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400 article:—“The phenomenon of a fossile human skeleton will silortly be see n in London: Sir Alexander Cochrane lately sent this curiosity from Guadaloupe, and it has been deposited in the British Museum. It was found with son:e others, a few years since, in a bed of hard limestone or marble, in that island, and a part of one ski luton was sent to France, and is now in possession of M. Covier, the naturalist. The specimen sent to lordon is perfect from the neck to the #ncies, and it is supposed to axe boot a female. Textrous workmen have been employed in detaching the stone from the form of the skeleto, and a drowing has been made to accompany a 31' or, which is to be said ic fore the society. A glass-case is making for 11, and, wiivn complete, the fossile will be oibited to the public. This discovery of couise disturbs the many fine.spta; theorics re!ative to the comparatively recent formation of the human species.” This conclusion has been arrady arraigned, as gratuitous and of a dangerous tendency, in a paper of Mr. John Farey, sen. which I have found in your next number for February, page 23, beginning thus:–“I am aware of no application which this remark can have, but to call in question the received Mosaic account of the origin and date of our species.” He then shew's how gratuitous is this conclusion, its being derived from a solitary spot, unknown to the author himself, and known to very few Europcans; when opposed to the demonstration which I have given in my geological works, that our continents themselves 2re not of a greater antiquity than is ascribed in Genesis to the descendants of Noah from the deluge. Which consideration would have been sufficient to repulse the conclusion of the author: but he will regret to have been so hasty in drawing this conclusion from an imperfect knowledge of the very object whence he has derived it, which is deposited in the British Museum; an exact description of which, and all the circumstances are now publicly known. An article published in your last Magazine, states the real facts concerning that human skeleton, in a most indubitable manner; for it is in a letter addressed to Sir Joseph Banks, by Mr. Koenig, belonging to the British Museum, in the department of mineralogy. I shall copy the whole of this important article, which will iead me to many other facts. “A lettes from Mr. Koenig to the

On the Fossile Skeleton found in Guadaloupe.

[June 1,

right hon. President was read, describing the fossile human skeleton brought from Guadaloupe to this country by Admiral Sir Aíex. Cochrane, and deposited in the British Museum. This singular fossite was found on the shores of Guadaloupe, below high-water mark, among calcareous rocks formed of inadrepores, &c. and not very far from the volcano, called the Souffriere. The block confaining the numan skeleton is eight feet long, two broad, and weighs about two tons; it is a very hard granular cascareous storic, containing a few venus and other shells, some of which are unknown. The skeleton is tolerably perfect, with the exception of the skull and some verto bro of the neck, which are wanting. Sir H. Oavy found some phosphate of line in the bones, proving the presence of animal matter. Mr. Koenig does not pretend to guess the age of this fossile tko leton; but Sir Jos. Banks, whose experience and observations are more cxtensive, considers it as of a very modern formation. Other fossile bones have been found in the same vicinity, and calca cous matter, or rocks, continue forming there. This circumstance seems to sanction the judicious opinion of the learned president.” From this exact description of facts, the object of the human skeleton in-the British Alu-ena, assumes a very different aspect; and it is explained without the supposition of that length of time which the author whom I have in view thought to distub the fine-spun theories of the comparatively recent formation of the human species; for we have in this account all the circumstances which explain this singular phenomenon. The fact that Guadaloupe is a volcanic island, is attested by all the descriptions we have of it, and it is what explains a part of our phenomenon. That island was first discovered by Columbus, who gave it that name from Some resemblance to a mountain of Spain: his landing was opposed by the natives, and especially by the women, who used bows and arrows; but the firearms of the Spaniards soon subdued them; however, they did not form there any settlement. It was only in June 1635, that a first colony of Europeans settled there; they were Frenchmen, belonging to Dieppe, five hundred and fifty in number's at their first landing, the natives (Caribs) used them with hospitality; but these men behaved so ill to them, that the

