gradations of the
arts from their cradle to their decrepitude. An immense Elyseum terminates the range of this proud establishinent: here repose, amidst rows of cypress and poplar, the ashes of the illustrious French poets, Moliere, Lafontaine, Boileau, I}escartes, Mabilion, and Montfaucon: shut up in their sarcophagi, and resting on the verdant carpet of nature, they still receive the homage which is due to their virtues and their talents. -oxo
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,
AN any of your correspondents
oblige me by describing the process used in the preparation of Russia leather, or at least the particular article which gives it the peculiar perfume it possesses?
May 1, 1814. B. S.
-onTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIP, N a late number of your very excellent Magazine, you have inserted a letter from Mr. Dick, of Methven, Perthshire, on the formation of provingial
libraries, the property of which is vested in the subscribers. I have no doubt but the establishment of such societies would be extremely rapid, were the m -t convenient method known of uniting gentlemen in their for.uation. I beg leave to offer to Mr. Dick, and your other readers, the following, by which the general subscription library at G eenock,
in the west of Scotland, was begun. Two or three gentlemen of that town. had found in many of their friends in each sex, a general complaint against “the trash in circulating libraries,” and a wish for such an establishment as a general subscription library, proposing that they would immediately transfer their subscriptions from the common libraries of the town, and even increase them, provided they could get books of real knowledge and utility to read, which should also be the property of the subscribers. Finding such a spirit, these gentlemen put up written notices at the booksellers shops, coffee-houses, principal inns, &c. requesting a meeting of the friends of such a plan, at one of the principal hotels of the place. At this meeting, ruies were proposed which met its general concurrence; and I believe many of the gentlemen offered the use of their private libraries to the society, until their own public one had got the first or second order for its books accomplished. Subscriptions were immediately opened, and it was also agreed to, that for a certain time, periaps the first six months, every one who approved of the plan, and could pay a guinea per year, (the amount of the annual subscription) should become a member without the formality of a ballot. A committee was formed from amongst the subscribers at this first meeting, and a room was ordered to be prepared to contain their books. Thus, Sir, was the Groenock subscription library established. It is now six years since the books they had procured, were too numerous for their first room; a plan was then in agitation amongst the members, to build by way of tontine, in small shares, a respectable house for their better accommodation in an eligible part of the town, and to let the under apartinents either as ware-rooms, shops, compting-houses, or whatever might be thought most respectabie or most useful, according to the situation which they purchased, and consequently most advantageous. In this part of their plan, I understand, the money received for the rents of the apartments which are let, pays the intercst of what was expended 3 T 2 92
on the building, by which means their own excellent accommodations are rentfree. Amongst their regulations, I had peculiar pleasure in observing one, by which they admit, with the same facility as their own subscribers, any gentleman or lady who may visit the town, and can prove that they are subscribers to a similar institution. The liberality of such a plan is particularly obvious—its advantages I shall make the subject of an early paper. To those gentlemen who, by a very trifling exertion, might establish very useful libraries in those towns (and even villages) where there are none yet, I would hold out the effects and the success of these two or three active friends of information at Greenock, and add, in the impressive words of our great moral teacher—Go YE AND Do Li Kewise. ALCU IN.
-*To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, HE controversy between Mr. Ross and myself on the subject of reflection on water, having been again revived, and as he does not appear quite satisfied with my reply to his first letter, I must beg you will have the goodness to indulge me with a place in your valuable Magazine for some further remarks on the subject.
Whoever takes the trouble of reading the whole controversy between us, will see that Mr. Ross's violent attack, in his two last letters, upon my reply to his first letter, vol. 72, page 902, of the Gent. Magazine, is not in fact so much against the manner of expression as against the matter of that paper; he allows it to contain, as far as it goes, scientific truths; and by his mistatements and indecisive Imanner of expression he tacitly acknowsedges that what he has advanced on reflections will not stand the test of demonstration, and the experience of every
day's observation. But before I proceed to the main object of this letter, I must beg to correct Mr. Ross in one or two particulars: he says, “If he had any thing further to say, why did he not answer my second paper, and fight the battle out at the time? The answer is obvious—he could not.” But I may inform Mr. Ross, that I did reply to that paper immediately ; and in such a manner, I trust, as would have convinced the most common reader of the truth of my remarks. I gave a delineation of the different planes, &c. under
consideration, and entered pretty fully into the subject; but the editor of the Gent. Magazine, for reasons best known to himself, never published it.* I thought no more of the subject for some years, till one day looking over some numbers of that work, I accidentally met with Mr. Ross's first letter on reflection; it directly struck me that the matter then under discussion had not been quite satisfactorily cleared up; and wishing to see something more on the subject, I was induced to send an extract of that lett-r to the Monthly Magazine, (as being the most scientific publication of the kind,) in hopes that some of the correspondents to that work would favour the public with their remarks. I trust my opponent will be satisfied with this explaIlat 101). I shall now proceed to the principal object of my letter, which is to prove, that all perpendicular objects are reflected perpendicularly, bo: h in nature and in the picture, in every situation of the eye; and that the eye is not the vanishing point of reflection. As it is rather difficult to exhibit the necessary planes upon paper, so as to make the delineations perfectly intelligible to the generality of readers, I shall endeavour to elucidate the subject by a very simple experiment. Take a plane reflecting body, for instance a common mirror, and place it horizontally, this will be the geometrical plane; along the further edge of the mirror set up three perpendicular objects, at a little distance from each other, them at some distance from the objects place a pane of clear glass, perpendicular to the face of the mirror, and opposite to the objects, this will be the perspective plane or picture.
Behind this plane, and opposite to the
middle object, fix a perforated piece of metal, and at such an altitude above the geometrical plane, as that the eye placed at the hole may see the objects and their reflections through the perspective plane.
Things being thus arranged, and the eye placed at the point of view, or at the hole in the metal, it will be seen that the objects both on the right hand and on the ieft will have their reflections (as
* At page 1128, of the next subsequent Magazine to the one containing Mr. Ross's seceiid letter on reflection, there is the following remark: “To our controversial correspondents we strongly recommend brevity and moderation. One intemperate word, we universally perceive, produces
twenty in reply.” well.