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$50 resins. All the colouring matter of the leaves, the flowers, and the fruits, is contained in the cellules, as well as the acid, sweet, astringent, or saline juices. PR USS I.A.

In the ancient library lately discovered at Glogau in Silesia, there have been found many Latin translations from Greek writers, which are of a much earlier date than any at present known. From the information with which we have been favoured by Professor Schneider, it appears that among them are several manuscript copies of versions usually attributed to scholars who lived at the period of the revival of literature, but which were written before the time of their reputed authors; and some of which turn out to be the productions of the third and fourth century. Amongst them is a complete translation of Galen, executed about that age : parts of which have been published by Matthiae as fragments of Latin medical writers. From the documents contained in this most curious collection, it is the intention of Professor Schneider to draw up an account of the state of literature in the

middle ages; in which he will expose

many plagiarisms and frauds of learned
persons, who have hitherto enjoyed repu-
tation for industry and research.
Considerable improvements have been
made in Gas Lights, by Messrs. So-
Bolewsky and HoRRER, at Petersburgh.
The object of the authors was to see what
kind of light could be produced by the
combustion of wood in closed vessels,
and by reducing it to charcoal. The
greatest difficulty consists in getting rid
of the vapour that exhales from the gas,
and in giving brilliancy and purity to the
flame; for in all the trials made in Russia,
and in other countries, the flame has al-
ways been feeble and blueish, but little
luminous, and accompanied by a mephi-
tic exhalation. After many satisfactory
attemps, Messrs. Sobolewsky and Horrer
have at length completely succeeded, and
can be certain of producing light by the
gas, which will be very bright, without any
sensible odour or fuliginous exhalation.
By an extreme external heat the pure
wood is decomposed, and becomes char-
coal; and its other constituent parts, such
as the acid, the hydrogen, and the car-
bon, are disengaged, and form, from the
commencement of the operation, empy-
reumatic oil and acid, that is to say tar.
Afterwards, in proportion as the heat
augments, these substances, combining
2 -

Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

[May 1, with the igniting principle or heat, produce carbonic acid and inflammable bydrogen gas. The gas is conducted into water, to cleanse it; after which it is collected in a large reservoir, where it is ready for use. A cubic cord of wood, equal to 2,133 French metres, reduced to charcoal by the process above described, produces 255 pounds, Paris weight, of the best charcoal; 70 buckets of acid of 20 pouds, produce 30 pounds, poids de marc, of tar. After the acid is properly purified, there remain 50 buckets of good vinegar. This account proves some of the advantages resulting from this method of reducing wood to charcoal ; and if we add, that from a single cubic cord 50,000 cubic feet of gas can be extracted, and that this quantity is sufficient to feed 4000 lamps for five hours, the result will appear beyond all belief.

In England the Gas Lights produced from coals by Mr. WINso R's process, have afforded one of the greatest improvements in the arts of life that has been made in our time.

The bones of an unknown animal were lately found in a peat moss in Russia. This creature must have been about twelve feet long. The horns were two feet and a half long, and one foot and a half round at the root. From the appearance of this imperfect skeleton, it seems to have belonged to the Urus or Aurochs, mentioned by Caesar in his account of Germauy. And it is thought that the real Urus may still be occasionally seen in the mountains of Siberia.


The extensive works going on at Corfu, by order of the French government, have led to the discovery of various interesting articles. It had been long since known that an ancient city was situated in that part of the island which extends between one of its old harbours and the sea, at the foot of the small hill, St. Pantaleon. The remains of ancient aqueducts, the great quantity of ruins, inscriptions, and ancient columns, along the sea-coast to the point of Aperama, far from the position of Paleapolis, induce a belief that the city extended that length. At three different points within the inclosure of the ancient city, there are remains of a stone aqueduct. This aqueduct was, in the lower parts, sustained by arcades, a great part of which we still see at the level of the ground to an extent of 7 or 800 metres. These monuments prove, that what the ancients have told us of N. B. We purpose in future to place our Mont HLY Reports before the London and Country News, as being in more immediate connection with analogous articles, and more commensurate with their value and interest.