were starved: they had not carried with - - them


them a sufficient quantity of provisions; and as they plundered the natives, instead of asking with civility what they wanted from them, they retired to a remote part of the island unknown to the invaders. We know, therefore, that the island of Guadaloupe was inhabited at the time when it was discovered by Europeans; and it is probably before that discovery, that some of the natives, falling into the sea, were enveloped by the grooving niadrepores. We are also acquainted with a cause of their failing in that manner. The inhabitants of the shores lived probably by fishing, and some were there suffocated. It is recorded by the celebrated traveller, Labbat, that the sea on that coast is sometimes so hot as to boil eggs; and that in moving the sand with a stick, a strong smell of sulphur is perceived. Such is very probably the cause of some of the natives falling from the shore into the sea, before Guadaloupe was in possession of Europeans; they fell on madrepores, and were enveloped by them. The formation of madrepores is a phenomenon common to the coast of all the islands of that sea; and with respect to the time elapsed since the skeletons were deposited into that calcareous substance, we must recur to what is known of its growth. On this object, I have quoted (page 284 of the third volume of my Geological Travels, first published in London) the account given by Denon in his Travels in Lower and Upper Egypt, in which he describes the rapid progress of these madrepores in the Red-Sea: they are the work of sea-polipi, which form a kind of rock called reef of coral ; and from known times in the annals of navigation, they have rendered the access of the coasts of the Red. Sea dangerous, and have even filled up some of its ports. This, therefore, being the nature of the calcareous substance on which the unfortunate inhabitants of the shores of Guadaloupe fell into the sea by being suffocated, it did not require much time for the madrepores to envelop them completely. It appears also that the seapolipi fed on the decaying corps, and left their bones quite bare; since the madrepore work of these animals is immediately applied to the bones; they also cover every hard body which happens to fall or slowly move over them; and thus it is that some bivalve-shells, the motion of which over bodies is very slow, have been also enveloped,

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-oxo~~ To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, H. addition to the list of books proper for servants hails and kitchens in large houses, also in infirmaries, &c. as given by your correspondent from Blackburn, permit me to recommend the foilowing: Books of Prudential Marims. Pr. Franklin's Poor Richard's Sayings. Sandford and Merton. Religious'; 'radesman (an excellent book). Family {nstructor. Starm's Reflections. Religioios. Doddridge's Rise and Progress. Baxter's Cahi to the Unconverted. Watts's Scripture History. Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, Holy War, and Heavenly Footman, with other of hio works. Orton's Practical Discourses. Discourses on Eternity. These two last are perhaps some of the most useful practical discourses extant in our language. D. R. -**oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Sł R, ERMIT me, through the medium of your widely circulating Magazine, to request of those of your readers who attend to the meteorology of their situation in the island, some information respecting the most brilliant Aurora Borealis, which was visible here last Sunday evening (the 17th) at 11 o'clock. . It would contribute, not only in this instance, but in many others, to the progress of meteorological science, and very much extend our view of the subject, if, through some general medium, we might have presented to our view accurate observations and unemoranda on atmospheric phenomena, from different and distant situations. A friend of mine, an

eminout ineteorologist, performed a jour



402 hey from London to York, at the change of a fine season of some continuance to rain, and ascertained, as far as he was able by enquiries, the extent of rain, and he concluded that the whole of the island was irrigated at once by an Atlantic cur*ent. 69&vgayo oversa;. Kennington, 2 miles S. of London, Ap. 23.

-stormTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SI R, N the parishes of Braintree and Bocking, in Essex, there have been so

vieties formed, time immemorial, among the members of the established church, for reading the Scriptures, and the works of eminent commentators. These meetings are held at Blaintree, in a room in the church, set apart for the purpose, on every Thursday evening throughout the year; and at six o'clock on Sunday mornings from Easter till Michaelmas. Each person contributes one penny per week to defray the expenses of fire and candle during the winter months, and to present a gratuity to the minister for preaching a funeral sermon at the death of a member. I have never heard of any other parish where this custom is observed: it seems to have been origimally borrowed from the early practice of the reformed church of Scotland; where, as there was not a sufficient number of ministers to supply the different parts of the country, ceitain pious persons, who had received a common education, were appointed to read the Scriptures and the Common Prayers, that the people night not be left altogether destitute of public worship and instruction." They had also in Scotland, at the same time, a weekly exercise on the Scriptures, intended for the improvement of ministers, the trial of the gifts of those who might be employed in the service of the church, and the general instruction of the people. Those who conducted this exercise, alternately expounded a passage of Scripture; and others who were present were encouraged to deliver their sentiments. Similar associations were formed in England, and were patronised by the bishops of London, Wiriton, Bath and Wells, Litchfield, Gloucester, Lincoln, Chichester, Exeter, and St. David's; by Sandys Archbishop of York, and Grindall Archbishop of Canterbury. But they were suppressed by an imperious mandate of Elizabeth.f Braintree, April 18, 1814. D. Copsey.

* Mc Crie's “J.Life of ionox,” vol. ii. age 6.

# Ibid, page 285. Note *.

Braintree Society for Reading the Scriptures.

ever so useful.

