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: The engine used on the rail-road at Leeds, is four horses power, being the most powerful one used at present, and is so constructed that by the operating aid of cranks (fixed at right angles) it puts in motion a cogged wheel, acting in teeth cast on one side of the rail-road itself, or a separate rack, by which a considerable propelling power is given to the machine; a power so considerable that when the carriage is lightly loaded it travels at the rate-of-10 miles an hour, but when loaded with 30 coal-waggons, which is frequently the case, each weighing 84 tons, it is propelled on a dead level at the rate of 84 miles an hour.
Tire use of these Steam Carriages has given the greatest satisfaction, and they promise to be attended with the most beneficial effects, particularly as it is clearly ascertained that at least fivesixths of the expence of conveying goods, by horses will be saved by the invention. - The Steam Carriage has been fully employed at Leeds since June 1812, and, to the satisfaction of the patentee, was not impeded even during the great falls of snow in January last; and more waggons of coals were conveyed to Leeds in that severe month, by the locomotive engine, than in any preceding one by horses. - . -- . "
Any gentleman wishing to see the per
formance of the Steam Carriage wis' be much gratified by visiting Middleton Colliery, Leeds, Yorkshire; Orrell Col. liery, Wigan, Lancaster; or Kenton and Coxlodge Collieries, near Newcastleupon-Tyne, where o, are daily at work. Jon N BLENKINSop. ;
Asiddleton Hall, near Leeds,
March 26, 1814. -To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. sir, -
IT appears to me, that your correI spondent Mr. G. Hall, at page 297, has omitted to state, that the two strata of chalk only a yard thick each, which he mentions at bottom of col. 1, were in loose fragments, and that the whole of the beds which he mentions, are alluvial, moved and mixed matters, lodged on the great 'stratum of chalk, whose thickness, he says, is not ascertained. The slaty coal of Helton and OkefordFitzpain, N.E. of Dorchester, which Mr. H. mentions, seems to belong to the ebvering of the plastic clay of Burbeck, above the chalk: the large oysters of Ansty in Helton, answer to those found
on the S.W. of Reading town, between the plastic red clay and the chalk. The supposed tortoises of Lewis Melburry, are, I believe, , only Ludi Helmontii, which used to be called turtle-stones, from the supposed resemblance of the compartments formed on their surfaces, by the septa therein, to those on the shells of turtles.
Westminster, May 1.
For the Monthly Magazine.
2ntient 3Damncrg. . . - No. I. . [We are promised a series of papers, by an eminent Antiquary, similar to that of which we here introduce the first Number; and judging of the literary perceptions of our readers by our own, we are persuaded that they will anticipate,in his successive communications, a new source of periodical pleasure.] 1. HATs. I” a paper found among Secretary Cecil's manuscripts, concerning the varieties, or confusion more properly, in which the English service was performed at the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, in the article of apparel, is this a “Some with a square cap; some with a round cap; some with a button cap ; some with a hat"; , some in scholars' clothes; some in others.” Bishop Ma
John FAREY, Sen,
‘dor's Windication of the Church of England against Nedle, p. 156.-In the 'same work, p. 187, one Mr. Cole, a pu'ritan chaplain to some great lord, is said ...to have appeared at court at that time,
the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign,
in the Bodleian Library, No. 941 con
tains a Collection of Miscellaneous Dis.
396 row's, and others, printed during that time.” The writer of this article was informed in 1811, by the Rev. Mr. Burder, who had the curacy of St. Dunstan's, Fleetstreet, that the large silver hour-glass formerly used in that church was melted down into two staff-heads for the parish beadles. An hour-glass frame of iron, fixed in the wall by the side of the pulpit, was remaining in 1797 in the church of North Moor, in Oxfordshire. III. ChocoLATE. An advertisement in “The Public Adviser,” from Tuesday June 16 to Tuesday June 22, 1657, informs us, that “in Bishopsgate-street, in Queen's-Head Alley, at a Frenchman's house, is an excellent West India drink called Chocolate to be sold, where you may have it ready at any time, and also unmade at reasonable rates.” IV. CO FFEE. In a previous number of the paper just mentioned, from May 19 to May 26, 1657, “ In Bartholomew Lane, on the back side of the old Exchange, the drink called Coffee is advertised as to be sold in the morning, and at three of the clock in the afternoon.” v. ANCIENT STRICTNFss of DRESS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAM BIRIDGE. Among the papers inserted in what is called the Black-paper Book of the University of Cambridge, Mr. Cole found a letter from the Chancellor, Lord Burleigh, dated, “from my house in the Strande, this seventhe of Maye, 1588,” against excess of apparel, and containing certain orders which he required to be ebserved. The first of these orders was, “That no hatt be worne of anie graduat or scholler, within the said Universitie, (excepte it shal be when he shall Journey owte of the towne, or) excepte in the tyme of his sicknes.” All graduates were to wear square caps of cloth; and seholars, not graduates, round, cloth caps, “saving that it maye be lawfull for the sonnes of noblemen, or the sonnes and heires of knights, to weare round caps of velvet, but no hats.” 2d. All graduats “shall weare abroade in the University, going owte of his colledg, a gowne and an hoode of cloth, according to the order of his degree. Provided, that it shal be lawfull for everie D.D. and for the Mr. of anie coll. to weare a sarcemet tippet, or a tippet of velvet, according to the ancient customes of this reasme, and of the saide Univeraltie. The whiche gowne, tippet, and
Ancient Manners, No. 1.
[June 1, square caps, the saide Drs. and heads shal be likewise bounde to weare, wheif they shall resorte eyther to the courte or to the citie of London.” • , 3d. “And that the excesse of shirt hands and ruffes, exceding an yuche and halfe, (saving the somes of noblemen) the fashion and colour other than white, be avoyded presentlie; and no scholler, or fellowe of the foundation of anie howse of learninge, doe weare either in the Universitie or without, &c. anie hose, stockings, dublets, jackets, crates, or jerknees, or anie other kynde of garment of velvet, satten, or silke, or in the facing of the same shall have above + yarde of silke, or shall use anie other light kynde of colour, or cuts, or gards, or fashion, the which shall be forbidden by the chancellor, &c.” 4th. “And that no scholler doe weare anie long lockes of heare vppon his head, but that he be notted, pouled, or rounded, after the accustomed mauer of the gravest scholers of the saide Universitie.” The letter was addressed to Dr. Legge. The penalty for every offence against these orders, or any of them, was 6s. 8d. to be levied by one of the bedels if committed in public, and to be converted to the use of the University; and by masters and sub-heads in colleges for college use.”—MS. Cole, vol. xlii. p. 408.
VI. Tea. A folio sheet of the time of Charles II. entitled “An Exact Description of the Growth, Quality, and Vertues of the Leaf Tea, by Thomas Garway, in Exchange Alley, near the Royal Exchange
in London, tobacconist, and seller and
retailer of tea and coffee,” informs us that “in England it hath been sold in the leaf for six pounds, and sometimes for ten pounds the pound weight; and in
respect of its former scarceness and
dearness, it hath been only used as a regalia in high treatments and entertainments, and presents made thereof ite princes and grandees till the year 1657. The said Thomas Garway did purchase a quantity thereof, and first publikely, sold the said tea in leaf and drink, made according to the directions of the most knowing merchants and travellers, into those eastern countries; and upon knowledge and experience of the said, Gas
way's continued care and industry in ob, taining the best tea, and nuaking drink
thereof, very many noblemen, physicians, merchants, and gentlemen of quality, have ever since sent to him for the
said leaf, and daily resort to his house in
Exchange Alley to drink the drin thereof."
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