the magnificence of the works of this city is not exaggerated. As to the waters, Homer informs us that there were two fountains constantly spouting water, one of which watered the gardens of Alcinous, and the other flowed through canals under the windows of the palace, forming afterwards a large basin for the use of the citizens. Fragments of columns and several capitals of the Doric order have been found, and particularly some shafts of finely fluted columns. One of these shafts is 1 metre 10 centimetres in diameter, another 87 centimetres: Some elegant small heads have also been found, a statue of a female with very elegant drapery, and several other figures in marble : a leaden bow very well preserved, and two weights of an oval form and of less diameter than an egg, with the inscription KAAIXTPATor. These were probably the balls which served for the sling of some hero among the Corcyrans. in the same environs, at a place called Straties, there was found an ancient bronze vase of middling size and without handles: it contained a large quantity of silver medals. The greater part of these medals are in high preservation; they are of Dyrrhachium, an ancient Corcyran colony, now called Burazzo, a city on the shores of Epirus. These medals bear the usual emblem of a cow suckling a calf, and on the exergue what archaeologists regard as the gardens of Alcinois, with the epigraph ATP and the club. The only difference which we have to remark is, that the cow is turned to the left, instead of being to the right, as upon all the medals of this colony. Among these medals, some have been found belonging to Corinth and Siphnos, with the Sphynx, and belonging to Corcyra with the diota to the right and the star in the exergue: other Corcyran medals of third rate size, have on one side young Bacchus crowned with ivy, on the other a winged Pegasus, a laurel on his head, and at his hiod feet the prow of a ship with the monograms A. K. K. : others have the inscription *AAAkPoor and MAONIAAz: others the name of Demetrius, king of Macedon. At the same spot where the vase was found, bronze mails were seen with large heads, and a small golden calf. The monuments which have been discovered in greatest quantity, are inscriptions on

bricks. Almost all these fragments are of the same form: their colour is gene

rally yellowish, although some are reddish. The form of the letters is more or

less regular; the ordinary dialect is the

Doric. Several decrees of the senate of Corcyra, engraved in brass, and which

are still preserved, are drawn up in the

same dialect. Some inscriptions contain

the names of magistrates, and of other

dignitaries, and the different districts of the island; discoveries which have been

highly useful in elucidating the ancient

topography. The proper name is always preceded by the preposition E III: which announces the title of the Pritannus or Archontas. We read on one for example EIIIAAKAIOY : on another EIIIBoIXK. This name might have been that of the son of Lycophron of Dodona, whom the council of the Corcyrams admit into the number of the citizens of their country, as asserted in the decree engraved in brass, and preserved at Corfu by the antiquary, Victor Gangady, EIILATIOAAQAOPOY. EITIAPIXTOKAEOX. A2 Ab POAI TAI. These three monuments are in good preservation. The last seerns to have been dedicated to Venus. The letters Ax are wanting to complete the name. PIAQ. NIAA EIIIoIAQNIAA. In the museums of individuals at Corfu, we find a medal in brass exhibiting a head with a long beard, and crowned with laurel. In the exergue there is a ship with the word KOPKY PAI.QN MAQNIAA. A still more interesting monument is the following: IXTONHX. It is the name of a mountain celebrated in the history of Corcyra. Thucydides informs us, that upon this mountain 500 Corcyrans saved themselves, having escaped from a massacre occasioned by a civil commotion. This mountain still preserves its name. Another not less important is the following: *AAAKPOT. Strabo thus denominates a promontory of Corcyra, which was probably barren and devoid of trees. Besides the above inscription, are cups, urns, lamps, small statues, idols, basreliefs, heads of nymphs, &c. The substance of these monuments, is partly a pale yellow without varnish, and sometimes a deep yellow with varnish. The style is various, and seems to indicate that there were various schools of art in the island.


[ 352 J [May 1, MONTHLY REPORT OF DISEASES, In the Practice of a Physician in Westminster; from March 25 to April 20, 1814.