[June 1,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR, IS this neighbourhood is a person who for years has laboured under the excruciating pains usually attendant on a cancer, which having baffled medica} skill, induced the patient to come to a determination to submit to amputation. Being, however, advised previously to try the following experiment, it had the desired effect, viz. Make a poultice of white bread and milk, on which spread a quantity of yeast, after having laid it on a hair sieve, in order to obtain it as thick as possible, and apply the same to the part affected. This was accordingly done at first three times a-day, but twice a-day was soon found sufficient, and at length it was reduced to once in that time. By following this process, a perfect cure was speedily effected.

Hitchin, April 1814. PALEAMON. -oTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR,

WILL relate an experiment I made,

though I do not claim any credit for its invention, as it is acknowledged that it is a difficult matter to get the world generally to adopt any thing, let it be I took a ball sewed in canvas, to which I attached a line and fired it from on-board-a-ship, which carried the line several score yards, and was acknowledged, by all present, to be a good expedient. What I would wish to inculcate is, that innumerable lives might be saved in case of wrecks, if each ship had in readiness such means of communication with the shore. It is a principle perhaps not generally known, that a small line will draw the largest rope when a float in the water. It may not be needless to hinty that twenty . yards of rope, with a weight at one end, placed where it might easily be, got at, as it might be thrown into any window, might prevent the dreadful necessity people are often under in case of fire in London, to throw themselves out.

--- C. W.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,


OUR correspondent Mr. Smart, in

your Magazine for April, No. 353,

very justly censures the filling up of a . book on the subject of shall and will; . yet I cannot compliment Mr. Smart on the conciseness and perspicuity of his own explanations. The etymology of . shall and will has long been known; and had it bees well considered, little diffis.

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culty could have arisen in the proper use of those words, Shall, when not denoting simple futurity, expresses command, or intention with implied authority; now intention and zolition must not be confounded, for, though nearly allicd, they are often very distinct; as “I will go there, though much against my inclination.” The phrase, “you shall go whether you like it or not,” marks, command; but the phrase, “if you are a good girl you shall go to the play,” marks intention only, though in the second person; still with an implied authority in the speaker to permit or deny : the same may be predicated, when shall is used interrogatively, “shall I go? shall he go?” in the second person: instead of shall, “will you go?” is used, because the appeal is made to the intention only of the person addressed, without any reference to authority. Will, when not denoting simple futurity, implies volition, as, “I will do it in spite of you;” or simple intention, as “I will call on you to-morrow:” it must be remembered, that will, in the first person, always implies volition, or intention, and therefore cannot be used where simple futurity alone is meant. Thus a little attention to the tenor of the sentence, and to the original derivation of the above words, wiii point out the proper use of them better than all the Profuse and obscure rules and explanations that ever were produced. I once intended to answer your correspondent Dr. Shaw, on his théory of the Euglish verb; but as it forms a part of a work on the English language, which I purpose giving to the public, I shall only observe, that it appears to me extremely er:

TOlleOus. E. S. E.

•-aroTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIP, HERE having been much speculation respecting the interiment of King Charles, I am induced to send you the following particulars, extracted from an old book in my possession, entitled “England's Black Tribunal set forth in the Trial of King Charles I.” printed in the year 1658, ten years after the death of the King, and which will, no doubt, clearly elucidate every circumstance:– After a little pause, the King stretching forth his hands as a signal, the executi: 9ner at one blow severed bis head from his body; the head being off, the executioner held it up and shewed it to the People; which done, it was with the body