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Scariatina Anginosa . Phrenitis . . Tic I houloureux . . . . . . . . . Cephalalgia - - - - - - - - - - - - - Vertigo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asthenia . . . . . . . . . Paralysis . . . . . Hemiplegia . . . Hysteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Amenorrincea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Leucorrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . Memorrhagia . . Morbi Infantiles . . . . . . Porrigo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ascarides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Gravel . . 2 Dysuria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Although the severity of the weather has ceased, the present list still announces a great preponderance of pulmonic disease. Some of the cases of cough were ac- | companied by Anasarca, others by spitting of blood. The case of jaundice (Icterus), was occasioned by anxiety, and extreme grief, in a female, who had the misfortune to lose two children nearly at the same time, and when she was six months advanced in pregnancy. Poverty by no means renders the mind insensible to the af. feetions which so strongly link parents and their offspring. I very lately witnessed a fatal instance of this link being suddenly broken. A poor woman, who had left an aged mother sitting in her chair as well as usual, on returning home from an errand found her lifeless. The daughter, who was aged about forty-five, was immediately taken ill, and when I saw her two days afterwards appeared nearly insensi- { ble, so much so indeed that I at first toought she was actually dead; all muscular power was destroyed; and she lingered in this state almost a week, without being able to take sustenance, or derive the least benefit from medicine. Since the last report, in which i suggested some remarks-on the superiority of art." over the unassisted power of nature in the cure of disease, I met with the following passage in Professor Pugald Stewart’s “Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind,” vol. ii. 4to. just published: “The idea of following nature in the treatment of diseases;--an idea which I believe prevails inole and more in the practice of every physician, in proportion as his views are enlarged by science, is founded, not on hypothesis, but on one of the most general laws yet known with respect to the amimal economy; and it implies an acknowledgment, not only of the vanity of abstract theories, but of the limited province of human art.” From a long and careful induction of facts, in the writings of ancient and modern physicians, and the result of considerable personal experience of the powers and effects of remedies, I am dis. posed to regard the converse of the proposition to be true; and consequently to infer, that it is possible to be a philosopher without having a competent knowledge of the complicated art of n.cdicine ; and to possess a copious store of metaphysical erudition without understanding the views on which a scientific physician grounds his practice. In ancient times indeed, when, it will readily be admitted, physicians, com. pared with those of the prosent age, were very ignorant, the doctrine of the learned professor might be true; in the dark a man favours his friends by not firing his pistol; an ignorant practitioner does the least mischief in not interfering with mature. But wisdom in one are may be foliy in another. Hippocrates acted with admirable prudence in allowing certain diseases to run their course without interruption, because at that period of time he was not acquainted with those remedies which successive improvement and discoveries in practice have developed, Sir Gilbert Blane has recently published some observations on this subject which are completely in point; and his authority will probably have more weight than any facts which I might adduce from my own experience. “In the first and third sectious of the works of Hippocrates, there are forty-two cases of acute disease, in which the patients are particularized by name, and the symptoms, progress, and tenniination, of their respective disorders are related with the utmost clearness, and the most exemplary candour. Of these there were thirty-seven cases of continued fever, without local affection. In the other five there was inflammation in vital parts. Of the former there died twenty-one; of the - latter

Haemoptoe .
Pleuritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Catárthus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -
Phthisis out; monalis . . . . - - - - - - -
Scrofula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e - - - - - -
Hydrocephalus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydrothorax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anasarca. . . . . . . .
Ascites . . . . . . . . .
Icterus . . . . . . . . .
IDyspepsia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gastrodynia - - - - - - - - - e - - - - - - - - - - - -
Rheumatismus . . . .
Ophi,..almia . . . . .



1814.] Monthly Commercial Report. 353

Hatter four. Among the former are included four cases of child-bed fever, all of whom died; and two consequent on abortion, both of wholm also died. Of the five cases of local inflammation, one was of the brain, one of the throat, one of the lungs, one of the bowels, and one of the liver. None of the subjects of these cases survived, except that of the lungs. The proportion of deaths therefore, on the whole number, was twenty-five in forty-two. In continued fever without iocal affection, including the cases of child-bed and abortion, it was twenty-one in thirty-seven ; exclusive of these, it was fifteen in this ty-one ; and we have seen that of local inflammations, four died out of five. “This statement is extremely instructive as well as curious; for it does not appear that any medical treatment was employed, except glysters and suppositories in a few, and blood-setting in one.” Thus, in acute coni,laints, it should seem that about one half of the patients would maturally perish if left to themselves. The art of the physician is most conspicuously displayed in the power which he exercises over morbid action, in checking and destroying, not in encouraging, the destructive and blind efforts of nature. Craven-street, April 22, 1614. SAMUEL Foth ERGILL, M.D.