put in a coffin covercd with black velvet, for that purpose, and conveyed to his house in St. James's, where his body was embalmed and put in a coffin of lead; laid there a fortnight to be seen by the people; and on the Wednesday sevennight after, his corps embalmed and confined in lead was delivered. chiefly to the care of four of his servants, viz. Mr. Herbert, Captain Anthony Mildmay, his servers; Captain Prestoia and John Joyner, formerly cook to his Mlajesty. They attended, with others, cloathed in mourning suits and cloaks, accompanied the hearse that night to Windsor, and placed it in that which was formerly the King's bed-chamber; next day it was removed into the Deane's bail, which room was hanged with black and nada dark, with lights burning round the hearse; in which it remained till three in the afternoon, about which time came the Duke of Lennox, the Marquis Hert. ford, Marquis of Dorchester, and the Earl of Lyndsey, having obtained an order from parliament for the decent interment of the king, their royal master, provided the expence thereof exceeded not five hundred pounds. At their coming into the castle they shewed their order of parliament to Colonel W. Lichcott, governor of the castle, desiring the interment might be in St. George's chapel, and by the form in the common prayer of the church of England. This request was by the governor denied, saying it was improbable that the parliament would permit the use of what they had so solemnly abolished, and therein destroy their own act. To which the lords replied, there is a difference between destroying their own act and dispensing. with it, and that no power so binds its own hands, as to disable itself in some cases: all could not prevail, the governor persisting in the negative. The lords betook themselves to the search of a convenient place for the burial of the corps, the which after some pains taken therein, they discover a vault in the middle of the quire; wherein, as is probably conjectured, lieth the body of King Henry VIII. and his beloved wife, the Lady Jane Seymour, both in coffins of lead; in this vault, there being room for one more, they resolve to inter the body of the King. The which was accordingly brought to the place born by the officers of the garrison, the four corners of the velvet pall born by the aforesaid four lords: the pious bishop of London, (Dr. Juxon,) following next, and other persons of quality. The body was coin


404 mitted to the earth with sighs and tears, especialiy of the Rev. Bishop, to be denied to do the last duty and service to his dear and royal master; the velvet pall being cast into the vault, was laid over the body; upon the coffin were these words set—KING CHARLEs, 1648.”

The above is a literal copy. I see no account of the ring sun-dial mentioned by your correspondent in your last number. The King gave his George to Dr. Juxon on the scaffold, to give to the Prince. There are a number of interesting anecdotes and remarks contained in the book, particularly the King's speech upon the scaffold; with the speeches and behaviour of seventeen noblemen and others, who suffered for and after him.

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Sf R,

foLIE reaping and harvesting of the wheat is attended with so heavy an expense, and with practices of so disorderly a nature, as to call for the strongest mark of disapprobation, and their immediate discontinuance, or at least a modification of the pastime after the labours of the day. The wheat being ready to cut down, and amounting from 10 to 20 acres; notice is given in the incighbourhood that a reaping is to be performed on a particular day, when, as the farmer may be more or less liked in the village, on the morning of the day appointed a gang, consisting of an indefinite number of men and women, assemble at the field, and the reaping commences after breakfast, which is seldom over till between weight and nine o'clock. is open for additional hands to drop in at

any time before the twelfth hour to par

take of the frolic of the day. By 11 or 12 o'clock the ale or cyder has so much warmed and elevated their spirits that their noisy jokes and ribaldry are heard to a considerable distance, and often serve to draw auxiliary force within the accustomed time. The dinner, consisting of the best meat and vegetables, is carried into the field between twelve and one o'clock; this is distributed with copious draughts of ale and cyder, and by two o'clock the pastime of cutting and binding the wheat is resumed, and continued, without other interruption than the squabbles of the party, until about five o'clock; when what is called the drinkings are taken into the field, and under the shade of a hedge-row, or large tree, the panniers are examined, and 1

Reaping in Devonshire.

This company

[June 1,

buns, cakes, and all such articles aré found as the confectionary skill of the farme's wife could produce for gratifying the appetites of her customary guests at this season. After the drinkings are over, which generally consume from half to three quarters of an hour, and even longer, if such can be spared from the coinpietion of the field, the amusement of the wheat harvest is continued, with such exertions as draw the reaping and binding of the field together with the close of the evening. This done, a small sheaf is bound up, and set upon the top of one of the ridges, when the reapers retiring to a certain distance, each throws his reap-hook at the sheaf, until one more fortunate, or less inebriated, than the rest strikes it down ; this achievement is accompanied with the utmost stretch and

power of the voices of the company, ut

tering words very indistinctly, but somewhat to this purpose—we ha in 1 we ha in ' we ha in 2–which noise and tumult continue about half an hour, when the company retire to the farm house to sup; which being 6ver, large portions of ale and cyder enable them to carouse and vociferate until one or two o'clock in the morning. At the same house, or that of a neighbouring farmer, a similar scene is renewed, beginning between eight and nine o'clock in the morning following, and so

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continued through the precious season of .

the wheat-harvest in this county. It must be observed that the labourers thus coployed in reaping receive no wages; but in lieu thereof they have an invitation to the farmer's house to partake of a harvest frolic, and at Christmas, during the whole of which time, and which seldom continues less than three or four days, the house is kept open night and day to the guests, whose behaviour during the time may be assimilated to the frolics of a bear-garden.—Wide Van. Surv. JDevon. pp. 145. Z. X. Awliscombe, April 15, 1814.

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