-ošowyof E official papers presented to the House of Commons, stated, that the total amount of wheat imported into the several ports of Great Britain in the year 1810 was 1,367,090 quarters; of which 334,896 were from France, 189,160 were from Holland, and only 34,899 from America. With respect to flour, it appeared that we did not import moie of that article from the United States than we did from the countries with which We Were at War.

Account of the Weekly Amount of Bank Notes in Circulation in the Year 1814, dis

Žinguishing the Bank Post Bills, as well as the Notes under the Value of Fire Pounds.

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14 15,889,440 | 1,027,670 8,361,070
21, 15,625,830 | 1,084,580 8,377,910
16,130,780 1,090,500 8,346,410
February . - 4, 15,729,040 1,073,490 5,370,400

11; 15,482,260 1,125,910 8,349,420
18 15,590,380 1,122,940 8,308,750

25 15,678,310 | 1,087,820 8,341,310
March o • 4, 16,178,900 | 1,076,510 | 8,316,8:0

15,354,730 1,074,519 6,308.110 18, 15,337,810 | 1,063,510 8,314, 1.30

Between January 4 and March 25, Gold in bars was 51. 8s. per oz. ; Portugal coin 5). 10s. ; Silver in bars 6s. 11; d. ; and Dollars 6s. 11d. The Course of Exchange was, Hamburgh 24; Usances 29; Lisbon 7:3; ; and Paris, 1 day's date, 21 franks. Mr. EDINGTON, in his late work on the Coal of rade, states the opinion that the time is not distant when the song wrought mities of Newcastle will fail; and that before then there must be an intolerable advance in the price of coais. He says that in the course of seven years the following collieries will be exhausted :— Chaldrons, Brandling's Main

• . . . . . . 20,000 / Walker's Colliery - - - - - - - . . 25,000 Adair's Main • - - - - - - - . 18,000 Russell's Wall's End . - - - - - - . 45,000 Heaton Miain . - - -> - - - - . 25,000 133,000

133,000 Newcastle chaldrons, equal to about, (London chaldrons) . . . 257,637 - And

*54 Monthly Commercial Report. [May 1,
And in the space of fourteen years there will be another decrease of coals to market,
wiz. from Chuldrons.
Percy Main e • - - t - - e . 35,000

}}urdon Moor . - . . - - - - . 35,000
A decrease on the best coals from Hebbron - - . 15,000


Equal to, (London chaldrons) • • • - . 164,687 And in twenty-one years, another decrease of coals to London market, viz. from Hebbron Main - - - • - - - e 15,000

Temple's Wall's End - - o - - • - 35,000
Bewick and Cranster's ditto . e - - - - 35,000
3ell and Brown's ditto . - • - - - - 40,000
Bell and Brown's Wellington . - - - - - 20,000
Devey's Manor Main - - - - - - - 25,000
Killingworth Main - - - e - - 35,000
North Coxlodge . - - - - - - 20,000
Ellison's Main - - - - - - - 18,000
Russell's Main - - - o - - e - 18,000

261,000 Newcastle chaldron, equal to, (London chaldrons) . . . 505,63r So that there will be a decrease of the leading coals to market in the first seven years of - - e - - - 257,637 In fourteen years, a further decrease of • - - , 164,687 In twenty-one years, a still further decrease of - - . 505,687

Making a Total decrease in the Annual Supply of . 928,061 Lo.Ch.

This decrease of the best coals, in consequence of the mines becoming exhausted, is accelerated by the increase of consumption. The London bakers, who twenty years ago used wood, now universally bake with coals; each uses on an average fifteen chaldrons in a year, and there being about five thousand bakers in the metropolis, their annual consumption amounts to seventy-five thousand chaldrons, of which Paddington supplies a considerable quantity; the remainder are from the Scotch, Welch, and Hartley, and Blyth and Cowper's collieries.

In consequence of the great falling off in the building of ships in the port of London, and the few repairs going on, thousands of industrious individuals, connected with these establishments, have been long pining in misery and distress from the want of employment. The slips for building ships are forty-one, while only one ship is now building.

The repairing docks are capable of receiving siaty-two ships; and only eighteen ships .

are now under slight repairs!
All our reports from the out-ports and the manufacturing districts relative to the
improved state and prospects of trade, as a consequence of the great political changes,
are highly gratifying.
Prices of Merchandize, April 22.

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